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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.287)
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John D. Hader, Taylor Lane, Alistair B.A. Boxall, Matthew MacLeod, Antonio Di Guardo
Published: 1 September 2022
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 840; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156478

Quanshun An, Yangliu Wu, Dong Li, Xianghong Hao, , Arno Rein
Published: 28 April 2022
Pest Management Science, Volume 78, pp 2679-2692; https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.6897

Published: 2 March 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Toxics
Abstract:
Terrestrial land use activities present cross-ecosystem threats to riverine and marine species and processes. Specifically, pesticide runoff can disrupt hormonal, reproductive, and developmental processes in aquatic organisms, yet non-point source pollution is difficult to trace and quantify. In Oregon, U.S.A., state and federal forestry pesticide regulations, designed to meet regulatory water quality requirements, differ in buffer size and pesticide applications. We deployed passive water samplers and collected riverine and estuarine bivalves Margaritifera falcata, Mya arenaria, and Crassostrea gigas from Oregon Coast watersheds to examine forestry-specific pesticide contamination. We used non-metric multidimensional scaling and regression to relate concentrations and types of pesticide contamination across watersheds to ownership and management metrics. In bivalve samples collected from eight coastal watersheds, we measured twelve unique pesticides (two herbicides; three fungicides; and seven insecticides). Pesticides were detected in 38% of bivalve samples; and frequency and maximum concentrations varied by season, species, and watershed with indaziflam (herbicide) the only current-use forestry pesticide detected. Using passive water samplers, we measured four current-use herbicides corresponding with planned herbicide applications; hexazinone and atrazine were most frequently detected. Details about types and levels of exposure provide insight into effectiveness of current forest management practices in controlling transport of forest-use pesticides.
Yajie Chen, , Fengshou Dong, Jun Xu, Xiaohu Wu, Yongquan Zheng
Published: 1 February 2021
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 755; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142482

Abstract:
Methoxyfenozide is widely employed in paddy land and can flow out into the aquatic environment. The present study combines two approaches, namely, an aquatic microcosm simulation experiment and a multimedia fugacity model, to study the fate and distribution of methoxyfenozide in an aquatic microcosm containing water, sediment, aquatic plants, and zebrafish. The model results indicated that the simulated concentrations agreed with the observed values within one order of magnitude. The degradation rate was less than 7.0% in the three types of aquatic microcosms at 740 h in the model. Methoxyfenozide exhibited very high persistence in the aquatic microcosm. Water played a key role in the fate of methoxyfenozide, acting as a sink in the simulated aquatic environment, followed by sediment. Only approximately 2% of methoxyfenozide entered the organisms (zebrafish and Egeria densa Planch). Methoxyfenozide underwent a significant transport process between the water and sediment. The applications of multimedia fugacity models are useful for understanding the behaviors, fate, and transport of pesticides after their release into the environment and to facilitate risk assessment and management activities.
, Antonello Guardia, , Settimio Sesti, Sandro Tripepi,
Published: 21 September 2020
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Volume 205; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111367

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Chong Chen, Wenbing Zou, Guolu Cui, Jichen Tian, Yuncai Wang,
Published: 29 May 2020
Journal: Chemosphere
Abstract:
The widespread use of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in modern agriculture has threatened the survival of aquatic organisms. Therefore, the residual levels, spatial distribution, and ecological risk assessment of 18 CUPs are investigated in an aquatic system of Shanghai. The aquatic system focused on a freshwater system that contains particles smaller than 0.45 μm in size, which are easily absorbed by aquatic organisms. The mean values of chlorpyrifos, napropamide, and atrazine were found to be the highest concentration CUPs, and propazine, mevinphos, ametryn, butylate, dichlorvos, ethoprop, and prometryn displayed the most significant positive correlations with each other. The concentration of the ∑18CUPs was higher in the southern areas of Shanghai (generally greater than 100 ng/L), but it was relatively low in the central areas (generally smaller than 75 ng/L). Six important CUPs were identified, and the differences in the concentration contribution rates and contribution amounts among different intensive land-use types were noticeable. The ecological risk in most areas of this aquatic system of Shanghai was high. Chlorpyrifos and butachlor produced the maximum toxic unit (mTU) for daphnid and green algae, respectively, and their toxic unit contribution rates to the entire mixture toxicity were both greater than 50%. This confirms that the mixture toxicity of the CUPs to aquatic organisms in this aquatic system of Shanghai primarily resulted from a few dominant toxic pesticides. However, for each sensitive organism, there will still be a risk contribution of approximately 5%–30% due to other CUPs.
, Tobias Doppler, , Peter Reichert, Fabrizio Fenicia
Published: 13 March 2020
Journal of Hydrology, Volume 586; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2020.124812

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, A. Ramos, , , , M. Rayner
Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, Volume 22, pp 956-972; https://doi.org/10.1039/c9em00492k

Abstract:
Pesticide losses from agricultural land to water can result in the environmental deterioration of receiving systems. Mathematical models can make important contributions to risk assessments and catchment management. However, some mechanistic models have high parameter requirements which can make them difficult to apply in data poor areas. In addition, uncertainties in pesticide properties and applications are difficult to account for using models with long run-times. Alternative, simpler, conceptual models are easier to apply and can still be used as a framework for process interpretation. Here, we present a new conceptual model of pesticide behaviour in surface water catchments, based on continuous water balance calculations. Pesticide losses to surface waters are calculated based on the displacement of a limited fraction of the soil pore water during storm events occurring after application. The model was used to describe the behaviour of metaldehyde in a small (2.2 km2) under-drained catchment in Eastern England. Metaldehyde is a molluscicide which has been regularly detected at high concentrations in many drinking water supply catchments. Measured peak concentrations in stream water (to about 9 μg L−1) occurred in the first few storm events after application in mid-August. In each event, there was a quasi-exponential decrease in concentration during hydrograph recession. Peak concentrations decreased in successive events – responding to rainfall but reflecting an effective exhaustion in soil supply due to degradation and dissipation. Uncertain pesticide applications to the catchment were estimated using land cover analysis of satellite data, combined with a Poisson distribution to describe the timing of application. Model performance for both the hydrograph (after calibration of the water balance) and the chemograph was good and could be improved via some minor adjustments in assumptions which yield general insights into the drivers for pesticide transport. The use of remote sensing offers some promising opportunities for estimating catchment-scale pesticide applications and associated losses.
Published: 13 November 2019
Sar and Qsar in Environmental Research, Volume 31, pp 19-32; https://doi.org/10.1080/1062936x.2019.1686715

Abstract:
In the present work, an existing vegetation/air/litter/soil model (SoilPlusVeg) was modified to improve organic chemical fate description in terrestrial/aquatic ecosystems accounting for horizontal and vertical particulate organic carbon (POC) transport in soil. The model was applied to simulate the fate of three pesticides (terbuthylazine, chlorpyrifos and etofenprox), characterized by increasing hydrophobicity (log KOW from about 3 to 7), in the soil compartment and more specifically, their movement towards surface and groundwater through infiltration and runoff processes. The aim was to evaluate the role of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and POC in the soil in influencing the peak exposure of pesticides in terrestrial/aquatic ecosystems. Simulation results showed that while terbuthylazine and chlorpyrifos dominated the free water phase (CW-FREE) of soil, etofenprox was mainly present in soil porewater as POC associated chemical. This resulted in an increase of this highly hydrophobic chemical movement towards groundwater and surface water, up to a factor of 40. The present work highlighted the importance of DOC and POC as an enhancer of mobility in the water of poor or very little mobile chemicals. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the bioavailability change with time and parameterize this process in multimedia fate models.
Valeria Di Nica, , , Sara Villa
Published: 19 October 2019
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 27, pp 30918-30926; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06467-2

Abstract:
This study aimed to assess how different concentrations of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (1.1, 5.24, 11, 52.4, 110, 262, 524 and 1100 ng L−1) affect the swimming behaviour of Diamesa zernyi larvae following exposure. A video tracking system was employed to analyse two swimming traits (total distance moved and average speed) of the larvae simultaneously after 3 days of exposure to the pesticide at 2 °C. The behavioural results were also interpreted according to biochemical responses to oxidative stress (OS) induced by chlorpyrifos, based on malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCC) content. Both distance and speed significantly decreased after 72 h of exposure to chlorpyrifos concentrations of ≥ 110 ng L−1, under which significant OS was detected as lipid peroxidation (level of MDA) and protein carbonylation (level of carbonyl). Analysis of altered swimming behaviour, along with MDA and carbonyl content, indicated that ≥ 110 ng L−1 contamination levels of the insecticide cause the organism to reallocate energy normally used for locomotor activity to repair cell damage, which might explain the strong impairment to locomotor performance. Locomotor performance is an ecologically relevant trait for elucidating the population dynamics of key species, with disturbance to this trait having long-term negative impacts on population and community structure. Therefore, chlorpyrifos insecticides represent a serious ecological risk for mountain aquatic species based on the detrimental effects observed in the current study, as the tested concentrations were those at which the insecticide is found in many Alpine rivers of Italy.
, , , , Yusheng Zhang, Andrew Smith, Andrew Turner
Published: 4 June 2019
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.3389/fsufs.2019.00042

Abstract:
This paper describes the development and application of a novel and generic framework for parsimonious soil-water interaction models to predict the risk of agro-chemical runoff. The underpinning models represent two scales to predict runoff risk in fields and the delivery of mobilized pesticides to river channel networks. Parsimonious field and landscape scale runoff risk models were constructed using a number of pre-computed parameters in combination with live rainfall data. The precomputed parameters included spatially-distributed historical rainfall data to determine long term average soil water content and the sensitivity of land use and soil type combinations to runoff. These were combined with real-time live rainfall data, freely available through open data portals and APIs, to determine runoff risk using SCS Curve Numbers. The rainfall data was stored to provide antecedent, current and future rainfall inputs. For the landscape scale model, the delivery risk of mobilized pesticides to the river network included intrinsic landscape factors. The application of the framework is illustrated for two case studies at field and catchment scales, covering acid herbicide at field scale and metaldehyde at landscape scale. Web tools were developed and the outputs provide spatially and temporally explicit predictions of runoff and pesticide delivery risk at 1 km2 resolution. The model parsimony reflects the driving nature of rainfall and soil saturation for runoff risk and the critical influence of both surface and drain flow connectivity for the risk of mobilized pesticide being delivered to watercourses. The novelty of this research lies in the coupling of live spatially-distributed weather data with precomputed runoff and delivery risk parameters for crop and soil types and historical rainfall trends. The generic nature of the framework supports the ability to model the runoff and field-to-channel delivery risk associated with any in-field agricultural application assuming application rate data are available.
, , , Isabel López-Heras, , David Rivas-Tabares, Marco Vighi
Published: 1 May 2019
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 666, pp 1058-1070; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.250

Abstract:
Pesticides and point source contaminants (primarily pharmaceuticals) were monitored in 16 sampling sites of the upper Tagus river basin during spring, summer and autumn of 2016. A qualitative screening analysis was performed using a library of 430 compounds. Next, a novel method was implemented for the selection and quantification of contaminants with LC-MS/MS. The method is based on the frequency of detection in the screening, ecotoxicity data and the potential use in the watershed. Moreover, the efficacy of grab samples and passive samples (POCIS) in detecting compound-specific exposure patterns was compared during the summer sampling campaign. The screening method detected the presence of 268 compounds in the study area, out of which 52 were selected for the quantitative analysis (20 pesticides and 32 point source chemicals). Although very helpful in the prioritization exercise, the qualitative screening demonstrated some biases and the need for improvement by using more effective instruments for confirming positive results. Grab samples proved not to be fully suitable for contaminants with discontinuous exposure such as pesticides, which may be underestimated, but offer a sufficient basis for the characterization of contaminants coming from urban wastewaters. All selected chemicals showed a very high concentration variability due to differences among sampling sites, which are related to agricultural intensity and demographic pressure. Some insecticides (chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, imidacloprid), herbicides (diuron, metribuzine, simazine, terbuthylazine), and fungicides (carbendazim) were measured at concentrations exceeding 100 ng/L; while paracetamol, ibuprofen, some antibiotics (azithromycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim) and life-style compounds (caffeine, paraxanthine, nicotine) were found at very high concentrations (up to several μg/L). The results of this work represent the basis for the development of an ecological risk assessment for the aquatic ecosystem in the upper Tagus river basin and for the identification of basin-specific contaminant mixtures of environmental concern.
, Yongping Yuan, Haw Yen, Michael Grieneisen, Jeffrey Arnold, Dan Wang, ,
Published: 12 March 2019
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 669, pp 512-526; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.141

Abstract:
The application of pesticides in agriculture is a widely-used way to alleviate pest stresses. However, it also introduces various environmental concerns due to the offsite movement of pesticide residues towards receiving water bodies. While the application of process-based modeling approaches can provide quantitative information on pesticide exposure, there are nonetheless growing requirements for model development and improvement to better represent various hydrological and physico-chemical conditions at watershed scale, and for better model integration to address environmental, ecological and economic concerns. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is an ecohydrological model used in over 3000 published studies, including about 50 for simulating pesticide fate and transport at the watershed scale. To better understand its strengths and limitations, we conducted a rigorous review of published studies that have used SWAT for pesticide modeling. This review provides recommendations for improving the interior algorithms (fate simulation, pathway representation, transport/pollution control, and other hydrological related improvement) to better represent natural conditions, and for further extension of pesticide exposure modeling using SWAT by linking it with other models or management tools to effectively address the various concerns of environmental researchers and local decision makers. Going beyond past studies, we also recommend future improvement to fill research gaps in developing modularized field level simulation, improved BMPs, new in-pond and in-stream modules, and the incorporation of soft data. Our review pointed out a new insight of pesticide fate and transport modeling at watershed level, which should be seen as steps leading to the direction for model development, as well as better addressing management concerns of local stakeholders for model implementation.
Published: 19 December 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 658, pp 1056-1063; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.282

Abstract:
Estimating KDOC (dissolved organic carbon/water partition coefficient) and DDOC (dissolved organic carbon/water distribution coefficient) of neutral and ionizable organic chemicals is a crucial task for assessing mobility, modelling transport, environmental fate of a variety of chemicals and for evaluating their bioavailability in terrestrial and aquatic environments. A critical literature search of reliability-selected KDOC and DDOC values was performed to setup novel predictive relationships for KDOC and DDOC of neutral and ionizable organic chemicals. This goal was pursued by using: 1) LSER (linear solvation energy relationship) models to predict KDOC for neutral chemicals using Abraham solute parameters calculated for different DOC sources (all DOC sources together, soil porewater, surface water, wastewater and Aldrich humic acid (HA)); 2) linear regressions for predicting DDOC of organic acids from the octanol/water partition coefficient (Log KOW or Log P) and the dissociation constant (pKa), accounting separately for the contribution of the neutral and ionic fraction. The proposed models predicted Log KDOC and DDOC values within a root mean square deviation (RMSD) generally smaller than 0.3 log units.
, Gabriella Fait
Published: 16 November 2018
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 36, pp 78-84; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2018.10.023

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Elisa Terzaghi, Dario Zati,
Published: 20 July 2018
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 645, pp 865-875; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.216

Abstract:
A column leaching experiment was performed to evaluate the influence of some relevant environmental factors (soil/water contact time, temperature, saturation) on mobility of aged polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil together with transport mediated by dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and mobile organic carbon (OC) coated fine particles/colloids. Consecutive fractions of leachates were collected after a variable pre-equilibration time (2, 5, 7, 48 days), using leaching solutions with different DOC content (tap water vs. Aldrich humic acid), in saturated vs. field capacity conditions and at different temperatures (25 °C vs. 15 °C). The data obtained were compared to the predicted values using a multimedia model (SoilPlusVeg) to evaluate model behaviour. Contact time and temperature determined a relevant effect on DOC and particle/colloid availability, with significant variations in leachate concentrations (up to 1 order of magnitude), typically overlooked by most environmental fate models. Results obtained at different temperatures show a modulation of the DOC/particles production with temperature and therefore the role of temperature changes in the environmental scenarios (e.g. seasonal variations). Transport of PCBs enhanced by Aldrich DOC was not linearly correlated to chemical hydrophobicity but revealed a threshold to ~Log KOW 6.5, likely because of the slow sorption kinetics of more hydrophobic chemicals. Additionally, variation of the saturation conditions (e.g. drying-wetting cycles) can determine contamination peaks at the beginning of an irrigation/rainfall event because of the soil/water equilibration. Model simulations, even when including DOC in the water phase, but not accounting for the particle/colloidal transport and sorption/desorption kinetics, mismatched the ratio of dissolved vs. DOC-associated and particle-associated PCBs and substantially underpredicted concentrations, especially for the high chlorinated congeners. The results indicated that some of the common assumptions and paradigms in fate modelling of such hydrophobic compounds should be revisited and models updated.
Melissa Morselli, Elisa Terzaghi, Filippo Galimberti,
Published: 4 July 2018
Journal: Chemosphere
Chemosphere, Volume 210, pp 204-214; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.06.181

Abstract:
Agricultural activities can involve the use of plant protection products (PPPs) and the use of such chemicals can occur near surface waters bodies, thus creating a potential for adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems. In mountain watersheds, where runoff fluxes are particularly rapid due to side slopes, exposure is generally characterized by short but intense concentration peaks. Monitoring campaigns are often inadequate or too expensive to be carried out and modelling tools are therefore vital for exposure assessment and their use is encouraged by current legislation. However, currently adopted models and scenarios (e.g., FOCUS for PPPs) are often too conservative and/or “static” to accurately capture exposure variability, and the need for more realistic and dynamic tools is now one of the major challenges for risk assessment. In a previous work, the new fate model DynAPlus was developed to improve pesticide fate predictions in cultivated mountain basins and was successfully evaluated against chlorpyrifos water concentrations measured in a mountain stream in Northern Italy. However, the need for some model improvements (e.g., the inclusion of dissolved organic matter and macrophytes in water) was highlighted. In this work, DynAPlus was improved by replacing the water-sediment unit with ChimERA fate, a recently-published model capable of predicting bioavailable chemical concentrations in shallow water environments accounting for the presence and temporal variations of particulate/dissolved organic carbon and primary producers. The model was applied to preliminarily characterize the risk associated to the use of four PPPs (two insecticides and two fungicides) in a sub-basin of the Adda River (Valtellina Valley, Northern Italy), surrounded by apple orchards. Results revealed the potential magnitude of exposure peaks for the four PPPs and suggested that monitoring campaigns should prioritize, in the selected case study, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox and fluazinam. The potential role of DynAPlus in providing more realistic exposure predictions for ecological risk assessment, as well as for planning efficient monitoring campaigns and help pesticide management practices, was also stressed.
Published: 2 June 2018
by MDPI
Journal: Sensors
Sensors, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061795

Abstract:
As the demand for food grows continuously, intelligent agriculture has drawn much attention due to its capability of producing great quantities of food efficiently. The main purpose of intelligent agriculture is to plan agricultural missions properly and use limited resources reasonably with minor human intervention. This paper proposes a Precision Farming System (PFS) as a Multi-Agent System (MAS). Components of PFS are treated as agents with different functionalities. These agents could form several coalitions to complete the complex agricultural missions cooperatively. In PFS, mission planning should consider several criteria, like expected benefit, energy consumption or equipment loss. Hence, mission planning could be treated as a Multi-objective Optimization Problem (MOP). In order to solve MOP, an improved algorithm, MP-PSOGA, is proposed, taking advantages of the Genetic Algorithms and Particle Swarm Optimization. A simulation, called precise pesticide spraying mission, is performed to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach. Simulation results illustrate that the proposed approach works properly. This approach enables the PFS to plan missions and allocate scarce resources efficiently. The theoretical analysis and simulation is a good foundation for the future study. Once the proposed approach is applied to a real scenario, it is expected to bring significant economic improvement.
, , Tanita Pescatore, Francesco Bellamoli, Francesco Miari, ,
Published: 20 March 2018
Environmental Pollution, Volume 238, pp 130-139; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.03.029

Abstract:
Several studies have indicated the presence of contaminants in Alpine aquatic ecosystems. Even if measured concentrations are far below those that cause acute effects, continuous exposure to sub-lethal concentrations may have detrimental effects on the aquatic species present in these remote environments. This may lead to a cascade of indirect effects at higher levels of the ecological hierarchy (i.e., the community). To improve the determination of ecologically relevant risk endpoints, behavioural alterations in organisms due to pollutants are increasingly studied in ecotoxicology. In fact, behaviour links physiological function with ecological processes, and can be very sensitive to environmental stimuli and chemical exposure. This is the first study on behavioural alteration in a wild population of an Alpine species. In the present study, a video tracking system was standardized and subsequently used to identify contaminant-induced behavioural alterations in Diamesa zernyi larvae (Diptera, Chironomidae). Diamesa zernyi larvae, collected in an Italian Alpine stream (Rio Presena, Trentino Region), were acclimated for 24 h and successively exposed to several aquatic contaminants (pesticides: chlorpyrifos, metolachlor, boscalid, captan; pharmaceuticals: ibuprofen, furosemide, trimethoprim) at concentrations corresponding to their Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC). After 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of exposure, changes in the distance moved, the average speed, and the frequency of body bends were taken to reflect contaminant- and time-dependent effects on larval behaviour. In general, metolachlor, captan, and trimethoprim tended to reduce all the endpoints under consideration, whereas chlorpyrifos, boscalid, ibuprofen, and furosemide seemed to increase the distances moved by the larvae. This could be related to the different mechanisms of action of the investigated chemicals. Independently of the contaminant, after 72 h a general slowing down of all the behavioural activities occurred. Finally, we propose a behavioural stress indicator to compare the overall behavioural effects induced by the various contaminants.
Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts, Volume 20, pp 58-71; https://doi.org/10.1039/c7em00568g

Abstract:
Twenty-five years of progress in modeling the environmental fate and exposure of organic contaminants is reviewed, and a strategy for more rapidly adopting scientific progress into regulatory models is proposed.
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