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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.07.026)
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Rocío Gorbarán, , María Carolina Rodríguez Castro, Adonis Giorgi,
Published: 15 December 2022
Journal: Hydrobiologia
Hydrobiologia, Volume 850, pp 607-625; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-022-05110-5

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Lidia Vendrell-Puigmitja, Lorenzo Proia, Carmen Espinosa, Laura Barral-Fraga, Miguel Cañedo-Argüelles, Victoria Osorio, Carme Casas, Laia Llenas, Meritxell Abril
Published: 1 October 2022
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 843; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.156966

, Maxime Richard, Soizic Morin, Séverine Le Faucheur, Claude Fortin
Published: 3 May 2022
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Volume 41, pp 1649-1662; https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5335

Megan M. MacLennan,
Published: 24 September 2021
Journal: Oikos
Oikos, Volume 130, pp 2111-2121; https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.08884

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Bryan S. Griffiths, Silke Langenheder
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, Volume 85; https://doi.org/10.1128/mmbr.00026-20

Abstract:
The ability of ecosystems to withstand disturbances and maintain their functions is being increasingly tested as rates of change intensify due to climate change and other human activities. Microorganisms are crucial players underpinning ecosystem functions, and the recovery of microbial communities from disturbances is therefore a key part of the complex processes determining the fate of ecosystem functioning.
, C. Doums, A. Four-Chaboussant, R. Peronnet, C. Tirard, M. Molet
Published: 30 September 2020
Journal: Urban Ecosystems
Urban Ecosystems, Volume 24, pp 561-570; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11252-020-01060-9

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, , Mark O. Gessner, Cláudia Pascoal,
Published: 19 June 2020
Environmental Science: Nano, Volume 7, pp 2130-2139; https://doi.org/10.1039/d0en00375a

Abstract:
The pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) concept was applied to assess nanoparticle chronic effects on microbial litter decomposers and processes.
Ayanleh Mahamoud Ahmed, Vincent Tardy, , , Stéphane Pesce,
Published: 1 February 2020
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 391; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.122197

Abstract:
Sediment microbial communities were exposed for 21 days to an environmental concentration of copper to assess Cu-induced composition changes and resulting effects on microbial sensitivity to acute Cu and As toxicity. Chronic Cu exposure reduced the diversity of the bacterial and archaeal communities from Day 0 to Day 21. The pollution-induced community tolerance concept (PICT) predicts that loss of the most sensitive taxa and gain of more tolerant ones should increase the capacity of Cu-exposed communities to tolerate acute Cu toxicity. Although diversity loss and functional costs of adaptation could have increased their sensitivity to subsequent toxic stress, no increased sensitivity to As was observed. PICT responses varied according to heterotrophic activity, selected as the functional endpoint for toxicity testing, with different results for Cu and As. This suggests that induced tolerance to Cu and As was supported by different species with different metabolic capacities. Ecological risk assessment of contaminants would gain accuracy from further research on the relative contribution of tolerance acquisition and co-tolerance processes on the functional response of microbial communities.
Ayanleh Mahamoud Ahmed, Emilie Lyautey, , ,
Published: 14 August 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01852

Abstract:
In many aquatic ecosystems, sediments are an essential compartment, which supports high levels of specific and functional biodiversity thus contributing to ecological functioning. Sediments are exposed to inputs from ground or surface waters and from surrounding watershed that can lead to the accumulation of toxic and persistent contaminants potentially harmful for benthic sediment-living communities, including microbial assemblages. As benthic microbial communities play crucial roles in ecological processes such as organic matter recycling and biomass production, we performed a 21-day laboratory channel experiment to assess the structural and functional impact of metals on natural microbial communities chronically exposed to sediments spiked with copper (Cu) and/or arsenic (As) alone or mixed at environmentally relevant concentrations (40 mg kg-1 for each metal). Heterotrophic microbial community responses to metals were evaluated both in terms of genetic structure (using ARISA analysis) and functional potential (using exoenzymatic, metabolic and functional genes analyses). Exposure to Cu had rapid marked effects on the structure and most of the functions of the exposed communities. Exposure to As had almost undetectable effects, possibly due to both lack of As bioavailability or toxicity toward the exposed communities. However, when the two metals were combined, certain functional responses suggested a possible interaction between Cu and As toxicity on heterotrophic communities. We also observed temporal dynamics in the functional response of sediment communities to chronic Cu exposure, alone or in mixture, with some functions being resilient and others being impacted throughout the experiment or only after several weeks of exposure. Taken together, these findings reveal that metal contamination of sediment could impact both the genetic structure and the functional potential of chronically exposed microbial communities. Given their functional role in aquatic ecosystems, it poses an ecological risk as it may impact ecosystem functioning.
, Anne-Sophie Lambert, , Arnaud Foulquier, ,
Published: 2 July 2018
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.01424

Abstract:
Aquatic ecosystems are generally subjected to multiple perturbations due to simultaneous or successive combinations of various natural and anthropogenic environmental pressures. To better assess and predict the resulting ecological consequences, increasing attention should be given to the accumulation of stresses on freshwater ecosystems and its effects on the vulnerability of aquatic organisms, including microbial communities, which play crucial functional roles. Here we used a microcosm study to assess the influence of an experimental warming on the vulnerability of phototrophic and heterotrophic periphytic communities to acute and chronic copper (Cu) toxicity. Natural periphytic communities were submitted for 4 weeks to three different temperatures (18, 23, and 28°C) in microcosms contaminated (at about 15 μg L-1) or not with Cu. The vulnerability of both phototrophic and heterotrophic microbial communities to subsequent acute Cu stress was then assessed by measuring their levels of sensitivity to Cu from bioassays targeting phototrophic (photosynthetic activity) and heterotrophic (β-glucosidase and leucine aminopeptidase extracellular enzymatic activities) microbial functions. We postulated that both the increase in temperature and the chronic Cu exposure would modify microbial community structure, thus leading to changes in the capacity of phototrophic and heterotrophic communities to tolerate subsequent acute exposure to Cu. Our results demonstrated that the influence of temperature on the vulnerability of phototrophic and heterotrophic microbial communities to Cu toxicity can vary greatly according to function studied. These findings emphasize the importance of considering different functional compartments and different functional descriptors to better assess the vulnerability of periphyton to multiple stresses and predict the risks induced by multiple stressors for ecosystem balance and functioning.
Published: 1 December 2017
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 607-608, pp 1018-1025; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.035

Abstract:
By measuring levels of tolerance to toxicants in microbial communities using functional toxicity tests under controlled conditions, pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) approaches offer an effect-based tool to assess the ecological risk of chemicals in aquatic systems. However, induced tolerance of exposed microbial communities cannot always be attributed solely to the presence of toxicants as various environmental factors, such as temperature, can also be involved. Several PICT studies have been conducted to assess the effects of copper (Cu) on phototrophic periphyton, but little is known about the influence of temperature on the response of these microbial communities to acute and chronic exposure to Cu. Here, we report on a microcosm approach to assess the effects of two contrasting temperatures (18°C and 28°C) on (i) the baseline level of Cu tolerance in non-Cu-exposed phototrophic periphyton (i.e. effect of temperature on tolerance baseline), (ii) Cu tolerance acquisition by phototrophic periphyton in response to a 3-week chronic exposure to Cu at a nominal concentration of 60μgL (i.e. effect of temperature on PICT selection) and (iii) tolerance measured during short-term toxicity tests (i.e. effect of temperature on PICT detection). The aim was to evaluate how temperature conditions during the different phases of the PICT approaches may modify the causal relationship between chronic Cu exposure and measured Cu tolerance levels. Our results evidence the influence of temperature both on the basal capacity of phototrophic periphyton to tolerate subsequent exposure to Cu (i.e. influence on tolerance baseline) and on its capacity to acquire tolerance following chronic exposure to Cu (i.e. influence on PICT selection). Hence temperature must be considered when using PICT to establish causal links between chronic Cu exposure and effects on phototrophic periphyton.
Published: 24 July 2017
Scientific Reports, Volume 7, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-06373-y

Abstract:
Stressors associated with global change will be experienced simultaneously and may act synergistically, so attempts to estimate the capacity of marine systems to cope with global change requires a multi-stressor approach. Because recent evidence suggests that stressor effects can be context-dependent, estimates of how stressors are experienced in ecologically realistic settings will be particularly valuable. To enhance our understanding of the interplay between environmental effects and the impact of multiple stressors from both natural and anthropogenic sources, we conducted a field experiment. We explored the impact of multiple, functionally varied stressors from both natural and anthropogenic sources experienced during early life history in a common sessile marine invertebrate, Bugula neritina. Natural spatial environmental variation induced differences in conspecific densities, allowing us to test for density-driven context-dependence of stressor effects. We indeed found density-dependent effects. Under high conspecific density, individual survival increased, which offset part of the negative effects of experiencing stressors. Experiencing multiple stressors early in life history translated to a decreased survival in the field, albeit the effects were not as drastic as we expected: our results are congruent with antagonistic stressor effects. We speculate that when individual stressors are more subtle, stressor synergies become less common.
Published: 9 September 2016
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01388

Abstract:
Complexity of contaminants exposure needs to be taking in account for an appropriate evaluation of risks related to mixtures of pesticides released in the ecosystems. Toxicity assessment of such mixtures can be made through a variety of toxicity tests reflecting different level of biological complexity. This paper reviews the recent developments of passive sampling techniques for polar compounds, especially Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) and Chemcatcher® and the principal assessment techniques using microalgae in laboratory experiments. The progresses permitted by the coupled use of such passive samplers and ecotoxicology testing as well as their limitations are presented. Case studies combining passive sampling devices (PSD) extracts and toxicity assessment toward microorganisms at different biological scales from single organisms to communities level are presented. These case studies, respectively aimed i) at characterizing the “toxic potential” of waters using dose-response curves, and ii) at performing microcosm experiments with increased environmental realism in the toxicant exposure in term of cocktail composition and concentration. Finally perspectives and limitations of such approaches for future applications in the area of environmental risk assessment are discussed.
Kiyoon Kim, Rashedul Islam, Abitha Benson, Manoharan Melvin Joe, Walitang Denver, Mak Chanratan, Poulami Chatterjee, Yeongyeong Kang,
Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer, Volume 49, pp 144-156; https://doi.org/10.7745/kjssf.2016.49.2.144

, , , Maria Penalta-Rodríguez, Francisco Díaz-Fierros,
Published: 12 March 2016
Journal of Soils and Sediments, Volume 16, pp 1825-1839; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-016-1395-4

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 1 January 2016
Environmental Pollution, Volume 208, pp 821-829; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2015.11.004

Abstract:
Streams located in vineyard areas are highly prone to metal pollution. In a context of global change, aquatic systems are generally subjected to multi-stress conditions due to multiple chemical and/or physical pressures. Among various environmental factors that modulate the ecological effects of toxicants, special attention should be paid to climate change, which is driving an increase in extreme climate events such as sharp temperature rises. In lotic ecosystems, periphyton ensures key ecological functions such as primary production and nutrient cycling. However, although the effects of metals on microbial communities are relatively well known, there is scant data on possible interactions between temperature increase and metal pollution. Here we led a study to evaluate the influence of temperature on the response of phototrophic periphyton to copper (Cu) exposure. Winter communities, collected in a 8 °C river water, were subjected for six weeks to four thermal conditions in microcosms in presence or not of Cu (nominal concentration of 15 μg L(-1)). At the initial river temperature (8 °C), our results confirmed the chronic impact of Cu on periphyton, both in terms of structure (biomass, distribution of algal groups, diatomic composition) and function (photosynthetic efficiency). At higher temperatures (13, 18 and 23 °C), Cu effects were modulated. Indeed, temperature increase reduced Cu effects on algal biomass, algal class proportions, diatom assemblage composition and photosynthetic efficiency. This reduction of Cu effects on periphyton may be related to lower bioaccumulation of Cu and/or to selection of more Cu-tolerant species at higher temperatures.
Floriane Larras, Frédéric Rimet, Vincent Gregorio, Annette Bérard, , Bernard Montuelle,
Published: 3 September 2015
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 23, pp 4301-4311; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5302-0

Abstract:
Chemical monitoring revealed a regular decrease in herbicide concentration in Lake Geneva since last decades that may be linked to an ecotoxic restoration of nontarget phytoplanktonic communities. The Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) approach was tested as a tool to monitor the ecotoxic restoration of Lake Geneva for herbicides from 1999 to 2011. We conducted monthly assessments in 1999 and in 2011 for the tolerance of the phytoplankton communities to two herbicides (atrazine and copper), using PICT bioassays. The taxonomical composition of the communities was determined on the same collecting dates. The herbicide concentration decrease during the 12 years significantly influenced the composition of communities. The PICT monitoring indicated that a significant tolerance decrease in the community to both herbicides accompanied the herbicide concentration decrease. PICT measurements for atrazine and copper also changed at the intra-annual level. These variations were mainly due to community composition shifts linked to seasonal phosphorus and temperature changes. PICT monitoring on a seasonal basis is required to monitor the mean tolerance of communities. PICT appeared to be a powerful tool that reflected the toxic effects on environmental communities and to monitor ecotoxic ecosystem restoration.
, Line Capowiez, Stéphane Mombo, Eva Schreck, Camille Dumat, Frédéric Deola, Yvan Capowiez
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 23, pp 4271-4281; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-5089-z

Abstract:
We performed a field investigation to study the long-term impacts of Pb soil contamination on soil microbial communities and their catabolic structure in the context of an industrial site consisting of a plot of land surrounding a secondary lead smelter. Microbial biomass, catabolic profiles, and ecotoxicological responses (PICT) were monitored on soils sampled at selected locations along 110-m transects established on the site. We confirmed the high toxicity of Pb on respirations and microbial and fungal biomasses by measuring positive correlations with distance from the wall factory and negative correlation with total Pb concentrations. Pb contamination also induced changes in microbial and fungal catabolic structure (from carbohydrates to amino acids through carboxylic malic acid). Moreover, PICT measurement allowed to establish causal linkages between lead and its effect on biological communities taking into account the contamination history of the ecosystem at community level. The positive correlation between qCO2 (based on respiration and substrate use) and PICT suggested that the Pb stress-induced acquisition of tolerance came at a greater energy cost for microbial communities in order to cope with the toxicity of the metal. In this industrial context of long-term polymetallic contamination dominated by Pb in a field experiment, we confirmed impacts of this metal on soil functioning through microbial communities, as previously observed for earthworm communities.
Ahmed Tlili, Annette Berard, Hans Blanck, Agnes Bouchez, Fernanda Cássio, , , Bernard Montuelle, Enrique Navarro, , et al.
Published: 8 April 2015
Freshwater Biology, Volume 61, pp 2141-2151; https://doi.org/10.1111/fwb.12558

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Juliette Faburé, Marine Dufour, Armelle Autret, Emmanuelle Uher,
Published: 1 February 2015
Aquatic Toxicology, Volume 159, pp 276-289; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.12.014

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the repeatability and seasonal variability of the biological response of river biofilms chronically exposed to a multi-metal pressure in an urban contamination gradient. Biofilms were grown on immersed plastic membranes at three sites on the Seine river upstream (site 1) and downstream (sites 2 and 3) from Paris (France). They were collected in four different seasons (autumn, spring, summer and winter). Biofilm tolerance to Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was measured using a PICT (Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance) approach with a previously developed short-term toxicity test based on β-glucosidase (heterotrophic) activity. Metal concentrations in the river and also in the biofilm samples (total and non-exchangeable bioaccumulated metals) were also monitored. Biofilm-accumulated metal concentrations reflected the increase of the multi-metal exposure along the urban gradient. These concentrations were strongly correlated with dissolved and particulate organic carbon and with the total metal fraction in the river water, which recalls the significant influence of the environmental parameters on metal uptake processes in river biofilms. Overall, natural biofilms allow monitoring water quality by integrating the variations of a diffuse metal contamination overtime. Tolerance levels globally increased from site 1 to site 3 reflecting the metal pollution gradient measured in the river water collected at the three sites. Cu tolerance tended to increase during warm seasons but no clear seasonal tendency could be found for Ni, Pb and Zn. Furthermore, principal component analysis clearly discriminated samples collected upstream (site 1) from samples collected downstream (sites 2 and 3) along the first principal component which was correlated to the metal gradient. Samples collected in winter were also separated from the others along the second principal component correlated to parameters like water temperature and Total Suspended Solids concentration. This study shows that chronic in situ exposure to environmental metal concentrations has a significant impact on natural biofilms. Biofilm tolerance to metals and biofilm metal bioaccumulation both reflect metal exposure levels although they remain low when compared to Environmental Quality Standards from the European Water Framework Directive. Yet temperature appears as an important environmental variable shaping community structure and response to toxic exposure which shows that the sampling date is an important parameter to consider when using natural river biofilms to assess the impacts of urban pressure.
Published: 1 January 2015
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 503-504, pp 122-132; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.06.094

Abstract:
Periphyton communities grown in microcosms were studied under the exposure to different arsenate (As) and phosphate (P) regimes with the aim of revealing the effect of chronic exposure to As on periphyton physiological and structural characteristics. Also, we aimed to study periphyton changes on sensitivity to As, exposed to different P and As regimes. As affected structural and functional parameters of periphyton communities starved of P, inhibiting algal growth, photosynthetic capacity, changing community composition and reducing the ability of the community to retain P. The effects of As on these parameters were only detected in P starved communities, showing that chronic exposure to As led to changes in the photosynthetic apparatus under the conditions of P-limitation, but not when P-availability was higher. This fact reveals a lower toxicity and/or a higher adaptation of the P-amended community. Intracellular As contents were higher in communities starved of P. However, As tolerance was only induced by the combination of As and P but not by As or P alone indicating that tolerance induction may be an ATP-dependent mechanism. This study reveals that chronic exposure of natural communities to environmentally realistic As concentrations will damage periphyton communities affecting key ecosystem processes, as P uptake, leading to changes in stream ecosystems, as these organisms play a key role in nutrient cycling through nutrient uptake and transfer to higher trophic levels.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 22, pp 4025-4036; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3289-6

Abstract:
Streams located in vineyard areas are particularly exposed to mixtures of dissolved and particulate contaminants such as metals and organic pesticides. In this context, phototrophic biofilms are increasingly used as indicators of river water contaminations through pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) assessments based on short-term toxicity tests with individual or mixtures of toxicants. We conducted a laboratory experiment to evaluate the relative influence of the dissolved and particulate fractions on the effects of metals and pesticides on phototrophic biofilms in a context of contamination from a vineyard watershed. Three sets of artificial channels were supplied with (i) unfiltered water from a stream reference site, (ii) unfiltered water from a stream contaminated site, and (iii) filtered water (0.45 μm) from the same contaminated site. Biofilm growth, diatom community structure, and dissolved toxicant concentrations differed slightly between channels supplied with unfiltered or filtered water from the contaminated site. However, PICT assessments with individual toxicants or mixtures of toxicants extracted from passive samplers suggested no significant difference in tolerance to metals and organic pesticides between phototrophic communities supplied with unfiltered or filtered contaminated water. Our results confirm the use of extracts from passive samplers as a promising approach in short-term toxicity tests to characterize impacts of contamination on aquatic communities.
Annette Bérard, , Valérie Sappin-Didier, Line Capowiez,
Published: 1 May 2014
Ecological Indicators, Volume 40, pp 27-33; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2013.12.024

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Ikram Djeridi, Dominique Jamet, Stéphane Coupé, , , Brigitte Le Berre, , ,
Published: 15 May 2012
Journal: Biofouling
Biofouling, Volume 28, pp 453-463; https://doi.org/10.1080/08927014.2012.688957

Abstract:
Marine biofilm communities that developed on artificial substrata were investigated using molecular and microscopic approaches. Polystyrene, Teflon® and four antifouling (AF) paints were immersed for 2 weeks at two contrasting sites near Toulon on the French Mediterranean coast (Toulon military harbour and the natural protected area of Porquerolles Island). Biofilms comprising bacteria and diatoms were detected on all the coatings. The population structure as well as the densities of the microorganisms differed in terms of both sites and coatings. Lower fouling densities were observed at Porquerolles Island compared to Toulon harbour. All bacterial communities (analysed by PCR-DGGE) showed related structure, controlled both by the sites and the type of substrata. Pioneer microalgal communities were dominated by the same two diatom species, viz. Licmophora gracilis and Cylindrotheca closterium, at both sites, irrespective of the substrata involved. However, the density of diatoms followed the same trend at both sites with a significant effect of all the AF coatings compared to Teflon and polystyrene.
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