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Published: 11 August 2022
by MDPI
Youth, Volume 2, pp 309-317; https://doi.org/10.3390/youth2030023

Abstract:
Musculoskeletal fitness (MF) is a multidimensional construct that combines muscle strength, endurance, and power to allow for the performance of tasks against one’s own body weight or an external resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of school-based programs on promoting MF in children aged 6 to 10. PubMed and Web of Science databases were used as searching tools. A total of 16 studies were included in a systematic review with primary school-based program interventions measuring at least one variable related to musculoskeletal fitness. Parameters for measuring explosive power, especially standing broad jump (SBJ), have a large potential for development throughout school-based programs. Long-lasting interventions did not necessarily improve MF; however, there were shorter interventions that caused the improvement in a larger number of parameters. Our findings imply that increased physical activity during a school week, together with improved lesson content, is crucial for MF development in this age group.
Published: 11 August 2022
by MDPI
Nutrients, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163279

Abstract:
Innovative therapeutic strategies in childhood cancer led to a significant reduction in cancer-related mortality. Cancer survivors are a growing fragile population, at risk of long-term side effects of cancer treatments, thus requiring customized clinical attention. Antineoplastic drugs have a wide toxicity profile that can limit their clinical usage and spoil patients’ life, even years after the end of treatment. The cardiovascular system is a well-known target of antineoplastic treatments, including anthracyclines, chest radiotherapy and new molecules, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We investigated nutritional changes in children with cancer from the diagnosis to the end of treatment and dietary habits in cancer survivors. At diagnosis, children with cancer may present variable degrees of malnutrition, potentially affecting drug tolerability and prognosis. During cancer treatment, the usage of corticosteroids can lead to rapid weight gain, exposing children to overweight and obesity. Moreover, dietary habits and lifestyle often dramatically change in cancer survivors, who acquire sedentary behavior and weak adherence to dietary guidelines. Furthermore, we speculated on the role of nutrition in the primary prevention of cardiac damage, investigating the potential cardioprotective role of diet-derived compounds with antioxidative properties. Finally, we summarized practical advice to improve the dietary habits of cancer survivors and their families.
Published: 11 August 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
This study aimed to mitigate salt stress effects on lettuce by using native biostimulants (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (M, consortium), plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (R, Z2, and Z4 strains), and compost (C)) applied alone or in combination under salinity stress (0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl). Physiological, biochemical, nutritional, mycorrhizal, growth, and soil characteristics were evaluated. Results revealed that growth and physiological traits were negatively affected by salinity. However, mycorrhizal colonization was enhanced under 100 mM NaCl after compost application. The applied biostimulants, particularly M and/or R improved the salinity tolerance of lettuce by increasing the dry biomass by 119% and 113% under 100 mM NaCl, respectively, for M and MR treatments. Similarly, MR enhanced stomatal conductance (47%), water content (260%), total chlorophyll (130%), phosphorus content (363%), and reduced the malondialdehyde (54%) and hydrogen peroxide (78%) compared to the control. Moreover, peroxidase activity (76%) and sugar content (36%) were enhanced by CM treatment, while protein (111%) and proline (104%) contents were significantly boosted by R treatment under 100 mM NaCl. Furthermore, glomalin content was enhanced by MR treatment under severe salinity. In conclusion, the applied biostimulants alone or in combination might help lettuce to tolerate salt stress and enhance its production in degraded areas.
Published: 11 August 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Contamination of edible oils with aflatoxins (AFs) is a universal issue due to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins on human health and the fact that edible oils are a major source of fungal growth, particularly storage fungi (Aspergillus sp.). The objective of this study was to assess aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in edible oil used in fried food in order to determine the risk of cancer from AFB1 exposure through cooked food using the FAO/WHO’s and EFSA’s margin of exposure (MOE) quantitative liver cancer risk approaches. Using Mycosep 226 columns and HPLC-FLD, 100 samples of cooking oils (soybean, canola, and sunflower oil) from different food points were analyzed for contamination with aflatoxins. Of all the samples tested, 89% were positive for total aflatoxins and AFB1, with 65% indicating AF concentrations beyond permitted levels. Canola oil was found to contain higher levels of AFB1 and AFs than soybean and sunflower oil. Almost 71 percent of canola oil samples (range of 54.4–281.1 µg/kg) were contaminated with AF levels higher than the proposed limits of the European Union (20 µg/kg). The consumption of canola oil samples used in fried foods had MOE values that were significantly lower as compared to sunflower and soybean oils, indicating that risk reduction is feasible. Additionally, compared to soybean and sunflower oil, canola oil exhibited a greater threat of liver cancer cases linked to AFB1 exposure (17.13 per 100,000 males over 35 and 10.93 per 100,000 females over 35). Using a quantitative liver cancer approach, health risk valuation demonstrated that males and females over the age of 35 are at significant risk of developing liver cancer. The health risk assessment exposed that the males and female over the age of 35 are at considerable risk of liver cancer by using a quantitative liver cancer approach. The innovation of this study lies in the fact that no such study is reported related to liver cancer risk evaluation accompanied with AFB1 exposure from consumed edible oil. As a result, a national strategy must be developed to solve this problem so that edible oil products are subjected to severe regulatory examination.
Published: 11 August 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
There is an increased interest in the use of medicinal plants as alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters and as agents for methane production mitigation. This study investigated the effects of Azadirachta indica and Moringa oleifera feed additives on the carcass and meat quality of lambs. Forty South African Mutton Merino lambs, weighing between 29 and 43 kg, were randomly assigned to four treatment groups (n = 10 lambs/treatment) and fed a basal total mixed ration (TMR) containing soybean meal (17%), yellow maize (28%), Alfalfa hay (20%), Eragrostis curvula hay (22.2%), molasses (6.0%), wheat offal (5%), urea (0.8%) and vitamin premix (0.5%) on a DM basis. The dietary treatments: TMR diet (control); TMR diet with A. indica leaf extract (A. indica leaf extract at a dosage of 50 mg per kg of feed: neem); TMR diet with M. oleifera leaf extract (M. oleifera leaf extract at a dosage of 50 mg per kg DM of feed: moringa); TMR diet with monensin (at a dosage of 50 mg monensin sodium per kg of feed: positive control). After an adaptation period of 10 days to the experimental conditions, the lambs from all treatment groups were fed ad libitum with the experimental diets. The lambs were slaughtered at a live weight of 60–65 kg after a 23 week trial period. The plant extract dietary additives had no significant effects on the carcass characteristics of the lambs. In comparison to monensin, supplementing with moringa leaf extracts resulted in a higher proportion of C18:1n9c (45.0% ± 0.57 vs. 40.5% ± 0.80; p < 0.05), total MUFAs (47.3% ± 0.66 vs. 42.6% ± 0.87; p < 0.05), and UFA:SFA ratio (1.01 ± 0.03 vs. 0.85 ± 0.03; p < 0.05), which may be beneficial for human health. Our results suggest that natural feed additives, such as A. indica and M. oleifera leaf extracts, can be included in lamb diets without compromising meat fatty acid composition. The negative economic impacts of such technologies on animal production and farm profitability should not be expected.
Published: 11 August 2022
by MDPI
Energies, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15165819

Abstract:
Electricity has a crucial function in contemporary civilization. The power grid must be stable to ensure the efficiency and dependability of electrical equipment. This implies that the high-voltage equipment at the substation must be reliably operated. As a result, the appropriate and dependable use of systems to monitor the operating status of high-voltage electrical equipment has recently gained attention. Partial discharge (PD) analysis is one of the most promising solutions for monitoring and diagnosing potential problems in insulation systems. Noise is a major challenge in diagnosing and detecting defects when using this measurement. This study aims to denoise PD signals using a data decomposition method, improved complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise algorithm, combined with statistical significance test to increase noise reduction efficiency and to derive and visualize the Hilbert spectrum of the input signal in time-frequency domain after filtering the noise. In the PD signal analysis, both artificial and experimental signals were used as input signals in the decomposition method. For these signals, this study has yielded significant improvement in the denoising and the PD detecting process indicated by statistical measures. Thus, the signal decomposition by using the proposed method is proven to be a useful tool for diagnosing the PD on high voltage equipment.
Published: 11 August 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Computation of circuit complexity has gained much attention in the theoretical physics community in recent times, to gain insights into the chaotic features and random fluctuations of fields in the quantum regime. Recent studies of circuit complexity take inspiration from Nielsen’s geometric approach, which is based on the idea of optimal quantum control in which a cost function is introduced for the various possible path to determine the optimum circuit. In this paper, we study the relationship between the circuit complexity and Morse theory within the framework of algebraic topology, which will then help us study circuit complexity in supersymmetric quantum field theory describing both simple and inverted harmonic oscillators up to higher orders of quantum corrections. We will restrict ourselves to N=1 supersymmetry with one fermionic generator Qα. The expression of circuit complexity in quantum regime would then be given by the Hessian of the Morse function in supersymmetric quantum field theory. We also provide technical proof of the well known universal connecting relation between quantum chaos and circuit complexity of the supersymmetric quantum field theories, using the general description of Morse theory.
Published: 11 August 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
(1)Aims of the study: calculating the underreporting ratio for two different kinds of medications (antiglaucoma and artificial tear) and characterizing the features influencing the reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in spontaneous reporting; (2) Methods: the underreporting ratio was calculated by comparing the adverse drug reactions reported in the spontaneous reporting database for every 10,000 defined daily doses marketed and the adverse drug reactions from an active surveillance study for every 10,000 defined daily doses used for different drugs (antiglaucoma and artificial tear). The factors related to the report in spontaneous reporting through statistical tests were also determined; (3) Results: The underreporting ratio of spontaneous reporting was 0.006029% for antiglaucoma and 0.003552% for artificial tear; additionally, statistically significant differences were found for severity, unexpected adverse drug reactions, and incidence of adverse drug reactions in females; (4) Conclusions: the underreporting ratio of ophthalmic medications, especially in Latin America, shows higher rates than those reported in the literature. On the other hand, gender, seriousness, severity, and unexpected adverse drug reactions influence spontaneous reporting.
Published: 11 August 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Piroplasm infections in domestic cats have been reported with increasing frequency in numerous countries. However, in some states of Brazil, little information is available about the occurrence of these parasites. Blood samples were collected from 250 cats treated at a private clinic in the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro. The samples were each subjected to a blood count, microscopic examination, and molecular research on piroplasms. The animals’ clinical histories and epidemiological information were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with infection. Ticks were recovered during the clinical care and were identified and subjected to molecular analyses to determine the presence of piroplasm DNA. Piroplasms were detected in 2.7% (7/250) of the cats. Nucleotide sequences of Babesia vogeli were identified in six cats, while the Cytauxzoon sp. was identified in one cat. Cats displaying apathy/weakness/prostration and hemorrhage/bleeding were more likely to be infected. In addition, Amblyomma aureolatum was recovered from a cat PCR-negative for piroplasms. This is the first study in Rio de Janeiro that has detected Babesia vogeli in cats. The results obtained here underscore the need for further studies in Rio de Janeiro to investigate the dynamics of such infections and the vectors involved.
Published: 11 August 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
Plant extracts have been used over time in traditional medicine, mainly for their antimicrobial activity as well as for their medicinal effects. Plant-derived products contain secondary metabolites that prevent pathogenic microbial growth similar to conventional medicines. These secondary metabolites can enhance animal health and production in a more natural or organic manner and may contribute to the reduction in the use of pharmacological drugs in animal feed, which is of great concern for emerging microbial resistance. Plant secondary metabolites can be cost effective, while improving the production efficiency of ruminants, non-ruminants, and aquatic food animals. Among the plant-derived products is the Yucca schidigera extract (YSE), containing steroidal saponins as their main active component. YSE has multiple biological effects, including inhibition of some pathogenic bacteria, protozoa, and nematodes. YSE is used to control odor and ammonia and consistently enhance poultry production by enhancing intestinal health and function. In pigs, results are as yet inconclusive. In ruminants, YSE works against protozoa, has selective action against bacteria, and reduces the archaea populations; all these effects are reflected in the reduction in emissions of polluting gases, mainly methane, although the effects are not observed in all feeding conditions. These effects of YSE are discussed in this review. YSE has potential as a natural feed additive for sustainable animal production while contributing to the mitigation of contaminant gas emissions.
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