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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.jep.2017.09.026)
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Jin Shu, Xu Cui, Xin Liu, Wenxing Yu, Weisong Zhang, Xiaojing Huo,
International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1177/03946320221135462

Abstract:
Licochalcone (LicA) is a flavonoid commonly derived from the licorice plant that is reported to have a variety of pharmacological activities. However, few studies have focused on its anti-allergic properties. IgE-mediated passive and systemic anaphylaxis mice models were used to assess the in vivo anti-allergic effect of LicA and its underlying mechanism, while degranulation, cytokines, and chemokines released from laboratory of allergic disease (LAD2) cells were used to assess its in vitro anti-allergic effect. We used western blot analysis to explore the downstream signaling pathway of its anti-allergic effect. We found that in the mouse model, LicA attenuated IgE-mediated paw inflammation, recovered the allergy-induced drop in body temperature, and reduced the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 in mouse serum in a dose-dependent manner. LicA inhibited the allergic reaction via inhibition of IgE-mediated LAD2 cell activation through the PLC/ERK/STAT3 pathway.
Published: 10 November 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Plants
Abstract:
Syzygium formosum (Wall.) Masam leaf is known as a Vietnamese traditional herbal medicine used to treat atopic dermatitis and stomach ulcers. Recently, its potent anti-allergic effects were reported with possible active compounds analysis. Here, we collected S. formosum leaves from 12 wild trees and compared compositions of triterpenic acids (TA) with Centella asiatica. Anti-inflammatory activities of S. formosum leaf extract (SFLE) was compared with C. asiatica extract (CAE) using human keratinocyte, HaCaT. In this study, up to seven TAs were identified in SFLE, while only madecassic and asiatic acids were detected in the CAE. Total TA content varied among SFLE, but asiatic, corosolic, and betulinic acids were the major components. Surprisingly, wild tree sample 12 (S12) contained total TA of 27.2 mg/g dry-leaves that was 5-fold greater than that in the C. asiatica sample, and S4 had the highest content of asiatic acid (12.6 mg/g dry-leaves) that accounted for 50% of the total TA. S4 and S12 showed more than 3-fold higher anti-oxidative power than the CAE. In the UVB irradiation model, S4 and S12 (5 μg/mL) strongly repressed mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8) and COX-2, while the CAE at the same condition showed moderate or weak repression. The difference in anti-inflammation effects between the SFLE and the CAE was also confirmed by protein quantifications. Taken together, SFLE has great potentials as a new cosmeceutical ingredient with a higher amount of skin-active phytochemicals.
Published: 9 November 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Applied Sciences
Applied Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210552

Abstract:
Syzygium formosum (SF) leaves have long been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin-related diseases such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. To understand the underpinning pharmacological mechanism of skin relief functionality, the quantitative profile of phytochemicals in the leaf extract has been performed. Twenty phytochemical components including eight flavonoids, three phenolic acids, and nine triterpenoids were identified and quantitatively analyzed from the SF leaves. The dominant flavonoids of the SF leaves were found to be catechin and myricetin-3-O-rhamnoside. Gallic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid. Among triterpenoids, asiatic acid, corosolic acid, and betulinic acid exhibited a high concentration ranging 2.78–8.59, 3.19–3.91, and 3.58–6.14 mg/g dry leaf, respectively. The total triterpenoid contents were 14.18–19.00 mg/g dry leaf which were 3-fold higher than those in the Indonesian Centella asiatica leaves. In human keratinocytes assay, industrial scale extract of SF significantly reduced expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and cyclooxygenase-2. Furthermore, that SF extract exhibited very strong antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Cutibacterium acnes that possibly induce serious skin problems. Our results proved that S. formosum leaf extract with high content of biologically active compounds could be a superior bioactive ingredient in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.
Published: 26 September 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Antioxidants
Antioxidants, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10101524

Abstract:
More than 500 million people suffer from allergic rhinitis (AR) in the world. Current treatments include oral antihistamines and intranasal corticosteroids; however, they often cause side effects and are unsuitable for long-term exposure. Natural products could work as a feasible alternative, and this study aimed to review the efficacies and mechanisms of natural substances in AR therapies by examining previous literature. Fifty-seven studies were collected and classified into plants, fungi, and minerals decoction; clinical trials were organized separately. The majority of the natural products showed their efficacies by two mechanisms: anti-inflammation regulating diverse mediators and anti-oxidation controlling the activity of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) pathway stimulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The main AR factors modified by natural products included interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2). Although further studies are required to verify their efficacies and safeties, natural products can significantly contribute to the treatment of AR.
Published: 20 September 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Applied Sciences
Applied Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11188758

Abstract:
Helicteres hirsuta Lour. is a traditional Vietnamese medicine for treating chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis and liver cancer. Many in vitro and in vivo experiments have demonstrated that the extracts and isolated compounds from H. hirsuta have diverse pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. However, the hepatoprotective effects have not been reported until now. Therefore, the methanolic and ethanolic extracts of the aerial part of the H. hirsuta L. (HHM and HHE-1/1) were examined on liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats for the first time. The results revealed that all the livers of the model group had stage F4 cirrhosis; the group that received silymarin, and HHM and HHE-1/1 had milder liver damage cirrhosis stage F1-F2 which implies that the methanolic and ethanolic extracts of H. hirsute have a definite advantage in the development of food or oral medications for hepatoprotective activity.
, Aya C. Taki, , Andreas L. Lopata,
Published: 22 May 2020
Frontiers in Immunology, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00996

Abstract:
Food allergy is rising at an alarming rate and is a major public health concern. Globally, food allergy affects over 500 million people, often starting in early childhood and increasingly reported in adults. Commercially, only one approved oral immunotherapy-based treatment is currently available and other allergen-based immunotherapeutic are being investigated in clinical studies. As an alternative approach, a substantial amount of research has been conducted on natural compounds and probiotics, focusing on the immune modes of action, and therapeutic uses of such sources to tackle various immune-related diseases. Food allergy is primarily mediated by IgE antibodies and the suppression of allergic symptoms seems to be mostly modulated through a reduction of allergen-specific IgE antibodies, upregulation of blocking IgG, and downregulation of effector cell activation (e.g., mast cells) or expression of T-helper 2 (Th-2) cytokines. A wide variety of investigations conducted in small animal models or cell-based systems have reported on the efficacy of natural bioactive compounds and probiotics as potential anti-allergic therapeutics. However, very few lead compounds, unlike anti-cancer and anti-microbial applications, have been selected for clinical trials in the treatment of food allergies. Natural products or probiotic-based approaches appear to reduce the symptoms and/or target specific pathways independent of the implicated food allergen. This broad range therapeutic approach essentially provides a major advantage as several different types of food allergens can be targeted with one approach and potentially associated with a lower cost of development. This review provides a brief overview of the immune mechanisms underlying food allergy and allergen-specific immunotherapy, followed by a comprehensive collection of current studies conducted to investigate the therapeutic applications of natural compounds and probiotics, including discussions of their mode of action and immunological aspects of their disease-modifying capabilities.
Thi Minh Nguyet Nguyen, Hong Son Le, , Young Ho Kim,
Published: 5 February 2020
International Immunopharmacology, Volume 81; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106244

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Thi Phuong Duyen Vu, Trong Quan Khong, Thi Minh Nguyet Nguyen, ,
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 168, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2019.02.014

Abstract:
Syzygium formosum (SF) leaves have been used for thousands of years in traditional Vietnamese medicine for the treatment of allergy or skin rash. However, the role of the phytochemical profile of SF leaves on their activities is poorly understood. Additionally, there is currently no quality control method for this herbal material, which is required by the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate chemical profile of SF leaves using high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS) and establish a simple and efficient HPLC method for controlling major bioactive compounds. The characterization of 28 components, including eleven flavonoids, thirteen triterpene acids, and four phenolic acids, was achieved on the basis of their maximum ultraviolet wavelength values and MS fragmentation pathways. An HPLC-evaporate light scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD) method over 35 min of analysis time for quality control of SF leaves was proposed. Using response surface methodology based on a Box-Behnken design and Derringer's desirability function, the optimal conditions for extracting the main bioactive compounds in SF leaves were determined. The content of marker compounds within SF leaves decreased in the order asiatic acid > corosolic acid > betulinic acid > maslinic acid. The developed HPLC-ELSD method is appropriate for quality control testing of SF leaves.
Thi Minh Nguyen Nguyet, , , Ji Sun Lee, Seol Kyu Park, , Young Ho Kim,
Published: 1 January 2018
International Immunopharmacology, Volume 54, pp 286-295; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2017.11.025

Abstract:
While an anti-allergic effect of Chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus) has been indicated, its therapeutic effect on allergy and immunoregulatory mechanisms and chemical constituents directly responsible for that are hardly known. We examined the effect of 70% ethanol extract of Chaga mushroom (EE) and its dichloromethane (DF) and aqueous (AF) fractions using a mouse model of chicken ovalbumin (cOVA)-induced food allergy, and found that only EE and DF ameliorated allergy symptoms to a significant extent. The in vivo mast cell-stabilizing activity was also found only in EE and DF whereas the activities to suppress Th2 and Th17 immune responses and cOVA-specific IgE production in the small intestine were observed in all three treatment regimens, implying that inhibition of the mast cell function by lipophilic compounds was vital for the therapeutic effect. Results also indicated that inotodiol, a triterpenoid predominantly present in DF, played an active role as a mast cell stabilizer.
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