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Published: 29 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Cells
Abstract:
Germline defects in the transcription factor GATA1 are known to cause dyserythropoiesis with(out) anemia and variable abnormalities in platelet count and function. However, damaging variants closely located to the C-terminal zinc finger domain of GATA1 are nearly unknown. In this study, a 36-year-old male index patient and his 4-year-old daughter suffered from moderate mucocutaneous bleeding diathesis since birth. Whole exome sequencing detected a novel hemizygous GATA1 missense variant, c.886A>C p.T296P, located between the C-terminal zinc finger and the nuclear localization sequence with non-random X-chromosome inactivation in the heterozygous daughter. Blood smears from both patients demonstrated large platelet fractions and moderate thrombocytopenia in the index. Flow cytometry and electron microscopy analysis supported a combined α-/δ (AN-subtype)-storage pool deficiency as cause for impaired agonist-induced platelet aggregation (light transmission aggregometry) and granule exocytosis (flow cytometry). The absence of BCAM in the index (Lu(a-b-)) and its low expression in the daughter (Lu(a-b+)) confirmed a less obvious effect of defective GATA1 also on erythrocytes. Borderline anemia, elevated HbF levels, and differential transcription of GATA1-regulated genes indicated mild dyserythropoiesis in both patients. Furthermore, a mild SLC4A1 defect associated with a heterozygous SLC4A1 c.2210C>T p.A737V variant maternally transmitted in the daughter may modify the disease to mild spherocytosis and hemolysis.
Published: 29 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Axioms
Abstract:
This paper proposes an interactive consensus reaching model in the group decision making for heterogeneous hesitant preference relations (i.e., hesitant fuzzy preference relations, hesitant multiplicative preference relations, hesitant fuzzy linguistic preference relations). First, the consistencies of three hesitant preference relations are defined, respectively. Then, based on their definitions, three optimization models are constructed to obtain the weight vector of alternatives, based on which an interactive consensus adjustment algorithm is established based on the direct consensus framework. This framework adopts feedback mechanism to facilitate the information correction of decision makers. After several rounds of adjustment, the decision results with satisfactory consensus level are achieved. Finally, the practicability and effectiveness of the model are illustrated through a case study of mine accident emergency decision making.
Published: 29 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Polymers
Abstract:
Two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal carbon/nitrogen/carbon nitride (MXene) has extremely high conductivity and easily modifiable surface functional groups. Compared with graphene, another 2D layered material, MXene is easily dispersed in water owing to its hydrophilic groups. Its unique characteristics make MXene a valuable material. Nanocomposites can be endowed with functionality when MXene is compounded with an elastomer. Particularly in electromagnetic interference shielding and sensing, MXene exhibits extraordinary properties. We review various preparation methods, properties, and applications of MXene and MXene/elastomer nanocomposites and present a summary of the prospects for MXene/elastomer nanocomposites, which are in their initial stage of development and providing promising results.
Published: 29 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Agronomy
Abstract:
(1) Background: Excessive use of chemical fertilizers accelerates soil acidification and increases greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, the farmland application of organic fertilizers not only reuses agricultural waste but also improves soil quality. (2) Methods: Two organic fertilizers made from chicken manure—G508 and G509—were field applied, implementing once or twice (denoted by X1 and X2, respectively) the recommended amount of nitrogen for three crops. In addition, an incubation experiment was conducted to assess the mineralization of the organic fertilizers. (3) Results: G508 did not undergo a composting process and, thus, had a higher content of nitrogen compared to G509. Therefore, although the soil properties improved under G509, the total mineral nitrogen released was lower than G508. Compared to chemical fertilizer treatment, the application of G508 and G509 increased the soil’s pH value, concentrations of organic matter, available phosphorus, and exchangeable concentrations of potassium, calcium, and magnesium. In addition, the crop yield under G508X2 treatment was even higher than that under chemical fertilizer treatment. (4) Conclusions: Although G508 and G509 were both processed using chicken manure, they exhibited different nutrient-release behaviors during mineralization and also had different influences on the soil properties and growth of the three crops.
Published: 29 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Mathematics
Mathematics, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/math10193567

Abstract:
Model-based verification uses a model to reason about the correctness of a real system. This requires the model and the system to be conformant, such that verification results on the model can be transfered to the real system. Especially for hybrid systems, which combine discrete and continuous behavior, defining and checking conformance is a difficult task. In this work, we present reachset conformance for hybrid systems that transfers safety properties from a model to the real system. We show how a model can be adapted to be conformant to measurements of a real system and demonstrate this for a real autonomous vehicle. The obtained reachset conformant model can be used for the verification of safety-critical properties, such as collision avoidance.
Published: 29 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Vaccines
Abstract:
Over the past two years, SARS-CoV-2 has dramatically spread worldwide and emerged as a major pandemic which has left an unprecedented mark on healthcare systems and economies worldwide. As our understanding of the virus and its epidemiology continues to grow, the acute phase clinical symptoms and long-term and vaccine-related complications are becoming more apparent. With heterogeneity in presentations, comparisons may be drawn between COVID-19-related sequelae and vaccination related adverse events. The present review article aims to address the currently available literature on the SARS-CoV-2 virus, immune responses, the pathophysiology of clinical presentations, and available vaccinations with its adverse events for the appraisal of its potential impact on the COVID-19 management system.
Published: 29 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Antibiotics
Abstract:
The present work reports the isolation and biological evaluation of three dimeric xanthones from Paecilomyces sp. EJC01.1 isolated as endophytic from Schnella splendens, a typical plant of the Amazon. The compounds phomoxanthone A (1), phomoxanthone B (2) and dicerandrol B (3) were isolated by chromatographic procedures and identified by spectroscopic methods of 1D and 2D NMR and MS. The extracts and compound 1 showed antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The compound phomoxanthone A (1) showed greater inhibitory activity against B. subtilis (MIC of 7.81 µg mL−1); in addition, it also pronounced inhibitory effect against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 of 16.38 ± 1.079 µg mL−1) and epimastigote forms Trypanosoma cruzi (IC50 of 28.61 ± 1.071 µg mL−1). To provide more information about the antibacterial activity of compound 1, an unprecedented molecular docking study was performed using S-ribosyl-homocysteine lyase (LuxS) (PDB ID 2FQO), which showed a possible interaction of phomoxanthone A with two of the residues (His58 and Cys126) that are fundamental for the catalysis mechanism in B. subtilis, which may be associated with the higher activity, when compared to other bacteria, observed in experimental studies. Additionally, quantum studies (DFT) were performed, for which a low gap value (5.982 eV) was observed, which corroborates the reactivity of phomoxanthone A. Thus, phomoxanthone A can be a good agent against pathogenic bacteria.
Published: 29 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Molecules
Abstract:
Although nicotinic acid (NA) has several clinical benefits, its potency cannot be fully utilized due to several undesirable side effects, including cutaneous flushing, GIT-associated symptoms, etc. To overcome such issues and improve the NA efficacy, a new inorganic–organic nanohybrids system was rationally designed. For making such a hybrid system, NA was intercalated into LDH through a coprecipitation technique and then coated with Eudragit® S100 to make the final drug delivery system called Eudragit® S100-coated NA-LDH. The as-made drug delivery system not only improved the NA release profile but also exhibited good bio-compatibility as tested on L929 cells. Such an inorganic–organic nanohybrid drug delivery agent is expected to reduce the undesirable side effects associated with NA and hopefully improve the pharmacological effects without inducing any undesirable toxicity.
Published: 29 September 2022
by MDPI
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231911540

Abstract:
Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) is one of the most important pathogens in dogs, and despite the continual development of vaccines against CPV-2, CPV-2 is still circulating in the canine population. The CPV-2a/2b/2c variant has replaced the original CPV-2 virus and seems to exhibit accelerated transmission. Although CPV-2 infection has been frequently reported, no studies have summarized information of CPV-2 variants currently circulating worldwide. To track the evolution of CPV-2, we downloaded and analyzed all VP2 sequences from the NCBI database (from 1978 to 2022). We found that CPV-2c shows a tendency to replace CPV-2a as the new dominant variant in Asia, South America, North America and Africa. Additionally, CPV-2c, which is prevalent in most regions of Asia, carries two special mutations in VP2, A5G and Q370R, and has become a dominant mutation with spillover already occurring. In conclusion, this summary of the types of global epidemic variants provides new insight into the evolution of CPV-2 and raises awareness for blocking the spread of this virus. The spread of Asian-derived CPV-2c urgently needs to be further under surveillance.
Published: 29 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Challenges
Abstract:
New risk geographies are emerging with war and conflict resurfacing, including nuclear threats. This poses challenges to civil protection for conducting risk-informed preparedness planning. A spatial assessment of Germany and Europe is conducted using a geographic information system. Buffer circles of nuclear explosion effects and fallout buffers show potentially exposed areas around major cities. Different scenarios indicate shrinking areas safe from exposure. However, even in a densely populated country, rural areas and smaller cities can be identified that could provide sites for evacuation shelters. Changing wind directions poses a challenge for civil protection planning because fallout risk covers most German territory even when few cities are attacked. However, wind speeds and topography can help identify suitable shelter areas. More knowledge about the temporal development of a nuclear explosion and its specific forms of harm can also help to improve risk knowledge and planning. While nuclear warfare at first seems to render useless any option for safe areas and survival, the spatial risk assessment shows that exposure does not occur at all places at all times. Being safe from harm will be difficult in such a worst-case scenario, but avoiding large city perimeters and being informed can also help reduce risk.
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