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D. Rodríguez-García, P. Soriano-Molina, J.L. Guzmán Sánchez, J.L. Casas López, J.A. Sánchez Pérez
Published: 1 January 2023
Chemical Engineering Journal, Volume 455; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2022.140760

Published: 24 October 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Remote Sensing
Remote Sensing, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14215319

Abstract:
This study applies Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data and the WaterGAP (Water Global Analysis and Prognosis) Global Hydrology Model (WGHM) to investigate the influence of the Bui reservoir operation on water storage variation within the Volta River Basin (VRB). Variation in groundwater storage anomalies (GWSA) was estimated by combining GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage anomalies (TWSA), radar altimetry records, imagery-derived reservoir (Lake Volta and Bui) surface water storage anomalies (SWSA), and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)-simulated soil moisture storage anomalies (SMSA) from 2002 to 2016. Results showed that TWSA increased (1.30 ± 0.23 cm/year) and decreased (−0.82 ± 0.27 cm/year) during 2002–2011 and 2011–2016, respectively, within VRB, matching previous TWSA investigations in this area. It revealed that the multi-year averages of monthly GRACE-derived TWSA changes in 2011–2016 displayed an overall increasing trend, indicating storage increase in regional hydrology; while the Lake Volta water storage changes decreased. The GRACE-minus-WGHM residuals display an increasing trend in VRB water storage during the Bui reservoir impoundment during 2011–2016. The observed trend compares well with the estimated Bui reservoir SWSA, indicating that GRACE solutions can retrieve the true amplitude of large mass changes happening in a concentrated area, though Bui reservoir is much smaller than the resolution of GRACE global solutions. It also revealed that GWSA were almost stable from 2002 to 2006, before increasing and decreasing during 2006–2011 and 2012–2016 with rates of 2.67 ± 0.34 cm/year and −1.80 ± 0.32 cm/year, respectively. The observed trends in the GRACE-derived TWSA and GWSA changes are generally attributed to the hydro-meteorological conditions. This study shows that the effects of strong El-Niño Southern Oscillation events on the GWSA interannual variability within the VRB is short-term, with a lag of 6 months. This study specifically showed that the Bui reservoir operation significantly affects the TWSA changes and provides knowledge on groundwater storage changes within the VRB.
Published: 19 October 2022
Journal: Climatic Change
Climatic Change, Volume 174, pp 1-24; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10584-022-03444-6

Abstract:
Climate models, by accurately forecasting future weather events, can be a critical tool in developing countermeasures to reduce crop loss and decrease adverse effects on animal husbandry and fishing. In this paper, we investigate the efficacy of various regional versions of the climate models, RCMs, and the commonly available weather datasets in Kenya in predicting extreme weather patterns in northern and western Kenya. We identified two models that may be used to predict flood risks and potential drought events in these regions. The combination of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and weather station data was the most effective in predicting future drought occurrences in Turkana and Wajir with accuracies ranging from 78 to 90%. In the case of flood forecasting, isolation forests models using weather station data had the best overall performance. The above models and datasets may form the basis of an early warning system for use in Kenya’s agricultural sector.
Published: 14 September 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Water
Abstract:
As a new theme in agricultural water resources evaluation, the crop water footprint (CWF) has attracted much attention, and the number of published studies has shown rapid growth. In order to explore the research prospects of the CWF, this paper conducted a visual bibliometric analysis of its development context, hot topics and knowledge base, by using CiteSpace (version 5.6. R5, Chaomei Chen, Philadelphia, PA, USA). Up to the retrieval time, there were, in total, 838 articles based on the Web of Science core collection database. In terms of contribution, China, the Netherlands and the United States were the three most representative countries, and the University of Twente and Arjen Y. Hoekstra were the most productive institution and author, respectively. In terms of the discipline background, Environmental Sciences & Ecology, Environmental Sciences and Water Resources were the three most relevant categories. Based on the co-occurrence analysis of the keywords, the hot topics of the three periods has been illustrated, and assessing the climate change impact on the water-use efficiency of crop production is the focus of the current research. The knowledge background of the CWF was elaborated by the co-citation and cluster analysis of references, which consists of four parts: concept, quantification, evaluation and reduction. Reducing the water requirement to improve crop water productivity through rainwater harvesting and formulating reasonable hydro-policies is the main responsive strategy to improve agricultural water-use efficiency. In particular, the accurate differentiation of the blue, green and gray water footprint calculation, considering multiple pollutants, the exploration of mitigation policies for the climate change impact and the combination of the CWF and traditional indicators, will be the focuses of future research in the CWF.
, Shannon de Roos, , Dirk Raes, Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy
Published: 18 July 2022
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Volume 26, pp 3731-3752; https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-26-3731-2022

Abstract:
Global soil water availability is challenged by the effects of climate change and a growing population. On average, 70 % of freshwater extraction is attributed to agriculture, and the demand is increasing. In this study, the effects of climate change on the evolution of the irrigation water requirement to sustain current crop productivity are assessed by using the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) crop growth model AquaCrop version 6.1. The model is run at 0.5lat×0.5long resolution over the European mainland, assuming a general C3-type of crop, and forced by climate input data from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project phase three (ISIMIP3). First, the AquaCrop surface soil moisture (SSM) forced with two types of ISIMIP3 historical meteorological datasets is evaluated with satellite-based SSM estimates in two ways. When driven by ISIMIP3a reanalysis meteorology, daily simulated SSM values have an unbiased root mean square difference of 0.08 and 0.06 m3 m−3, with SSM retrievals from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) missions, respectively, for the years 2015–2016 (2016 is the end year of the reanalysis data). When forced with ISIMIP3b meteorology from five global climate models (GCMs) for the years 2015–2020, the historical simulated SSM climatology closely agrees with the satellite-based SSM climatologies. Second, the evaluated AquaCrop model is run to quantify the future irrigation requirement, for an ensemble of five GCMs and three different emission scenarios. The simulated net irrigation requirement (Inet) of the three summer months for a near and far future climate period (2031–2060 and 2071–2100) is compared to the baseline period of 1985–2014 to assess changes in the mean and interannual variability of the irrigation demand. Averaged over the continent and the model ensemble, the far future Inet is expected to increase by 22 mm per month (+30 %) under a high-emission scenario Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) 3–7.0. Central and southern Europe are the most impacted, with larger Inet increases. The interannual variability in Inet is likely to increase in northern and central Europe, whereas the variability is expected to decrease in southern regions. Under a high mitigation scenario (SSP1–2.6), the increase in Inet will stabilize at around 13 mm per month towards the end of the century, and interannual variability will still increase but to a smaller extent. The results emphasize a large uncertainty in the Inet projected by various GCMs.
Economics, Management and Sustainability, Volume 7, pp 70-85; https://doi.org/10.14254/jems.2022.7-1.6

Abstract:
Sustainable Development in agriculture is taunted as a praxis to economic growth and development for several African economies. Agriculture remains one of the primary contributors to employment and food security in the sub-Saharan region, where incidences of drought and famine are prominent. However, the concept of sustainable agriculture remains ambiguous and vague in meaning-making; it is hard to implement at grassroots levels. In this systematic review article, agriculture development is advanced from social science perspective by identifying areas of concern and complementarity in the government approach to sustainability. A structured review in collaboration with desktop research was applied in this study. A sustainable framework was developed to provide an insight into sustainable development components and their outcomes. Furthermore, the study outcome highlights how actors involved in sustainable agriculture can deal with the multiplicity and complexity of this concept in a constructive manner.
, , , Annette Cowie, , Bas Heukels, Colleen Zumpf, David Styles, Esther Parish, Francesco Cherubini, et al.
Published: 8 April 2022
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 161; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2022.112409

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Elorri Igos, Thomas Schaubroeck, Laurent Chion, Angelica Mendoza Beltran, Elke Stehfest, Detlef van Vuuren, Hester Biemans, Enrico Benetto
Published: 31 March 2022
Journal of Industrial Ecology, Volume 26, pp 1182-1194; https://doi.org/10.1111/jiec.13272

, Christian Levers, Jean-François Mas
Published: 1 March 2022
Regional Environmental Change, Volume 22, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10113-022-01883-6

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 16 February 2022
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 29, pp 46691-46707; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-18925-5

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Miraji Hossein, Othman Chande, Faustin Ngassapa, Mureithi Eunice
Published: 21 January 2022
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, , Dušan Đ. Kovačević, Snežana I. Oljača, Helena J. Majstorović
Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Belgrade, Volume 67, pp 367-380; https://doi.org/10.2298/jas2204367r

Abstract:
The rhizosphere is a dynamic environment in which many parameters may influence biogenicity. The important factors determining the microbial community in the rhizosphere are plant and soil nutrient supply. The aim of this paper was to determine the abundance of basic microbiological groups in the rhizosphere of four wheat subspecies, in three fertilization treatments in the organic farming system. A field experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design with four replicates. It was carried out on the leached chernozem soil type. There was significant variability in the abundance of the studied physiological groups of microorganisms between the wheat subspecies, as well as between the fertilization treatments. The rhizosphere of common wheat had the greatest abundance of fungi (24.37 x 103 g-1). The rhizosphere of compactum wheat had the largest abundance of oligonitrophilic bacteria (361.47 x 105 g-1) and amonificators (119.27 x 105 g-1). There were no significant differences in the abundance of actinomycetes between the cultivars of common, compactum and durum wheat, but their lowest number was found in the spelt wheat cultivar (11.25 x 103 g-1). The combined application of biofertilizer and organic fertilizer resulted in a significantly greater abundance of amonificators (56.6%), fungi (28.2%) and oligonitrophiles (14.6%) than in the control treatment. The results show that the crop variety and application of appropriate fertilizer formulations can influence the abundance of the studied groups of microorganisms. This is particularly the case in organic farming, which relies completely on natural resources and processes.
Silvio Caputo
Published: 1 January 2022
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, , Jean Pierre Bavumiragira, Fangnon Firmin Fangninou
Published: 10 November 2021
Marine and Freshwater Research, Volume 73, pp 292-306; https://doi.org/10.1071/mf21118

Abstract:
Water resources are an essential component of a country’s natural resource potential. Pressure on these resources is set to increase due to increased water demand, climate change and rainfall variability. This could lead to conflicts between sectoral users, within or between countries, especially among transboundary countries. Interest in transboundary water resources is a priority, especially where issues such as uncertainty regarding the status of transboundary waterbodies and reductions in water volume persist. In this study, we used the feed-forward neural network to forecast water demand along the Nile River in two countries, Egypt and Kenya. Two scenarios were modelled. Input data for the first scenario included preceding records of precipitation, gross domestic product, population and water use in the agricultural sector. The second scenario observed the effects of the growing economy on water resources by doubling the gross domestic product and keeping all other inputs constant. For Kenya, the results projected a steady increase in water demand throughout the next 20 years for both scenarios. However, for Egypt, the observed trend in both scenarios was a decline in water demand, followed by a steady increase. The results underscore the importance of forecasting for easier future planning and management, and to help governing bodies along transboundary water resources develop timely strategies in the future to alleviate future water shortages and poor management of water resources.
, Mansour Zibaei
Published: 30 August 2021
Journal of Water and Climate Change, Volume 13, pp 96-112; https://doi.org/10.2166/wcc.2021.190

Abstract:
Water resources are under increasing pressure from population growth, socio-economic development, and climate change. The main user of freshwater is the agriculture sector, accounting for 70–80% of global water use. Consequently, increasing water productivity and reducing water use in this sector are vital for alleviating water scarcity. It has been alleged that domestic or international trade of water-consumed products from wet-provinces or countries to arid and semi-arid provinces or countries is one possible path to mitigate water shortage. In this regard, virtual water flows and their determinants in Iran are investigated in this paper. This study examines the main determinants of bilateral virtual water flows associated with international trade in agricultural goods among Iran and other countries using a gravity model of trade. The impacts of climate change and socio-economic change scenarios on the virtual water trade are simulated. The result of the gravity model indicated that bilateral virtual water trade flows are influenced by the classical determinants and all the mass-related variables (gross domestic product and population) are significant with expected signs. Finally, the result obtained from the simulation of climate and socio-economic change scenarios showed that under the pessimistic scenario of climate change and population growth rate of 0.98 and 0.44%, VW trade between Iran and other countries would increase by 41 and 66% in the periods of 2016–2045 and 2070–2099, respectively. As a consequence, identifying the appropriate countries for business interactions and adopting effective trade policies are very important and need attention soon.
Published: 26 July 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Remote Sensing
Remote Sensing, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13152929

Abstract:
Waterlogging is an increasingly important issue in irrigated agriculture that has a detrimental impact on crop productivity. The above-ground effect of waterlogging on crops is hard to distinguish from water deficit stress with remote sensing, as responses such as stomatal closure and leaf wilting occur in both situations. Currently, waterlogging as a source of crop stress is not considered in remote sensing-based evaporation algorithms and this may therefore lead to erroneous interpretation for irrigation scheduling. Monitoring waterlogging can improve evaporation models to assist irrigation management. In addition, frequent spatial information on waterlogging will provide agriculturalists information on land trafficability, assist drainage design, and crop choice. This article provides a scientific perspective on the topic of waterlogging by consulting literature in the disciplines of agronomy, hydrology, and remote sensing. We find the solution to monitor waterlogging lies in a multi-sensor approach. Future scientific routes should focus on monitoring waterlogging by combining remote sensing and ancillary data. Here, drainage parameters deduced from high spatial resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) can play a crucial role. The proposed approaches may provide a solution to monitor and prevent waterlogging in irrigated agriculture.
Published: 14 June 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Sustainability
Sustainability, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13126728

Abstract:
Industrial agriculture (IA) has been recognized among the main drivers of biodiversity loss, climate change, and native pollinator decline. Here we summarize the known negative effects of IA on pollinator biodiversity and illustrate these problems by considering the case of Chile, a “world biodiversity hotspot” (WBH) where food exports account for a considerable share of the economy in this country. Most of Chile’s WBH area is currently being replaced by IA at a fast pace, threatening local biodiversity. We present an agroecological strategy for sustainable food production and pollinator conservation in food-producing WBHs. In this we recognize native pollinators as internal inputs that cannot be replaced by IA technological packages and support the development of agroecological and biodiversity restorative practices to protect biodiversity. We suggest four fundamental pillars for food production change based on: (1) sharing the land, restoring and protecting; (2) ecological intensification; (3) localized knowledge, research, and technological development; and (4) territorial planning and implementation of socio-agroecological policies. This approach does not need modification of native pollination services that sustain the world with food and basic subsistence goods, but a paradigm change where the interdependency of nature and human wellbeing must be recognized for ensuring the world’s food security and sovereignty.
Linxiu Wu, , Bradley G. Ridoutt, Yajuan Yu, Ying Chen
Published: 27 April 2021
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 785; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147383

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Matthew Thompson, Sussan Moussavi,
Published: 20 April 2021
Sustainable Production and Consumption, Volume 27, pp 1762-1774; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.spc.2021.04.021

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ana L. Londero, , Fabio J. A. Schneider, Dinis Deuschle, Danrlei Menezes, , Madalena Boeni, Gustavo H. Merten
Published: 15 March 2021
Hydrological Processes, Volume 35; https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.14094

Skylar Kylstra, Autumn D. Watkinson, Lewis Fausak, Leslie M. Lavkulich
Published: 1 January 2021
Agricultural Sciences, Volume 12, pp 888-906; https://doi.org/10.4236/as.2021.128057

Abstract:
Available water for human needs and agriculture is a growing global concern. Agriculture uses approximately 70% of global freshwater, mainly for irrigation. The Lower Fraser Valley (LFV), British Columbia, is one of the most productive agricultural regions in Canada, supporting livestock production and a wide variety of crops. Water scarcity is a growing concern that threatens the long-term productivity, sustainability, and economic viability of the LFV’s agriculture. We used the BC Agriculture Water Demand Model as a tool to determine how crop choice, irrigation system, and land-use changes can affect predicted water requirements under these different conditions, which can aid stakeholders to formulate better management decisions. We conducted a comparative assessment of the irrigation water demand of seven major commercial crops, by distinct soil management groups, at nineteen representative sites, that use both sprinkler vs drip irrigation. Drip irrigation was consistently more water-efficient than sprinkler irrigation for all crops. Of the major commercial crops assessed, raspberries were the most efficient in irrigation water demand, while forage and pasture had the highest calculated irrigation water demand. Significant reductions in total irrigation water demand (up to 57%) can be made by switching irrigation systems and/or crops. This assessment can aid LFV growers in their land-use choices and could contribute to the selection of water management decisions and agricultural policies.
Published: 8 October 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Applied Sciences
Applied Sciences, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10197007

Abstract:
In this research, environmental impacts associated with the harvest and processing of pineapple (fresh-packed, in syrup, and dehydrated) were determined using the life cycle assessment (LCA) tool and specialized software SimaPro® (version 8.4), according to ISO14040:2006 and ISO14044:2006 standards. The information used to develop inventory included field interviews and industrial visits within the study area. The functional unit was defined as one kilogram of fruit. The selected impact categories were carbon footprint, water footprint, and energy footprint; the results obtained for the agronomic stage were 0.47 kg CO2 eq (equivalent), 78 L of water, and 9.09 MJ, respectively. The growth stage of the pineapple plant was found to be the one that generates greatest environmental impacts for all three categories. For packaged fruit, 0.58 kg CO2 eq, 82 L of water, and 11.03 MJ were quantified; for pineapples in syrup it was 1.12 kg CO2 eq, 103 L of water, and 19.28 MJ; and for dehydrated fruit, it was 5.12 kg CO2 eq, 782 L of water and 97.04 MJ. This concludes that the most significant environmental impact occurred in all cases during the pineapple cultivation stage.
Published: 22 July 2020
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, Volume 24, pp 3627-3642; https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-24-3627-2020

Abstract:
Reliable information on water flow dynamics and water losses via irrigation on irrigated agricultural fields is important to improve water management strategies. We investigated the effect of season (wet season and dry season), irrigation management (flooded and non-flooded), and crop diversification (wet rice, dry rice, and maize) on soil water flow dynamics and water losses via evaporation during plant growth. Soil water was extracted and analysed for the stable isotopes of water (δ2H and δ18O). The fraction of evaporation losses were determined using the Craig–Gordon equation. For dry rice and maize, water in shallow soil layers (0 to 0.2 m) was more isotopically enriched than in deeper soil layers (below 0.2 m). This effect was less pronounced for wet rice but still evident for the average values at both soil depths and seasons. Soil water losses due to evaporation decreased from 40 % at the beginning to 25 % towards the end of the dry season. The soil in maize fields showed stronger evaporation enrichment than in rice during that time. A greater water loss was encountered during the wet season, with 80 % at the beginning of the season and 60 % at its end. The isotopic enrichment of ponding surface water due to evaporation was reflected in the shallow soils of wet rice. It decreased towards the end of both growing seasons during the wet and the dry season. We finally discuss the most relevant soil water flow mechanisms, which we identified in our study to be those of matrix flow, preferential flow through desiccation cracks, and evaporation. Isotope data supported the fact that unproductive water losses via evaporation can be reduced by introducing dry seasonal crops to the crop rotation system.
International Journal of Water Resources Development, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1080/07900627.2020.1739512

Abstract:
Agricultural production in sub-Saharan Africa has, in recent times, remained lower than the rest of the world. Many attribute this to factors inherent to Africa and its people, such as climate, soil quality, slavery and disease. This article traces the role of agriculture through history and argues that these are not the main reasons. Before the arrival of European traders, complex agricultural systems existed, which supported food security, manufacturing and trade. External interference manipulated these systems in pursuit of export crops. Independence has not fundamentally changed this; resource and wealth extraction continue to inhibit economic development for Africans in Africa.
Andreas Ioannou, Gholamreza Gohari, Petri Papaphilippou, Sima Panahirad, Ali Akbari, Mohammad Reza Dadpour, Theodora Krasia-Christoforou,
Published: 13 April 2020
Environmental and Experimental Botany, Volume 176; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2020.104048

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, J. Manzano, , R. Cobacho
Published: 7 April 2019
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 673, pp 821-830; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.04.050

Abstract:
Solar photovoltaic systems have become one of the most popular topics in the water management industry. Moreover, irrigation networks are water- and energy-hungry, and utility managers are likely to adapt water consumption (and consequently energy demand) to the hours in which there is energy availability. In countries such as Spain (with high irradiance values), solar energy is an available green alternative characterised by zero electricity costs and significantly lower environmental impact. In this work, several types of irrigation scheduled programmes (according to different irrigation sectors) that minimise the number of photovoltaic solar panels to be installed are studied; moreover, the effects of the variable costs linked to energy (energy and emissions costs) are presented. Finally, the effect of incorporating batteries for storing energy to protect the system against emergencies, such as unfavourable weather, is proposed. The irrigation hours available to satisfy water demands are limited by sunlight; they are also limited by the condition that the irrigation schedule type has to be rigid (predetermined rotation) and that the pressure at any node has to be above minimum pressure required by standards. A real case study is performed, and the results obtained demonstrate that there is no universal solution; this is because the portfolio of alternatives is based on investments for purchasing equipment at present and also on future energy savings (revenues). Apart from these two values, there is an economic value (equivalent discontinuous discount rate), which also influences the final results.
, Yanfen Wang,
Published: 1 March 2019
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 656, pp 373-387; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.362

Abstract:
Maize, rice, wheat and soybean-the major staple food crops in China-have a crucial role in national food security and economic development. Predictions of changes in the requirements for irrigation water in food crop production under climate change may provide scientific support for the optimum allocation of water resources and measures to mitigate climate change. We conducted a spatial grid-based analysis using projections of future climate generated by a bias-correction and spatial disaggregation multi-model ensemble for three representative concentration pathway scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) adopted by the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. We investigated the effects of climate change associated with increasing temperature, changed precipitation and increased concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO) on the irrigation water requirements of maize, rice, wheat and soybean in China at the end of the 21st century (2081-2100). Our results indicate that the irrigation water requirements of maize and wheat are driven by temperature and especially by CO concentrations in the northwest interior area as a result of the low rainfall and high rates of evaporation; the irrigation water requirement of soybean is influenced by a combined effect of temperature, precipitation and CO concentration, whereas the irrigation water requirement for rice is dominated by precipitation alone in the southern coastal region, which has high rainfall. The irrigation water requirements of crops decrease mainly as a result of the beneficial effects of CO on plant growth in China. The regions requiring vast amounts of irrigation water as a result of climate change are mainly concentrated in northwestern China. The effects of climate change affect the requirement for irrigation water, especially under high-emission scenarios, and should be studied further to design appropriate adaptation strategies for the management of agricultural water to maintain the sustainable development of agriculture.
, , , Jane Bare, , Markus Berger, Anne-Marie Boulay, , , Manuele Margni, et al.
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Volume 24, pp 960-974; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-018-1543-8

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 18 January 2019
Frontiers in Plant Science, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01893

Abstract:
Plants have unique advantages over other systems such as mammalian cells for the production of valuable small molecules and proteins. The benefits cited most often include safety due to the absence of replicating human pathogens, simplicity because sterility is not required during production, scalability due to the potential for open-field cultivation with transgenic plants, and the speed of transient expression potentially providing gram quantities of product in less than 4 weeks. Initially there were also significant drawbacks, such as the need to clarify feed streams with a high particle burden and the large quantities of host cell proteins, but efficient clarification is now readily achieved. Several additional advantages have also emerged reflecting the fact that plants are essentially biodegradable, single-use bioreactors. This article will focus on the exploitation of this concept for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins, thus improving overall process economics. Specifically, we will discuss the single-use properties of plants, the sustainability of the production platform, and the commercial potential of different biomass side streams. We find that incorporating these side streams through rational process integration has the potential to more than double the revenue that can currently be achieved using plant-based production systems.
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Volume 24, pp 856-865; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-018-1539-4

Abstract:
Regionalized life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) has rapidly developed in the past decade, though its widespread application, robustness, and validity still face multiple challenges. Under the umbrella of UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, a dedicated cross-cutting working group on regionalized LCIA aims to provide an overview of the status of regionalization in LCIA methods. We give guidance and recommendations to harmonize and support regionalization in LCIA for developers of LCIA methods, LCI databases, and LCA software.
, , , Natalia Brzezina, Gnel Gabrielyan, Jessica Libertini, Adam Loch, Resham Thapa-Parajuli, Joost Vervoort, Henk Westhoek
Published: 17 October 2018
Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Volume 43, pp 545-570; https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-102017-030109

Abstract:
In an increasingly globalized and interconnected world, where social and environmental change occur ever more rapidly, careful futures-oriented thinking becomes crucial for effective decision making. Foresight activities, including scenario development, quantitative modeling, and scenario-guided design of policies and programs, play a key role in exploring options to address socioeconomic and environmental challenges across many sectors and decision-making levels. We take stock of recent methodological developments in scenario and foresight exercises, seek to provide greater clarity on the many diverse approaches employed, and examine their use by decision makers in different fields and at different geographic, administrative, and temporal scales. Experience shows the importance of clearly formulated questions, structured dialog, carefully designed scenarios, sophisticated biophysical and socioeconomic analysis, and iteration as needed to more effectively link the growing scenarios and foresight community with today's decision makers and to better address the social, economic, and environmental challenges of tomorrow.
Published: 24 September 2018
Environmental Research Letters, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aadeef

Abstract:
Water is a major factor limiting crop production in many regions around the world. Irrigation can greatly enhance crop yields, but the local availability and timing of freshwater resources constrains the ability of humanity to increase food production. Innovations in irrigation infrastructure have allowed humanity to utilize previously inaccessible water resources, enhancing water withdrawals for agriculture while increasing pressure on environmental flows and other human uses. While substantial additional water will be required to support future food production, it is not clear whether and where freshwater availability is sufficient to sustainably close the yield gap in cultivated lands. The extent to which irrigation can be expanded within presently rainfed cropland without depleting environmental flows remains poorly understood. Here we perform a spatially explicit biophysical assessment of global consumptive water use for crop production under current and maximum attainable yield scenarios assuming current cropping practices. We then compare these present and anticipated water consumptions to local water availability to examine potential changes in water scarcity. We find that global water consumption for irrigation could sustainably increase by 48% (408 km3 H2O yr−1)—expanding irrigation to 26% of currently rainfed cultivated lands (2.67 × 106 km2) and producing 37% (3.38 × 1015 kcal yr−1) more calories, enough to feed an additional 2.8 billion people. If current unsustainable blue water consumption (336 km3 yr−1) and production (1.19 × 1015 kcal yr−1) practices were eliminated, a sustainable irrigation expansion and intensification would still enable a 24% increase in calorie (2.19 × 1015 kcal yr−1) production. Collectively, these results show that the sustainable expansion and intensification of irrigation in selected croplands could contribute substantially to achieving food security and environmental goals in tandem in the coming decades.
, , C. Tindimugaya, , P. Johnson, A. Kaponda, M. Owor, H. Sanga, H. C. Bonsor, W. G. Darling, et al.
Published: 1 September 2018
Hydrogeology Journal, Volume 27, pp 459-474; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10040-018-1836-9

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 8 June 2018
by MDPI
Journal: Remote Sensing
Remote Sensing, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs10060904

Abstract:
Increased groundwater abstraction is important to the economic development of Africa and to achieving many of the Sustainable Development Goals. However, there is little information on long-term or seasonal groundwater trends due to a lack of in situ monitoring. Here, we used GRACE data from three products (the Centre for Space Research land solution (CSR), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory’s Global Mascon solution (JPL-MSCN), and the Centre National D’etudes Spatiales / Groupe de Recherches de Géodésie Spatiale solution (GRGS)), to examine terrestrial water storage (TWS) changes in 12 African sedimentary aquifers, to examine relationships between TWS and rainfall , and estimate groundwater storage (GWS) changes using four Land Surface Models (LSMs) (Community Land Model (CLM2.0), the Variable Infiltration Capacity model (VIC), the Mosaic model (MOSAIC) and the Noah model (NOAH)). We find that there are no substantial continuous long-term decreasing trends in groundwater storage from 2002 to 2016 in any of the African basins, however, consistent rising groundwater trends amounting to ~1 km3/year and 1.5 km3/year are identified in the Iullemmeden and Senegal basins, respectively, and longer term variations in ΔTWS in several basins associated with rainfall patterns. Discrete seasonal ΔTWS responses of ±1–5 cm/year are indicated by GRACE for each of the basins, with the exception of the Congo, North Kalahari, and Senegal basins, which display larger seasonal ΔTWS equivalent to approx. ±11–20 cm/year. The different seasonal responses in ΔTWS provide useful information about groundwater, including the identification of 5 to 9 month accumulation periods of rainfall in many semi-arid and arid basins as well as differences in ΔTWS responses between Sahelian and southern African aquifers to similar rainfall, likely reflecting differences in landcover. Seasonal ΔGWS estimated by combining GRACE ΔTWS with LSM outputs compare inconsistently to available in situ measurements of groundwater recharge from different basins, highlighting the need to further develop the representation of the recharge process in LSMs and the need for more in situ observations from piezometry.
, , Mohamed Abdel Motaleb, Giorgio Annen, Khaoula Belguith, , Redouane Choukr-Allah, Catherine Gibert, Atef Jaouani, , et al.
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management, Volume 14, pp 447-462; https://doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4045

Abstract:
Mediterranean-African countries (MACs) face a major water crisis. The annual renewable water resources are close to the 500 m /capita threshold of absolute water scarcity, and water withdrawals exceed total renewable water resources by 30%. Such a low water availability curbs economic development in agriculture, which accounts for 86% of freshwater consumption. The analysis of the current situation of wastewater treatment, irrigation, and water management in MACs and of the research projects targeted to these countries indicates the need for 1) an enhanced capacity to analyze water stress, 2) the development of water management strategies capable of including wastewater reuse, and 3) development of locally adapted water treatment and irrigation technologies. This analysis shaped the MADFORWATER project (www.madforwater.eu), whose goal is to develop a set of integrated technological and management solutions to enhance wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse for irrigation, and water efficiency in agriculture in Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia. MADFORWATER develops and adapts technologies for the production of irrigation-quality water from drainage canals and municipal, agro-industrial, and industrial wastewaters and technologies for water efficiency and reuse in agriculture, initially validated at laboratory scale, to 3 hydrological basins in the selected MACs. Selected technologies will be further adapted and validated in 4 demonstration plants of integrated wastewater treatment and reuse. Integrated strategies for wastewater treatment and reuse targeted to the selected basins are developed, and guidelines for the development of integrated water management strategies in other basins of the 3 target MACs will be produced. The social and technical suitability of the developed technologies and nontechnological tools in relation to the local context is evaluated with the participation of MAC stakeholders and partners. Guidelines on economic instruments and policies for the effective implementation of the proposed water management solutions in the target MACs will be developed. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;00:000-000. © 2018 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).
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