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Sotiroula Liasidou, Christiana Stylianou, Galina Berjozkina,
Published: 15 September 2021
Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes; https://doi.org/10.1108/whatt-07-2021-0099

Abstract:
Purpose This paper aims to provide an understanding of residents' perceptions of how tourism activity in a rural area impacts their environment as well as their economic and social lives individually and as a community. Design/methodology/approach As a primary method of data collection, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 residents in the rural areas of Cyprus. Findings The study's findings suggest that tourism activity in the rural areas provides a plethora of opportunities to residents, but comes with challenges and threats. Both social and environmental impacts are mainly for the benefit of the local communities as the engine of development. Emphasis is given to the revival of the local culture with the emergence of small and medium enterprises, along with the motivation of younger populations and women to become active entrepreneurs. However, a more holistic approach should be taken to sustainable tourism development in Cyprus, ensuring that all local communities have an opportunity to develop small-scale niche tourism products that enhance the image of rural destinations and which become a source of pride for the residents. Originality/value The study contributes to the literature by enhancing knowledge of the relationship between tourism and local rural communities. Shedding light on residents' perceptions by evaluating social and environmental impacts can guide government policy making and implementation.
Published: 15 September 2021
by MDPI
Metabolites, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo11090622

Abstract:
Ubiquitin Specific Protease-13 (USP13) promotes protein de-ubiquitination and is poorly understood in neurodegeneration. USP13 is upregulated in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD), and USP13 knockdown via shRNA reduces neurotoxic proteins and increases proteasome activity in models of neurodegeneration. We synthesized novel analogues of spautin-1 which is a non-specific USP13 inhibitor but unable to penetrate the brain. Our synthesized small molecule compounds are able to enter the brain, more potently inhibit USP13, and significantly reduce alpha-synuclein levels in vivo and in vitro. USP13 inhibition in transgenic mutant alpha-synuclein (A53T) mice increased the ubiquitination of alpha-synuclein and reduced its protein levels. The data suggest that novel USP13 inhibitors improve neurodegenerative pathology via antagonism of de-ubiquitination, thus alleviating neurotoxic protein burden in neurodegenerative diseases.
Published: 15 September 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
The intervention on historic buildings through building energy retrofitting has become one of the current challenges of improving energy efficiency. Nonetheless, this building typology presents certain complexities. Among them, one of the most relevant is the protection on their façades due to the historical and/or artistic values of a given façade and, therefore, the addition of external thermal insulation is restricted. However, at the same time, in several of those buildings indoor surfaces do not present that architectural value, and then internal thermal insulation becomes a promising strategy for improving their thermal performance. Nevertheless, its application must be carefully evaluated to avoid possible pathologies caused by moisture problems. This paper aims to identify constructive solutions for interior insulation of walls free from moisture problems. For this purpose, a comprehensive analysis of a series of constructive solutions based on internal insulation has been carried out through hygrothermal simulations. The results show how the application of water-repellent impregnation becomes essential to guaranteeing the integrity of the envelope. In addition, the combination of insulations with or without inner membranes, such as smart vapor retarders or vapor diffusion barriers, has been evaluated detecting the solutions that best fit the objective. Finally, taking advantage of the great potential of 2D simulation tools, the post-processing of the data has been performed to apply the wood decay model, and thus assess the behavior of a very conflictive point in this type of intervention, i.e., the wooden beam-ends. The results in this critical point have shown how the application of the proposed constructive solutions becomes essential to guarantee the integrity of the element and how the application of traditional solutions could lead to a hazard that must be avoided.
Published: 15 September 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Gravimetric measurements were applied to study the inhibitory effect of 4-benzyl-1-(4-oxo-4-phenylbutanoyl)thiosemicarbazide (BOT) on the corrosion of mild steel in 1.0 M HCl. BOT has a good inhibitory efficacy of 92.5 percent at 500 ppm, according to weight loss results. The effect of inhibitor concentration on the mild corrosion behavior of steel was investigated and it was discovered that the higher the inhibitor concentration, the higher the damping efficiency. The results confirm that BOT is an effective corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in the presence of 1.0 M HCl. Furthermore, the higher protection efficiency with increasing temperature and the free energy value showed that BOT molecules participate in both chemisorption (coordination bonds between the active sites of BOT molecules and d-orbital of iron atoms) and physisorption (through the physical interactions on the mild steel surface). The adsorption mechanism on the mild steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Quantum chemical calculations based on the DFT calculations were conducted on BOT. DFT calculations indicated that the protective efficacy of the tested inhibitor increased with the increase in energy of HOMO. The theoretical findings revealed that the broadly stretched linked functional groups (carbonyl and thionyl) and heteroatoms (sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen) in the structure of tested inhibitor molecules are responsible for the significant inhibitive performance, due to possible bonding with Fe atoms on the mild steel surface by donating electrons to the d-orbitals of Fe atoms. Both experimental and theoretical findings in the current investigation are in excellent harmony.
Tayfun Babadagli
Day 3 Thu, September 23, 2021; https://doi.org/10.2118/205964-ms

Abstract:
Since emerging more than a century ago, petroleum engineering (PE) education has increasingly kept its popularity despite significant downturns in the industry. During these downturn periods, observed at least four times since the 1973 oil crisis, structural changes in university programs have been considered. On the other hand, during the "heyday" periods, institutions have had to tackle enormous demand from industry, severely increased enrollments, and reestablish resources to provide a proper service. In light of these observations and while experiencing the fifth downturn period over the last five decades, it is time again to ask the same question: "Shall we continue with the same PE education model or radically shift to a new model?" In this paper, after reviewing more than fifty articles published over the last 85 years reporting the attempts made towards reshaping PE education, an option of restructuring PE programs is discussed. This option is less oil industry (and oil prices) dependent and more of a "general" engineering education program with an emphasis on the "geoscience" or "subsurface" engineering aspects of the PE discipline. Detailed discussions focus on curriculum updates to address the industry practice of "subsurface" related engineering applications. Viability of this option was discussed from industry, academia, and students’ perspective. This restructuring option requires substantial changes to curricula, skill development, and teaching and learning styles. Fundamentals are essential to include in PE education similar to other general (or major) engineering disciplines such as mechanical, civil, chemical, and electrical engineering. The essential elements of engineering skills such as creative design, decision making, problem description and solving, management under high degree of uncertainty, and data collection and processing for optimization are to be included in the new model. Finally, the model proposed is critically discussed and analyzed from different perspectives (industry, academia, and students) considering current and prospected subsurface engineering applications.
Cole Mombourquette, Dave Erickson, Tim Geldreich, Mark Ross, Eric Hudson, Dan Cammaert
Day 1 Tue, September 21, 2021; https://doi.org/10.2118/206094-ms

Abstract:
The objective of this exploitation strategy was to evaluate fracture-driven interactions (FDI) between intervals within the Braeburn members of the Lower Charlie Lake formation. With the primary goal to determine if a single well can be drilled in the Middle Braeburn and effectively drain reserves from two previously distinct producing intervals. The target intervals in this study were separated by a boundary layer composed of interbedded anhydrite, siltstone, and dolomite layers. Wells were completed in sequence using cemented ball-drop fracturing, and high-viscosity friction reducer (HVFR) fluid systems. Diagnostics including pressure monitoring, fracture modelling, and tracers were employed to evaluate stimulation response between wells. Realtime downhole pressure monitors observed the non-producing upper wellbore, while the lower well produced. Fluid rheology determined viscosity changes for different HVFR loadings, and fracture modelling assessed the impact of anhydrite on fracture height at different fluid viscosities. Proppant tracers injected in the lower well were logged in both wellbores observing propped communication between layers. Fluid and pressure diagnostics were used to monitor effective drainage between wells over time. During completion of the lower well, two (2) notable pressure communication events were observed in the offsetting upper well. Following the logging applications performed on both wellbores the results displayed three (3) localized points along the offsetting lateral. At which, a propped communication event was observed within a one (1) meter radius of investigation from the offsetting wellbore. The heel-most propped communication event in the offsetting wellbore was correlated to one of two (2) observed pressure communication events. The two (2) other instances of propped communication did not correspond with an observed pressure event. Following the logging application, the lower well was flowed back and put onto production. During this production period, the upper well remained shut in. Subsequent fluid diagnostic responses have indicated an increasing FDI response, facilitating the flow of hydrocarbon from the upper to the lower wellbore. This communication was primarily observed near the heel of both wellbores. Based on the results of the diagnostic tracers, the fracture model was updated to provide a development tool that would be more predictive for fracture height growth around thin anhydrites in the Charlie Lake formation. The technique of fracture stimulation through the anhydrite layer can be used to reduce the total number of wells required to effectively drain the formation.
Jorge Gomes, Jane Mason, Graham Edmonstone
Day 2 Wed, September 22, 2021; https://doi.org/10.2118/206103-ms

Abstract:
This paper highlights the application of downhole fiber optic (FO) distributed temperature sensing (DTS) measurements for well and reservoir management applications: 1) Wellbore water injectivity profiling. 2) Mapping of injection water movement in an underlying reservoir. The U.A.E. field in question is an elongated anticline containing several stacked carbonate oil bearing reservoirs (Figure 1). Reservoir A, where two DTS monitored, peripheral horizontal water injectors (Y-1 and Y-2) were drilled, is less developed and tighter than the immediately underlying, more prolific Reservoir B with 40 years of oil production and water injection history. Reservoirs A and B are of Lower Cretaceous age, limestone fabrics made up of several 4th order cycles, subdivided by several thin intra dense, 2-5 ft thick stylolitic intervals within the reservoir zones. Between Reservoir A and Reservoir B there is a dense limestone interval (30-50 ft), referred as dense layer in the Figure 1 well sections.
Ibrahim Mabrouk
Day 1 Tue, September 21, 2021; https://doi.org/10.2118/208626-stu

Abstract:
Formation evaluation in heterogeneous reservoirs can be very challenging especially in fields that extend over several kilometers in area where the permeability varies from 0.1 mD up to 1000 D within the same porosity. The porosity, hydrocarbon saturation and net sand thickness in most of Obaiyed field wells are consistent; hence, the productivity of these wells is enormously dependent on the reservoir permeability. Since the permeability is highly heterogeneous, initial production rate of the wells varies between few MMSCFD to almost one hundred MMSCFD. The huge permeability variation led to a tremendous uncertainty in the dynamic modeling, which resulted in an inaccurate production forecast affecting the field economics estimation. Understanding permeability distribution and heterogeneity in Obaiyed field is the key factor for establishing a realistic permeability model, which will lead to a successful field development strategy. Extensive work was performed to understand key factors that govern the permeability in Obaiyed using the data of 1-kilometer length of cores acquired in more than 50 wells covering different reservoir properties in the field. Core data were used to separate the reservoir into different Hydraulic Flow Units (HFU) according to Amaefule's work performed on the Kozeny-Carmen model. Afterwards, a correlation between the HFU and well logs was established using IPSOM Electro-Facies module in order to define the flow units in un-cored wells. The result of this correlation was used to calibrate a Porosity-Permeability relationship for each flow unit. The next step was examining the clay-type distribution and diagenesis in each flow unit using the petrographic analysis (XRD) results from the core xdata. All factors controlling the permeability can now be represented in hydraulic flow units which are considered as a method of measurement of the reservoir quality. Consequently, property maps were constructed showing the location and continuity of each of the flow units, leading to a more deterministic approach in the well placement process. Based on this new work methodology, a production cut-off criteria relating the reservoir productivity to both clay minerals presence and percentages was established for multiple wells scenarios. As a result, the development strategy of the field changed from only vertical wells to include horizontal wells as well which proved to be the only economic approach to produce the Illite dominated zones. This paper presents a workflow to provide a representative estimation of permeability in extremely heterogeneous reservoirs especially the ones dominated by complex clay distribution.
Pradeep Menon, Tarek Swedan, Kamran Jan, M. S. Al-Shehhi, Piyanuch Kieduppatum, Yasmina Bouzida, Adrian Eduardo Cazeneuve, Gulzira Zhunussova, Sila Uluyuz, Viraj Telang
Day 1 Tue, September 21, 2021; https://doi.org/10.2118/206231-ms

Abstract:
Increasing demands for gas in UAE have led to increased focus on more tight gas reservoirs like Khuff and pre-Khuff formations, away from the conventional oil-bearing carbonate reservoirs. The case study presented is in an offshore field, Northwest of Abu Dhabi city. The structure, with an area of 50 Sq.km was first identified in 1966 and it is part of the regional N-S extending structural. The multi-discipline approach applied in this study required the integration of a suite of open-hole data over a variety of length scales. Combination of the Borehole Acoustic Reflection Imaging technique and borehole imaging logs (BHI) in 3D, provides a better understanding of the complex fracturing network and the associated formation stress orientation up to 100ft away from the wellbore. The ability to "see" away from wellbore what was previously hidden on seismic, allows unlocking further potential reserves or avoiding certain production hazards. The well has penetrated the highly economical tight clastic Pre-khuff formation and the carbonate Kuff formation, allowing the analysis over a large geological history of offshore Abu Dhabi. The coherency of all data has helped establish for the first time a baseline understanding of the role of the fractures and fault in the petrophysical properties distribution along the wellbore and the 3D structural characterization in an larger area around the wellbore (up to 100ft). The emphasize in this paper is on the Borehole Acoustic Reflection Imaging technique (DSWI), which allows the identification of both intersecting and non-intersecting of geological features with a depth of investigation up to 100 ft away from the borehole. Moreover, the combination of DSWI with BHI have been used for the anisotropy estimation away from wellbore especially in a very tight and fractured reservoir deciphering multiple fault orientation, which potentially, cancel the anisotropy estimation due to destructive interference. In addition to the presence of drilling induced fractures interfering in with the natural fracture as seen on the BHI. The detailed BHI interpretation and the petrophysical data revealed that the fracture densities and orientation vary from bottom to top interval indicating tectonic regimes affecting the field. The lithological variation due to the evolution of the depositional setting has significantly influenced the fracture distribution and their length. The presence of these induced fractures and how deep they propagate into the formation, dominates the behavior acoustic anisotropy by reaching the flexural (dipole shear) investigation zone (3 to 4ft deep). It is also interesting to see the behavior of both natural and induced fractures and their respective strike change over the different formations revealing a geomechanically complex structure.
Xindan Wang, Cody Keith, Yin Zhang, Abhijit Dandekar, Samson Ning, Dongmei Wang, Reid Edwards, John Barnes, Radu Girbacea, David Cercone, et al.
Day 3 Thu, September 23, 2021; https://doi.org/10.2118/206247-ms

Abstract:
The first-ever polymer flood pilot to enhance heavy oil recovery on Alaska North Slope (ANS) is ongoing. After more than 2.5 years of polymer injection, significant benefit has been observed from the decrease in water cut from 65% to less than 15% in the project producers. The primary objective of this study is to develop a robust history-matched reservoir simulation model capable of predicting future polymer flood performance. In this work, the reservoir simulation model has been developed based on the geological model and available reservoir and fluid data. In particular, four high transmissibility strips were introduced to connect the injector-producer well pairs, simulating short-circuiting flow behavior that can be explained by viscous fingering and reproducing the water cut history. The strip transmissibilities were manually tuned to improve the history matching results during the waterflooding and polymer flooding periods, respectively. It has been found that higher strip transmissibilities match the sharp water cut increase very well in the waterflooding period. Then the strip transmissibilities need to be reduced with time to match the significant water cut reduction. The viscous fingering effect in the reservoir during waterflooding and the restoration of injection conformance during polymer flooding have been effectively represented. Based on the validated simulation model, numerical simulation tests have been conducted to investigate the oil recovery performance under different development strategies, with consideration for sensitivity to polymer parameter uncertainties. The oil recovery factor with polymer flooding can reach about 39% in 30 years, twice as much as forecasted with continued waterflooding. Besides, the updated reservoir model has been successfully employed to forecast polymer utilization, a valuable parameter to evaluate the pilot test’s economic efficiency. All the investigated development strategies indicate polymer utilization lower than 3.5 lbs/bbl in 30 years, which is economically attractive.
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