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Published: 27 May 2022
by MDPI
Veterinary Sciences, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci9060255

Abstract:
A key challenge of the 21st century will be to provide the growing world population with a sustainable and secure supply of food. Consequently, the dairy farming’s primary task is to lower milk losses and other inefficiencies associated with diseased cows. Moreover, a shift from curative to preventive health management would be desirable for mastitis and a wide variety of other infectious and non-infectious cattle diseases, some of which are known to have profound negative effects on the performance and well-being of cows. Differential cell counting (DCC), a procedure that aims to determine the proportions of different somatic cell types in raw milk samples, has not only the potential to optimize mastitis diagnostics, but it could furthermore serve as a diagnostic tool for monitoring the general and overall health status of dairy cows. Based on a broad search of the literature, the practical utility of various types of DCC is summarized and discussed in this review. Since it might be of advantage to interpret DCC with the aid of data from studies in humans, differences between the immune systems of humans and dairy cattle, with a special focus on surface marker expression profiles and γδ (gamma delta) T-cell characteristics, are also described.
Published: 27 May 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
The forensic community has devoted much effort over the last decades to the development of a logical framework for forensic interpretation, which is essential for the safe administration of justice. We review the research and guidelines that have been published and provide examples of how to implement them in casework. After a discussion on uncertainty in the criminal trial and the roles that the DNA scientist may take, we present the principles of interpretation for evaluative reporting. We show how their application helps to avoid a common fallacy and present strategies that DNA scientists can apply so that they do not transpose the conditional. We then discuss the hierarchy of propositions and explain why it is considered a fundamental concept for the evaluation of biological results and the differences between assessing results given propositions that are at the source level or the activity level. We show the importance of pre-assessment, especially when the questions relate to the alleged activities, and when transfer and persistence need to be considered by the scientists to guide the court. We conclude with a discussion on statement writing and testimony. This provides guidance on how DNA scientists can report in a balanced, transparent, and logical way.
Published: 27 May 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), the tumor-derived cell-free DNA fragments in the bloodstream carrying tumor-specific genetic and epigenetic alterations, represents an emerging novel tool for minimal residual disease (MRD) assessment in patients with resected colorectal cancer (CRC). For many decades, precise risk-stratification following curative-intent colorectal surgery has remained an enduring challenge. The current risk stratification strategy relies on clinicopathologic characteristics of the tumors that lacks precision and results in over-and undertreatment in a significant proportion of patients. Consequently, a biomarker that can reliably identify patients harboring MRD would be of critical importance in refining patient selection for adjuvant therapy. Several prospective cohort studies have provided compelling data suggesting that ctDNA could be a robust biomarker for MRD that outperforms all existing clinicopathologic criteria. Numerous clinical trials are currently underway to validate the ctDNA-guided MRD assessment and adjuvant treatment strategies. Once validated, the ctDNA technology will likely transform the adjuvant therapy paradigm of colorectal cancer, supporting ctDNA-guided treatment escalation and de-escalation. The current article presents a comprehensive overview of the published studies supporting the utility of ctDNA for MRD assessment in patients with CRC. We also discuss ongoing ctDNA-guided adjuvant clinical trials that will likely shape future adjuvant therapy strategies for patients with CRC.
Published: 27 May 2022
by MDPI
Mathematics, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/math10111838

Abstract:
With the increasing popularity of location-aware Internet-of-Vehicle services, the next-Point-of-Interest (POI) recommendation has gained significant research interest, predicting where drivers will go next from their sequential movements. Many researchers have focused on this problem and proposed solutions. Machine learning-based methods (matrix factorization, Markov chain, and factorizing personalized Markov chain) focus on a POI sequential transition. However, they do not recommend the user’s position for the next few hours. Neural network-based methods can model user mobility behavior by learning the representations of the sequence data in the high-dimensional space. However, they just consider the influence from the spatiotemporal dimension and ignore many important influences, such as duration time at a POI (Point of Interest) and the semantic tags of the POIs. In this paper, we propose a novel method called multi-dimension spatial–temporal recurrent neural networks (MST-RNN), which extends the ST-RNN and exploits the duration time dimension and semantic tag dimension of POIs in each layer of neural networks. Experiments on real-world vehicle movement data show that the proposed MST-RNN is effective and clearly outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.
Published: 27 May 2022
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112232

Abstract:
Background: Early postnatal growth monitoring and nutrition assessment for preterm infants is a public health and clinical concern. We aimed to establish a set of postnatal growth monitoring curves of preterm infants to better help clinicians make in-hospital and post-discharge nutrition plan of these vulnerable infants. Methods: We collected weight, length and head circumference data from a nationwide survey in China between 2015 and 2018. Polynomial regression and the modified LMS methods were employed to construct the smoothed weight, length and head circumference growth curves. Results: We established the P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P97 reference curves of weight, length and head circumference that allowed for continuous use from 24 weeks of preterm birth to 50 weeks and developed a set of user-friendly growth monitoring charts. We estimated approximate ranges of weight gain per day and length and head circumference gains per week. Conclusions: Our established growth monitoring curves, which can be used continuously without correcting gestational age from 24 weeks of preterm birth to 50 weeks, may be useful for assessment of postnatal growth trajectories, definition of intrauterine growth retardation at birth, and classification of early nutrition status for preterm infants.
Published: 27 May 2022
by MDPI
Applied Sciences, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115415

Abstract:
The surface quality of the sidewall in waveguide antennae is important, especially surface roughness, which directly affects the electrical performance of the slotted waveguide antenna. Micro-milling is a potentially effective processing technique for the antenna. However, surface roughness has been difficult to guarantee within a reasonable accuracy range. In this study, orthogonal experiments of micro-milling LF21 waveguide slits were conducted. The results of the range analysis mainly sorted the factors that affected the surface roughness and also helped to determine how surface roughness could be kept at a minimum. The surface roughness was predicted by using the group method of data handling (GMDH). The importance of the applied GMDH was that it continuously adjusted the network structure according to the potential relationship between cutting parameters and the corresponding surface roughness, which helped determine the model most optimally fitted to the experimental data. This research can be used as a reference for selecting cutting parameters in micro-milling LF21.
Published: 27 May 2022
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14112231

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to compare the effect of three micronutrient products on biomarkers of iron and zinc status of Mexican children 6–12 months of age. As part of research to improve the impact of a national program, 54 communities were randomly assigned to receive: (1) fortified food (FF), provided by the program at the time, or (2) micronutrient powders (MNP) or (3) syrup. Each product contained 10 mg each of zinc and iron, plus other micronutrients. Children consumed the product 6 days/week for four months. Primary outcomes were changes in serum zinc, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, hemoglobin concentrations, and their deficiencies. Zinc concentration increased significantly from baseline to follow-up in all groups, with the largest change in the syrup group (geometric mean difference: +4.4 µmol/L; 95%CI: 3.2, 5.5), followed by MNP (+2.9 µmol/L; 95%CI: 2.1, 3.6) and FF (+0.9 µmol/L; 95%CI: 0.3, 1.6). There was a significant increase in hemoglobin concentration (+5.5 g/L; 2.5, 8.4) and a significant reduction in anemia prevalence (44.2% to 26.8%, p < 0.01) only in the MNP group. Compliance differed significantly among groups (MNP vs. FF, p = 0.04; MNP vs. syrup, p = 0.04), but may not fully explain the greater improvement in zinc and iron status in the syrup and MNP groups. The food matrix may influence nutrient utilization from supplements.
, Vinod Kumar
Published: 27 May 2022
Internet of Things pp 79-115; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-1585-7_5

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Published: 27 May 2022
Betriebssysteme kompakt pp 119-152; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-64718-9_6

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