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Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Ítalo Nascimento Freitas, Nabisab Mujawar Mubarak, Mostafizur Rahman, Fernando Postalli Rodrigues, Aline Sueli De Lima Rodrigues, Damià Barceló, Abu Reza Md. Towfiqul Islam, Guilherme Malafaia
Published: 1 January 2023
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 442; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2022.130004

, Mohammad Kamalabadi Farahani, Majid Salehi, Amir Atashi, Morteza Alizadeh, Rasoul Kheradmandi, Sahar Molzemi
ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, Volume 9, pp 106-138; https://doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.2c01216

Andreya Gonçalves Costa Motta, Vinicius Guerra, Diogo Ferreira Do Amaral, Amanda Pereira Da Costa Araújo, Lucélia Gonçalves Vieira, Daniela De Melo E Silva,
Published: 23 September 2022
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 30, pp 13755-13772; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-23018-4

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology, Volume 37; https://doi.org/10.5620/eaht.2022025

Abstract:
The cytotoxic effects of metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) might be revealed in genomic and histopathological defects. Therefore current study aimed to assess the bio-persistence and adverse effects potency of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) in the gastropod, Monacha cartusiana. Gastropods were exposed to 74 μg/mL for 14 d then the DNA adduct and histopathological defect profiles were assessed. The results demonstrated significant decline in the estimated genomic template stability (GTS%) in haemolymph and digestive gland ranging from 10.0 to 42.9% in treated animals compared to controls. In the treated and recovered snails, randomly amplified polymorphic (RAPD)-DNA showed the appearance and/or disappearance of DNA bands, indicating DNA damage due to the cytotoxicity of ZnONPs on gastropods. Significant defects in microvilli (MV), nucleus (N), mitochondria (M), and execratory glands (EXG) were noticed in the treated individuals with respect to controls. The remaining live animals were subjected to a recovery period (14 d, without treatment) and slight recovery profiles were reported for both measures compared to the control group. The recovery pattern was recognized in the nucleus/cytoplasm ratio with 0.186 and 0.428 in the treated and recovered groups concerning their control (0.176). The studied parameters reported herein might be reliable tools to assess accumulation and bio-persistence patterns of NPs in the organisms for short-term exposure indicating the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects. Also, gastropods may provide simple models for evaluating the ecotoxicological effects of nanomaterials.
Thiarlen Marinho da Luz, Amanda Pereira Da Costa Araújo, Fernanda Neves Estrêla Rezende, Abner Marcelino Silva, Ives Charlie-Silva, Helyson Lucas Bezerra Braz, Paulo R.S. Sanches, Mostafizur Rahman, Damià Barceló, Guilherme Malafaia
Published: 1 May 2022
Journal: Neurotoxicology
Neurotoxicology, Volume 90, pp 184-196; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2022.03.012

Published: 21 January 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Toxics
Abstract:
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) are often used in the food sector, among others, because of their advantageous properties. As part of the human food chain, they are inevitably taken up orally. The debate on the toxicity of orally ingested ZnO NP continues due to incomplete data. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the effects of two differently sized ZnO NP (<50 nm and <100 nm primary particle size; 123–614 µmol/L) on two model systems of the intestinal barrier. Differentiated Caco-2 enterocytes were grown on Transwell inserts in monoculture and also in coculture with the mucus-producing goblet cell line HT29-MTX. Although no comprehensive mucus layer was detectable in the coculture, cellular zinc uptake was clearly lower after a 24-h treatment with ZnO NP than in monocultured cells. ZnO NP showed no influence on the permeability, metabolic activity, cytoskeleton and cell nuclei. The transepithelial electrical resistance was significantly increased in the coculture model after treatment with ≥307 µmol/L ZnO NP. Only small zinc amounts (0.07–0.65 µg/mL) reached the basolateral area. Our results reveal that the cells of an intact intestinal barrier interact with ZnO NP but do not suffer serious damage.
Mohsen Jeyhoonabadi, Samad Alimoahmmadi, , Mohammad Hashemnia
Published: 6 January 2022
Biological Trace Element Research pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-03068-4

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Maryam Farokhcheh, , Zeinab Akbarnejad, Fereshteh Pourabdolhossein, Seyed Mohammad Hosseini, Tahereh Mohammad Mehraei,
Published: 1 October 2021
Journal: Life Sciences
Life Sciences, Volume 282; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119823

Abstract:
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) are currently applied in food and pharmaceutical industries whose neurotoxic effect on the central nervous system (CNS) is a major concern. Considering the pharmacological properties (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory) of the geraniol (GE), we aimed to investigate the efficacy of geraniol on ZnO-NPs neurotoxicity. We used 32 male Wistar rats, randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8): Control, GE (daily received 100 mg/kg of GE by gavage), ZnO-NPs (received intraperitoneal injection of 75 mg/kg of ZnO-NPs twice a week), and ZnO-NPs + GE (received both GE and ZnO-NPs at same doses above during 4 weeks). Morris water maze (MWM) and Y-maze tasks were done to evaluate learning and memory function. Biochemical assays were done to measure total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and ZnO-NPs bioaccumulation. Nissl and H&E staining were performed for histological evaluations. The results of behavioral study revealed that GE improved learning and memory impairment induced by ZnO-NPs. Moreover, neuroprotective effect of GE significantly decreased pathological parameters such as necrosis and gliosis, and consequently increased the number of nerve cells in the cortex and different hippocampal areas. Furthermore, biochemical studies demonstrated that GE significantly increased antioxidant indices (namely, TAC, SOD, and GPX) and reduced oxidative stress marker (MDA) and Zn bioaccumulation in ZnO-NPs treated animals. Our results provide experimental evidence to further investigate the precise mechanisms underlying the geraniol as a promising therapeutic approach for improvement of cognitive function and neurotoxicity induce by ZnO-NPs.
Published: 27 April 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Toxics
Abstract:
Due to their beneficial properties, the use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) is constantly increasing, especially in consumer-related areas, such as food packaging and food additives, which is leading to an increased oral uptake of ZnO NP. Consequently, the aim of our study was to investigate the cellular uptake of two differently sized ZnO NP (<50 nm and <100 nm; 12–1229 µmol/L) using two human intestinal cell lines (Caco-2 and LT97) and to examine the possible resulting toxic effects. ZnO NP (<50 nm and <100 nm) were internalized by both cell lines and led to intracellular changes. Both ZnO NP caused time- and dose-dependent cytotoxic effects, especially at concentrations of 614 µmol/L and 1229 µmol/L, which was associated with an increased rate of apoptotic and dead cells. ZnO NP < 100 nm altered the cell cycle of LT97 cells but not that of Caco-2 cells. ZnO NP < 50 nm led to the formation of micronuclei in LT97 cells. The Ames test revealed no mutagenicity for both ZnO NP. Our results indicate the potential toxicity of ZnO NP after oral exposure, which should be considered before application.
Abbas Mohammadipour,
Published: 22 March 2021
Reviews on Environmental Health, Volume 37, pp 35-44; https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2021-0006

Abstract:
Metal base nanoparticles are widely produced all over the world and used in many fields and products such as medicine, electronics, cosmetics, paints, ceramics, toys, kitchen utensils and toothpastes. They are able to enter the body through digestive, respiratory, and alimentary systems. These nanoparticles can also cross the blood brain barrier, enter the brain and aggregate in the hippocampus. After entering the hippocampus, they induce oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and gene expression alteration in hippocampal cells, which finally lead to neuronal apoptosis. Metal base nanoparticles can also affect hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity that both of them play crucial role in memory and learning. On the one hand, hippocampal cells are severely vulnerable due to their high metabolic activity, and on the other hand, metal base nanoparticles have high potential to damage hippocampus through variety of mechanisms and affect its functions. This review discusses, in detail, nanoparticles’ detrimental effects on the hippocampus in cellular, molecular and functional levels to reveal that according to the present information, which types of nanoparticles have more potential to induce hippocampal toxicity and psychiatric disorders and which types should be more evaluated in the future studies.
Ce Lynn Chong, Chee Mun Fang, , , , ,
Published: 26 February 2021
Journal: Bionanoscience
Bionanoscience, Volume 11, pp 590-620; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12668-021-00845-2

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Fernanda Neves Estrela, Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Amanda Pereira Da Costa Araújo, Fabiano Guimarães Silva, Thiarlen Marinho da Luz, Abner Marcelino Silva, ,
Published: 30 December 2020
Journal: Chemosphere
Abstract:
The toxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO NPs) and polystyrene nanoplastics (PS NaPs) has been tested in different animal models; however, knowledge about their impact on mice remains incipient. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of these nanomaterials on Swiss mice after their individual exposure to a binary combination of them. The goal was to investigate whether short exposure (three days) to an environmentally relevant dose (14.6 ng/kg, i.p.) of these pollutants would have neurotoxic, biochemical and genotoxic effects on the modelss. Data in the current study have shown that the individual exposure of these animals has led to cognitive impairment based on the object recognition test, although the exposure experiment did not cause locomotor and anxiogenic or anxiolitic-like behavioral changes in them. This outcome was associated with increased nitric oxide levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, reduction in acetylcholinesterase activity and with the accumulation of nanomaterials in their brains. Results recorded for the assessed parameters did not differ between the control group and the groups exposed to the binary combination of pollutants. However, both the individual and the combined exposures caused erythrocyte DNA damages associated with hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglyceridemic conditions due to the presence of nanomaterials. Based on the results, the toxicological potential of ZnO NPs and PS NaPs in the models was confirmed and it encouraged further in-depth investigations about factors explaining the lack of additive or synergistic effect caused by the combined exposure to the assessed pollutants.
Maryam Saber, Reyhaneh-Sadat Hayaei-Tehrani, Saadat Mokhtari, Parisa Hoorzad,
Published: 21 October 2020
Toxicology in Vitro, Volume 70; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2020.105032

Abstract:
Recently, metal oxide nanoparticles such as zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have received considerable attention and humans are exposed to them in everyday life. The increasing use of ZnO-NPs may lead to human health issues. However, little is known about their effects on female reproductive systems, particularly on female germ cells. Germ cells differentiation is a complex biological process that is sensitive to environmental insults and any negative effect on germ cells development may inhibit fertility. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the impact of ZnO-NPs on mouse ovarian germ cells in an in vitro system. The effects of ZnO-NPs on these cells were evaluated using light microscopy, cell proliferation assessment, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level determination, standard cytotoxicity assessment (cell viability assessed by PI staining) and gene expression analysis. Our results demonstrated that ZnO-NPs have cytotoxic effects in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in mouse ovarian germ cells. Exposure of cells to ZnO-NPs concentration-dependently enhanced ROS generation. Furthermore, molecular analysis of ZnO-NPs-treated cells showed a significant increase in expression of premeiotic germ cells markers but a decrease in meiotic and post-meiotic markers compared to un-treated cells. Taken together, our data provides a preliminary insight into possible adverse effects of ZnO-NPs on mouse ovarian germ cells differentiation even at low concentrations.
Fernanda Neves Estrela, Abraão Tiago Batista Guimarães, Fabiano Guimarães Silva, Thiarlen Marinho da Luz, Abner Marcelino Silva, ,
Published: 7 September 2020
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 403; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123879

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Andreya Gonçalves Costa Motta, Diogo Ferreira Do Amaral, Marcelino Benvindo-Souza, Thiago Lopes Rocha,
Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enmm.2020.100356

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
William K. Boyes,
Chemical Research in Toxicology, Volume 33, pp 1121-1144; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.0c00050

Abstract:
The remarkable advances coming about through nanotechnology promise to revolutionize many aspects of modern life, however, these advances come with a responsibility for due diligence to assure that they are not accompanied by adverse consequences for human health or the environment. Many novel nanomaterials (having at least one dimension < 100 nm) could be highly mobile if released into the environment and are also very reactive, which has raised concerns for potential adverse impacts including, among others, the potential for neurotoxicity. Several lines of evidence led to concerns for neurotoxicity, but perhaps none more than observations that inhaled nanoparticles impinging on the mucosal surface of the nasal epithelium could be internalized into olfactory receptor neurons and transported by axoplasmic transport into the olfactory bulbs without crossing the blood brain barrier. From the olfactory bulb there is concern that nanomaterials may be transported deeper into the brain and affect other brain structures. Of course, people will not be exposed to only engineered nanomaterials, but rather such exposures will occur in a complex mixture of environmental materials, some of which are incidentally generated particles of a similar inhalable size range to engineered nanomaterials. To date, most experimental studies of potential neurotoxicity of nanomaterials have not considered the potential exposure sources and pathways that could lead to exposure, and most studies of nanomaterial exposure have not considered potential neurotoxicity. Here, we present a review of potential sources of exposures to nanoparticles, along with a review of the literature on potential neurotoxicity of nanomaterials. We employ the linked concepts of an Aggregate Exposure Pathway (AEP) and an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) in order to organize and present the material. The AEP includes a sequence of Key Events progressing from material sources, release to environmental media, external exposure, internal exposure, and distribution to the target site. The AOP begins with toxicant at the target site causing a Molecular Initiating Event and, like the AEP, progress sequentially to actions at the level of the cell, organ, individual and population. Reports of nanomaterial actions are described at every key event along the AEP and AOP, except for changes in exposed populations that have not yet been observed. At this last stage, however, there is ample evidence of population level effects from exposure to ambient air particles which may act similarly to engineered nanomaterials. The data give an overall impression that current exposure levels may be considerably lower than those reported experimentally to be neurotoxic. This impression, however, is tempered by the absence of long-term exposure studies with realistic routes and levels of exposure to address concerns for chronic accumulation of materials and/or damage. Further, missing across the board are “Key Event Relationships”, which are quantitative expressions linking the Key Events of either the AEP or the AOP, making it impossible to project quantitatively the likelihood of adverse neurotoxic effects from exposure to nanomaterials, or to estimate margins of exposure for such relationships.
S. Keerthana,
Published: 2 January 2020
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Volume 50, pp 47-71; https://doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2020.1726282

Abstract:
Zinc oxide nanoparticles are well-known metal oxide nanoparticles having numbers of applications in the field of cosmetology, medicine, and chemistry. However, the number of reports has indicated its toxicity also such as hepatotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, neurotoxicity, and immunotoxicity. Thus, in this article, we have analyzed the potential risks and benefits of zinc oxide nanoparticles. The data related to risks and benefits of zinc oxide nanoparticles have been extracted from PubMed (from January 2007 to August 2019). A total of 3,892 studies have been published during this period regarding zinc oxide nanoparticles. On the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 277 studies have been included for the analysis of risks and benefits. Emerging reports have indicated both risks and benefits of zinc oxide nanoparticles in concentration- and time-dependent manner under in vitro and in vivo conditions through different mechanism of action. In conclusion, zinc oxide nanoparticles could play a beneficial role in the treatment of various diseases but safety of these particles at particular effective concentration should be thoroughly evaluated.
Thiarlen Marinho da Luz, Ítalo Nascimento Freitas, Fabiano Guimarães Silva, Amanda Pereira Da Costa Araújo, Thiago Fernandes, Fernando Postalli Rodrigues, Admilton Gonçalves De Oliveira Junior,
Published: 14 November 2019
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 703; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135486

Abstract:
The toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) has been addressed in several studies; however, their effect on the mammalian group, even at environmentally relevant concentrations, remains poorly understood. The aims of the present study are to expose female Swiss mice to ZnO NP concentrations commonly faced by mammals who enter aquatic systems to perform different ecological functions and to assess the possible effects of such particles on their behavior. The test animals were placed in water added with ZnO NPs for 3 min, 2 times/day, for 21 days. Two experimental groups were set, NP1x, composed of animals subjected to ZnO NP concentration of 760 μg/L; and NP50x (control), which encompassed animals subjected to 38,000 μg/L. Based on field test results (OF), the contact with NPs did not induce locomotor deficits or anxiogenic and anxiolytic effect on the animal models. However, models exposed to NPs were not able to recognize the predatory threat posed by the presence of Pantherophis guttatus and Arapaima gigas; on the other hand, animals in the control group, who were not exposed to ZnO NPs, did not present antipredator behavioral response deficit. Furthermore, mice exposed to NPs were unable to distinguish real predators from plastic copies, and it suggests antipredator behavioral response deficit. High Zn concentrations in blood, liver, brain and skin samples are associated with deficit caused by the exposure to ZnO NPs. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is in the first to evidence that ZnO NPs induce changes in antipredator behavioral responses, even under ephemeral conditions and at low concentrations. However, the exposure to ZnO NPs can be a risk to the health of the assessed individuals and to the dynamics of their populations if the present antipredator behavioral response test results are extrapolated to the ecological context.
Published: 6 November 2019
Nanotechnology Reviews, Volume 8, pp 175-200; https://doi.org/10.1515/ntrev-2019-0017

Abstract:
Metallic nanoparticles due to their small size and unique physico-chemical characteristics have found excellent applications in various branches of industry and medicine. Therefore, for many years a growing interest has been observed among the scientific community in the improvement of our understanding of the impact of nanoparticles on the living organisms, especially on humans. Considering the delicate structure of the central nervous systemit is one of the organs most vulnerable to the adverse effects of metallic nanoparticles. For that reason, it is important to identify the modes of exposure and understand the mechanisms of the effect of nanoparticles on neuronal tissue. In this review, an attempt is undertaken to present current knowledge about metallic nanoparticles neurotoxicity based on the selected scientific publications. The route of entry of nanoparticles is described, as well as their distribution, penetration through the cell membrane and the blood-brain barrier. In addition, a study on the neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo is presented, as well as some of the mechanisms that may be responsible for the negative effects of metallic nanoparticles on the central nervous system. Graphical abstract: This review summarizes the current knowledge on the toxicity of metallic NPs in the brain and central nervous system of the higher vertebrates.
Amanda Pereira Da Costa Araújo, Vinícius Silva Lima, Julya Emmanuela De Andrade Vieira, Carlos Mesak,
Published: 1 November 2019
Journal: Chemosphere
Chemosphere, Volume 235, pp 556-564; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.06.164

Abstract:
Understanding how human activities affect animal biodiversity is essential to investigations about the biological effects of several pollutants and contaminants dispersed in the environment. This is the case of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), which are emerging pollutants whose effect on reptiles' health is completely unknown. Thus, the objective of the present study is to evaluate the possible damages induced by these NPs in Podocnemis expansa juveniles (Amazon turtle) by using morphological changes of circulating erythrocytes as nuclear toxicity biomarker. The animals were exposed to the intramuscular administration of 440 μg/kg and 440,000 μg/kg of ZnO NPs, for 10 consecutive days. The micronuclei assay and other nuclear abnormalities were performed at the end of the experiment, as well as different morphometric measurements applied to the erythrocytes. Based on the current data, ZnO NPs induced nuclear abnormalities such as micronuclei and binucleation, which are associated with carcinogenic processes and with flaws in the mitotic machinery. The low "nuclear area: erythrocyte area" ratio and larger cytoplasmic area observed for animals exposed to NPs evidenced erythrocytic change induction likely related to negative energy balance/metabolism interferences and/or to oxygen transportation efficiency by erythrocytes. This is the first report on the mutagenic and cytotoxic effect induced by NPs on representatives of a group of reptiles. This outcome suggests that further investigations must focus on better understanding the (eco)toxicological potential of ZnO NPs.
Raphael Pires de Campos, Thales Quintão Chagas, Tenilce Gabriela Da Silva Alvarez, Carlos Mesak, Julya Emmanuela De Andrade Vieira, Caroliny Fátima Chaves Paixão, , ,
Published: 17 May 2019
Science of the Total Environment, Volume 682, pp 561-571; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.183

Abstract:
The toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) has been investigated in different animal models. However, concentrations tested in most studies are often much higher than the ones potentially identified in the environment. Therefore, such toxicity limits the application of these studies to evaluate ecotoxicological risks posed by these nanopollutants. Thus, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the impacts of ZnO NPs (at environmentally relevant concentrations - 760 μg/L and 76,000 μg/L, for 72 h) on the behavioral responses of Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) exposed to it. Results did not evidence harmful effects of NPs on animals' locomotor abilities (evaluated through open-field and light-dark transition tests), or anxiety-predictive behavior. On the other hand, Zn bioaccumulation in the body tissues of the analyzed tilapias was correlated to changes in eating behavior (motivated by ration pellets), as well as to deficits in antipredatory defensive behavior (under individual and collective conditions). Tilapia exposed to ZnO NPs recorded lower avoidance, flight and territorialist behavior rates when they were individually confronted with potential predators (Salminus brasiliensis). However, collectively exposed animals were unable to recognize their predators, as well as to differentiate them from artificial baits (“false predators”). The present study is the first to report biological impacts resulting from the short exposure of fish-group representatives to ZnO NPs. Thus, we believe that it may be relevant to improve the knowledge about ecotoxicological risks posed by these pollutants.
Julya Emmanuela De Andrade Vieira, Raíssa De Oliveira Ferreira, Douglas Marcel Dos Reis Sampaio, Amanda Pereira Da Costa Araújo,
Published: 16 May 2019
Journal: Chemosphere
Chemosphere, Volume 231, pp 10-19; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.111

Abstract:
Although the toxicity of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) is known in several experimental models, little is known about their effects on bird representatives. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the mutagenic and cytotoxic potential of ZnO NPs in chicks belonging to species Gallus gallus domesticus, as well as to analyze the role played by nuclear and erythrocyte morphological changes as biomarkers of the toxicity of these nanopollutants. Two doses of ZnO NPs (0.245 mg k−1 and 245.26 mg kg−1) were herein tested; they were determined based on the predictive environmental concentration of these NPs (760 μg L-1), on the body biomass of the analyzed animals and on the mean daily water intake/bird. Birds were subjected to two intraperitoneal applications (one per day) of solution containing ZnO NPs; they were euthanized 48 h after the first application. The herein collected data have shown that NPs were capable of inducing the formation of different types of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities, such as micronucleus, binucleate erythrocytes, blebbed, reniform and multilobulated nuclei, as well as symmetric and asymmetric constriction. In addition, changes in the size and shape of erythrocytes were observed in birds exposed to ZnO NPs. Zn bioaccumulation analysis conducted in brain tissues confirmed the association between these changes and animal exposure to ZnO NPs. Thus, besides confirming the toxicological potential of ZnO NPs, to the best of our knowledge, the current study is the first report on the mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of these NPs on bird representatives.
Published: 27 October 2018
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 25, pp 36355-36367; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3527-4

Abstract:
Although the toxic effects of tannery effluent (TE) on tanning-industry workers have been reported in many studies, its effects on females’ reproductive system are unknown. We aimed at evaluating the effects of direct contact with TE on the “emotional” status, estrous cycle (during 15 consecutive exposure days), and ovarian follicular dynamics of female Swiss mice at the end of the experiment to broaden the knowledge about the toxicity of this pollutant. The herein adopted exposure protocol simulated tanning-industry workers’ exposure to TE. The test animals were subjected to 45 exposure days, for 1 h a day, 5 days a week (from Monday to Friday). Based on the collected data, female mice exposed to TE recorded high anxiety index in the elevated plus maze test, although we did not observe changes in their estrous cycle. The smaller total and specific number of ovarian follicles (types 1 to 6) and the higher frequency of degenerating follicles (atresic) in female mice exposed to TE marked the folliculogenesis reduction in them. Therefore, our study was the first to provide evidences that the exposure to TE can cause reproduction issues in female mice, as well as the first experimental insight about the impact of unhealthy work activities in tanning industries on women’s reproductive system.
Carlos Mesak, Douglas Marcel Dos Reis Sampaio, Raíssa De Oliveira Ferreira, Bruna De Oliveira Mendes, Aline Sueli De Lima Rodrigues,
Published: 9 August 2018
Environmental Pollution, Volume 242, pp 1274-1282; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.08.004

Abstract:
The toxicity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) has been the subject of several investigations; however, concentrations much higher than the ones potentially found in the environment are often tested. In addition, groups of animals such as birds have not been used as model in studies in this field, fact that creates an important ecotoxicological gap in them. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of the exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles on the anti-predatory behavior of chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus). The test animals were daily exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration of ZnO nanoparticles (0.245 mg kg−1) and to a toxic concentration of it (245.26 mg kg−1) through intraperitoneal injection for two days. We set a control group for comparison purposes. According to our results, ZnO nanoparticles did not affect the locomotor activity of, and did not cause anxiolytic or anxiogenic effect on, birds in the open field test. However, based on the lowest cluster score recorded during the social aggregation test, chicks exposed to ZnO nanoparticles failed to recognize the grunt of a hawk (Rupornis magnirostris) as predatory threat. Only birds in the control group recognized the test snake (Pantherophis guttatus) as potential predator. The higher Zn concentration in the brains of animals exposed to ZnO nanoparticles evidenced the capacity of these nanomaterials to cross the blood–brain barrier, even at low concentrations. This blood-brain barrier crossing could have affected the structures or neuronal mechanisms that modulate the defensive response of birds. Assumingly, even the minimal exposure to low concentrations of ZnO nanoparticles can affect birds. Our outcomes corroborate previous studies about the biological risks of water surface contamination by metal-based nanomaterials.
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