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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.jep.2017.09.041)
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Yun Zheng, Qiong Zhao, Jing Lin, Xiaoyang Dai, Chenyu Zhu, Yujie Wang, Hongye Fu
Published: 1 November 2022
Experimental Cell Research; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2022.113437

Xing Yue Xu, Sung-Kwon Moon, Jin-Kyu Kim, Woo Jung Kim, , Hoon Kim
Published: 31 October 2022
Frontiers in Pharmacology, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.1055378

Abstract:
Recently, green synthesis-based nanoformulations using plants or microorganisms have attracted great interest because of their several advantages. Nanotechnology-based biological macromolecules are emerging materials with potential applications in cosmetics and medications for ameliorating and treating inflammatory skin diseases (ISDs). Eupatorium japonicum (EJ), a native Korean medicinal plant belonging to the family Asteraceae, has been traditionally used to prepare prescriptions for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases. EJ-based gold nanoparticles (EJ-AuNPs) were biosynthesized under optimal conditions and characterized their physicochemical properties using various microscopic and spectrometric techniques. Additionally, the effects of EJ-AuNPs on ISDs as well as their underlying mechanisms were investigated in the tumor necrosis factor-α/interferon-γ (T+I)-induced skin HaCaT keratinocytes. The MTT and live/dead cell staining assays showed that EJ-AuNP treatment was considerably safer than EJ treatment alone in HaCaT cells. Moreover, EJ-AuNP treatment effectively suppressed the production of T+I-stimulated inflammatory cytokines (RANTES, TARC, CTACK, IL-6, and IL-8) and intracellular reactive oxygen species, and such EJ-driven anti-inflammatory effects were shown to be associated with the downregulation of intracellular mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor-κB signaling pathways. The present study provides preliminary results and a valuable strategy for developing novel anti-skin dermatitis drug candidates using plant extract-based gold nanoparticles.
Published: 11 October 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Molecules
Abstract:
Perillae Folium (PF), the leaf of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britt, is extensively used as culinary vegetable in many countries. It can be divided into two major varietal forms based on leaf color variation, including purple PF (Perilla frutescens var. arguta) and green PF (P. frutescens var. frutescens). The aroma of purple and green PF is discrepant. To figure out the divergence of chemical composition in purple and green PF, gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to analyze compounds in purple and green PF. A total of 54 compounds were identified and relatively quantified. Multivariate statistical methods, including principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) and clustering analysis (CA), were used to screen the chemical markers for discrimination of purple and green PF. Seven compounds that accumulated discrepantly in green and purple PF were characterized as chemical markers for the discrimination of the purple and green PF. Among these 7 marker compounds, limonene, shisool and perillaldehyde that from the same branch of the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway were with relatively higher contents in purple PF, while perilla ketone, isoegomaketone, tocopheryl and squalene on other branch pathways were higher in green PF. The results of the present study are expected to provide theoretical support for the development and utilization of PF resources.
J.J. Zhu, C.H. Tang, F.C. Luo, , X.Q. Yang
Published: 3 March 2022
Materials Today Chemistry, Volume 24; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtchem.2022.100802

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 6 February 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Molecules
Abstract:
Botanical oils are staple consumer goods globally, but as a by-product of oil crops, meal is of low utilization value and prone to causing environmental problems. The development of proteins in meal into bioactive peptides, such as Perilla peptide, through biotechnology can not only solve environmental problems, but also create more valuable nutritional additives. In the present work, the hydrolysis process of Perilla meal protein suitable for industrial application was optimized with the response surface methodology (RSM) on the basis of single-factor experiments. Alcalase was firstly selected as the best-performing among four proteases. Then, based on Alcalase, the optimal hydrolysis conditions were as follows: enzyme concentration of 7%, hydrolysis temperature of 61.4 °C, liquid-solid ratio of 22.33:1 (mL/g) and hydrolysis time of 4 h. Under these conditions, the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of Perilla meal protein was 26.23 ± 0.83% and the DPPH scavenging capacity of hydrolysate was 94.15 ± 1.12%. The soluble peptide or protein concentration of Perilla meal protein hydrolysate rose up to 5.24 ± 0.05 mg/mL, the ideal yield of which was estimated to be 17.9%. SDS-PAGE indicated that a large proportion of new bands in hydrolysate with small molecular weights appeared, which was different from the original Perilla meal protein. The present data contributed to further, more specific research on the separation, purification and identification of antioxidant peptide from the hydrolysate of Perilla meal protein. The results showed that the hydrolysis of Perilla meal protein could yield peptides with high antioxidant activity and potential applications as natural antioxidants in the food industry.
Published: 19 November 2021
by MDPI
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212488

Abstract:
The plant kingdom is a rich source of secondary metabolites with numerous properties, including the potential to modify keratinocyte biology. Keratinocytes are important epithelial cells that play a protective role against various chemical, physical and biological stimuli, and participate in reactive oxygen scavenging and inflammation and wound healing processes. The epidermal cell response may be modulated by phytochemicals via changes in signal transduction pathways. Plant extracts and single secondary compounds can possess a high antioxidant capacity and may suppress reactive oxygen species release, inhibit pro-apoptotic proteins and apoptosis and activate antioxidant enzymes in keratinocytes. Moreover, selected plant extracts and single compounds also exhibit anti-inflammatory properties and exposure may result in limited production of adhesion molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in keratinocytes. In addition, plant extracts and single compounds may promote keratinocyte motility and proliferation via the regulation of growth factor production and enhance wound healing. While such plant compounds may modulate keratinocyte functions, further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed on their mechanisms of action, and more specific toxicity and clinical studies are needed to ensure their effectiveness and safety for use on human skin.
Hyun-Kyung Song, Sun Haeng Park, Hye Jin Kim, Seol Jang,
Published: 15 October 2021
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 144; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112322

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Mingchen Cao, Lei Li, Long Xu, Mengxiang Fang, Xiaomin Xing, Changkai Zhou, Wei Ren, Longyuan Wang, Fanbo Jing
Published: 14 October 2021
Journal: BMC Oral Health
BMC Oral Health, Volume 21, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-021-01776-w

Abstract:
Background: The recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) frequently affects patient quality of life as a result of long lasting and recurrent episodes of burning pain. However, there were temporarily few available effective medical therapies currently. Drug target identification was the first step in drug discovery, was usually finding the best interaction mode between the potential target candidates and probe small molecules. Therefore, elucidating the molecular mechanism of RAS pathogenesis and exploring the potential molecular targets of medical therapies for RAS was of vital importance.Methods: Bioinformatics data mining techniques were applied to explore potential novel targets, weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used to construct a co-expression module of the gene chip data from GSE37265, and the hub genes were identified by the Molecular Complex Detection (MCODE) plugin.Results: A total of 16 co-expression modules were identified, and 30 hub genes in the turquoise module were identified. In addition, functional analysis of Hub genes in modules of interest was performed, which indicated that such hub genes were mainly involved in pathways related to immune response, virus infection, epithelial cell, signal transduction. Two clusters (highly interconnected regions) were determined in the network, with score = 17.647 and 10, respectively, cluster 1 and cluster 2 are linked by STAT1 and ICAM1, it is speculated that STAT1 may be a primary gene of RAS. Finally, genistein, daidzein, kaempferol, resveratrol, rosmarinic acid, triptolide, quercetin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate were selected from the TCMSP database, and both of them is the STAT-1 inhibitor. The results of reverse molecular docking suggest that in addition to triptolide, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate and resveratrol, the other 5 compounds (flavonoids) with similar structures may bind to the same position of STAT1 protein with different docking score.Conclusions: Our study identified STAT1 as the potential biomarkers that might contribute to the diagnosis and potential therapeutic target of RAS, and we can also screen RAS therapeutic drugs from STAT-1 inhibitors.
Published: 10 September 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Processes
Processes, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091632

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a combination extract of Gardeniae Fructus and Perillae Folium (GP) on inflammatory reactions in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophages RAW 264.7 cells. Multiplex cytokine assay, Fluo-4 calcium assay, Flow cytometry assay for phospho-P38 MAPK, and quantitative PCR were carried out. GP significantly reduced LPS-induced productions of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) and release of intracellular calcium in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. GP also significantly inhibited P38 MAPK phosphorylation and mRNA levels of Chop, Camk2a, Stat1, Stat3, Jak2, Fas, Nos2, and Ptgs2 in LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. Taken together, this study represents that GP exerts anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells via ER stress-induced CHOP pathway.
Ji-Won Park, Jae-Hoon Oh, Daseul Hwang, Seong-Man Kim, Jae-Hong Min, Ji-Yun Seo, Wanjoo Chun, Hee Jae Lee, Sei-Ryang Oh, Jae-Won Lee, et al.
Published: 11 May 2021
Molecular Medicine Reports, Volume 24, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12148

Abstract:
3,4,5‑Trihydroxycinnamic acid (THCA) exhibits anti‑inflammatory activity in acute or chronic inflammatory disorders, such as acute lung injury and asthma. The present study investigated the anti‑inflammatory activity of THCA in a tumor necrosis factor‑α/interferon‑γ (TI) mixture‑stimulated human keratinocyte cell line. The results of ELISA and reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR revealed that THCA reduced the secretion and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)‑6; IL‑8; thymus and activation‑regulated chemokine; macrophage‑derived chemokine; regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted; and monocyte chemoattractant protein‑1 in TI mixture‑stimulated HaCaT cells. In addition, the results of western blot analysis demonstrated that THCA exerted inhibitory activity on the activation of AKT, ERK and nuclear factor‑κB in TI mixture‑stimulated HaCaT cells. Furthermore, THCA upregulated the expression levels of heme oxygenase‑1 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, and the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2‑related factor 2 in HaCaT cells. These results demonstrated that THCA may exhibit anti‑inflammatory activity in activated HaCaT cells.
Published: 10 March 2021
by MDPI
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22062799

Abstract:
Olfactory receptors (ORs) have diverse physiological roles in various cell types, beyond their function as odorant sensors in the olfactory epithelium. These previous findings have suggested that ORs could be diagnostic markers and promising therapeutic targets in several pathological conditions. In the current study, we sought to characterize the changes in the expression of ORs in the HaCaT human keratinocytes cell line exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light or inflammation, well-recognized stimulus for skin barrier disruption. We confirmed that major olfactory signaling components, including ORs, GNAL, Ric8b, and adenylate cyclase type 3, are highly expressed in HaCaT cells. We have also demonstrated that the 12 ectopic ORs detectable in HaCaT cells are more highly expressed in UV-irradiated or inflamed conditions than in normal conditions. We further assessed the specific OR-mediated biological responses of HaCaT cells in the presence of known odorant ligands of ORs and observed that specific ligand-activated ORs downregulate skin barrier genes in HaCaT cells. This study shows the potential of OR as a marker for skin barrier abnormalities. Further research is needed to explore how OR is implicated in the development and progression of barrier dysfunction.
Published: 24 October 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Nutrients
Nutrients, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113261

Abstract:
Inflammation of the skin is the most common dermatological problem in human. The anti-inflammatory mediated responses of the skin cells provide a mechanism for combating these conditions. Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is one of the proteins that has been shown to have a potent anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effects and mechanisms of AnxA1 in skin keratinocyte and fibroblast have not been reported yet. In the current study, we hypothesized that Ac2-26, AnxA1 mimetic peptide, ameliorates inflammation and wrinkle formation in human skin cells. Therefore, we aimed to identify whether Ac2-26 has anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkle effects in human keratinocyte (HaCaT) and fibroblast (Detroit 551) cells, respectively. Human HaCaT cells were stimulated by TNF-α/IFN-γ with or without Ac2-26, to identify the anti-inflammatory effect. Human Detroit 551 cells were treated with Ac2-26 to verify the anti-wrinkle effect. Initially, cell cytotoxicity was carried out in each cell line treated using Ac2-26 by MTT assay. Human MDA, IL-8, and procollagen secretion were detected by ELISA assay. The inflammatory chemokines were measured by qRT-PCR analysis. To demonstrate the mechanism, MAPK, NF-κB, JAK/STAT, and MMPs were analyzed by Western blotting. As a result, we identified that Ac2-26 significantly decreased the expression of TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated pro-inflammatory chemokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MDC, TARC, and TNF-α, by inhibiting the activation of MAPK, NF-κB, and JAK/STAT pathway in TNF-α/IFN-γ-stimulated HaCaT human keratinocytes. In addition, we also identified that Ac2-26 significantly induced collagen synthesis by generating pro-collagen, and suppressed collagen degradation by inhibiting the collagenase MMP-1 and MMP-8 expression. Collectively, these results suggest that Ac2-26 shows anti-inflammatory and anti-wrinkling effect. These effects may lead to the development of preventive and therapeutic application for inflammation-related skin disease and wrinkle formation.
Published: 23 October 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Nutrients
Nutrients, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113238

Abstract:
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a skin allergy accompanied by acute and chronic dermal inflammation. In traditional oriental medicine, Laminaria japonica has been used to treat various diseases, including inflammatory diseases. Therefore, to determine the therapeutic potential of L. japonica against AD, we investigated the inhibitory effects of L. japonica water extract (LJWE) on the inflammatory mediators and AD-like skin lesions. We determined the cell viability of LJWE-treated HaCaT cells using the cell counting kit-8 assay and the levels of inflammatory cytokines using cytometric bead array kits. Additionally, we analyzed the modulatory effects of LJWE on the signaling pathways in tumor necrosis factor-α/interferon-γ-stimulated HaCaT cells via Western blotting. Furthermore, we determined the in vivo effect of LJWE on NC/Nga mice and found that LJWE remarkably improved the skin moisture, reduced dermatitis severity, and inhibited the overproduction of inflammatory mediators in 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-sensitized NC/Nga mice. We also observed that LJWE inhibits the expression of inflammatory chemokines in human keratinocytes by downregulating the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and activating the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1. In conclusion, LJWE has the therapeutic potential against AD by healing AD-like skin lesions, and suppressing inflammatory mediators and major signaling molecules.
Bo Zhao, Ye Wang, , , Yashuo Li, Xin Dong, Chengxu Lv, Hanlu Jiang
Published: 13 January 2020
Journal of Sensors, Volume 2020, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/3125708

Abstract:
Perillae has attracted an increasing interest of study due to its wide usage for medicine and food. Estimating quality and maturity of a perillae requires the information with respect to its size. At present, measuring and sorting the size of perillae mainly depend on manual work, which is limited by low efficiency and unsatisfied accuracy. To address this issue, in this study, we develop an approach based on the machine vision (MV) technique for online measuring and size sorting. The geometrical model and the corresponding mathematical model are built for perillae and imaging, respectively. Based on the built models, the measuring and size sorting method is proposed, including image binarization, key point determination, information matching, and parameter estimation. Experimental results demonstrate that the average time consumption for a captured image, the average measuring error, the variance of measuring error, and the overall sorting accuracy are 204.175 ms, 1.48 mm, 0.07 mm, and 93%, respectively, implying the feasibility and satisfied accuracy of the proposed approach.
Published: 8 July 2019
by MDPI
Journal: Cosmetics
Abstract:
7,8-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC, C11H10O4), a natural coumarin compound, is present in Citrus plants including Citrus decumana and grapefruit. It is known to have protective effects on the kidneys against Cisplatin and ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the underlying mechanisms of its inhibitory effects on skin inflammation have not been investigated in vitro. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is known to be one of the main causative agents of skin inflammation. It induces pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines by activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of DMC on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in TNF-α-treated human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Pretreatment with DMC inhibited TNF-α-treated cytokines (interleukin 6; IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1). In addition, DMC significantly inhibited TNF-α-treated NF-κB activation and phosphorylation of MAPKs, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK). These results suggest that DMC may elicit an anti-inflammatory response by suppressing TNF-α-treated activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in keratinocytes. Hence, it might be a useful therapeutic drug against skin inflammatory diseases.
Dian-Dong Hou, Wei Zhang, Ya-Li Gao, Yu-Zhe Sun, He-Xiao Wang, Rui-Qun Qi, Hong-Duo Chen,
Published: 7 June 2019
International Immunopharmacology, Volume 74; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2019.105676

Abstract:
In this study, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of Quercetin (Que) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions was examined. The left ear of mice was applied with MC903, followed by Que. administration daily on the ear for 8 days. Then macroscopic and histologic examination was performed to detect the severity of skin lesions. In the skin section of AD mice, we observed that Que. could reduce the expression of CCL17, CCL22, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α. In vitro, the anti-inflammatory effects of Que. were examined on human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) treated with IFN-γ/TNF-α. To unveil the lncRNAs' regulatory role on Que-activated anti-inflammatory function, the next-generation high-throughput sequencing was performed in HaCat cells with or without Que. treatment, which profiled the expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs, the results illustrated that lnc-C7orf30–2, a lncRNA expressed differentially, was correlated with IL-6 expression. Silencing of lnc-C7orf30–2 by RiboTM lncRNA Smart Silencer proved its role on IL-6 expression. Therefore, the results here demonstrated that topical administration of Que. plays a beneficial role in controlling AD symptoms, which may serve as potential candidate for AD treatment.
Xiaochun Xue, Jianhua Wu, Junhui Li, Jianguo Xu, Haiying Dai, Congshan Tao, Chao Li,
Published: 23 November 2018
Bioscience Reports, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.1042/bsr20180958

Abstract:
It was previously reported that the expression of CD274 was down-regulated in psoriatic epidermis, leading to immune disorders of psoriasis. However, the regulatory mechanisms of CD274 were rarely elucidated. We aimed to explore the regulatory mechanisms of CD274. Skin samples were collected from 18 patients with psoriasis vulgaris and 9 healthy participants for RNA sequencing. Candidate genes were chosen based on degree and k-core difference of genes in the co-expression network. The relations between candidate genes and CD274 were validated by flow cytometry and real-time PCR in primary human epidermal keratinocytes. The therapeutic effect of indirubin was assessed in an imiquimod-treated mouse model. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1, Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR4 and interleukin (IL)-17A were considered as candidate genes. In primary human epidermal keratinocytes, the level of CD274 was obviously increased under the stimulation of IFN-γ and CDK1 inhibitor (indirubin), independent of TLR4, TLR3 or IL-17A. Indirubin alleviated the severity of psoriatic mice in a CD274-dependent manner. Co-expression network analysis served as an effective method for the exploration of molecular mechanisms. We demonstrated for the first time that CD274 was the regulator of indirubin-mediated effect on mouse psoriasis-like skin lesion based on co-expression network analysis, contributing to the alleviation of mouse psoriasis-like skin lesion.
Gao Zhen, Wang Jing, Jing Jing, Dan Xu, Li Zheng,
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2018, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7297141

Abstract:
Objective. In China, the Chinese medicine formula modified zhisou powder (MZP) is commonly used to treat COPD with cold-dryness syndrome (CDSCOPD) to relieve cough and sputum. However, the underlying mechanisms of MZP on treating CDSCOPD remain to be elucidated. Methods. COPD and CDSCOPD rat models were established; MZP was given to CDSCOPD rats in the last 7 days of the 97-day model establishment. Then the rats were subjected to lung function measurement. Pathological changes in lungs were observed through paraffin section and H&E staining. The mRNA and protein levels of AQP1, 4, and 5 and Muc5AC and Muc5B in lung were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. NE levels was determined by ELISA. Results. The impaired lung functions were observed in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Among all parameters evaluating lung functions, only tidal volume demonstrates a further decrease in CDSCOPD when compared with COPD, indicating further impaired pulmonary ventilation functions upon cold-dryness stimulation. The intervention of MZP effectively improved lung functions parameters, prevented the inflammations, and eliminated the increases of AQP4 and 5 and the decrease of Muc5AC in lung. Conclusion. MZP probably improves pulmonary functions in CDSCOPD through inhibiting lung inflammation, increasing expressions of AQPs, and decreasing Muc5AC expression in lung.
Published: 15 June 2018
by MDPI
Journal: Antioxidants
Antioxidants, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox7060077

Abstract:
Dictamni dasycarpus is a type of Chinese medicine made from the root bark of D. dasycarpus. It has been reported to show a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological effects, for example, it has been used widely for the treatment of rheumatism, nettle rash, itching, jaundice, chronic hepatitis and skin diseases. In the current study, D. dasycarpus extract was investigated for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as its capability to alleviate oxazolone-induced skin damage in mice. The possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of D. dasycarpus extract against oxidative challenge was elucidated by measuring the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, interleukin-6, Tumor necrosis factor-α, NLRP3 (NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3)) inflammasome and interleukin-1β in HaCaT cells. D. dasycarpus extract did not affect cell viability in basal conditions. The extract significantly reduced oxazolone-induced epidermal swelling compared to untreated animal in the hairless albino mice (ICR mice) model. At the molecular level, Western blot assays indicated that the D. dasycarpus extract attenuated oxazolone-induced activation of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC), procaspase-1, NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) such as c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) and p38. This study demonstrates that D. dasycarpus extract could protect skin cells against oxidative and inflammatory insult by modulating the intracellular levels of ROS, TNF-α, interleukin-1, interleukin-6, NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome generation, antioxidant enzyme activity and cell signaling pathways. D. dasycarpus extract also attenuated the expression of NF-κB in HaCaT keratinocytes and thereby effectively downregulated inflammatory responses in the skin. Furthermore, D. dasycarpus extract alleviated oxazolone-induced damage in mice. Our results suggest the potential application of D. dasycarpus extract in preventing inflammatory processes in dermatitis.
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