(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.jep.2017.09.007)
Sustainability, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/su142013077
The local communities of Pakistan have vast traditional knowledge about local medicinal plants that is centuries old and transferred from generation to generation, but now, the survival of this precious ethnic knowledge is threatened. This study aimed to document the ethnomedicinal information residing within the communities of the Khadukhel Tehsil, Buner District, Pakistan. To conserve this valuable traditional knowledge, data were collected through a semi-structured questionnaire, one-on-one interviews, and group discussions. From 2018 to 2021, 853 people were interviewed regarding 317 plant species. Most of the ethnomedicinal data were obtained from members of the 60–69 age group. The most dominant plant family was Asteraceae (27 sp.). Leaves (124 sp.) were the most dominant plant part used in medicines, and paste (80 sp.) was the most common herbal formulation method. Most (88) medicinal plants were used to cure digestive system diseases. The collected medicinal plants and related indigenous medicinal knowledge were compared with previously published work on the surrounding areas. We suggest a phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of the collected medicinal plants for the discovery of new drugs.
Frontiers in Veterinary Science, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.944046
For millennia, ethnic knowledge has been intricately tied to local biodiversity and woven into the fabric of rural communities. Growing scientific evidence suggests that merging ethnic knowledge with new scientific findings can lead to socially acceptable and environmentally friendly approaches essential for the long-term prosperity of local communities. In the high-altitude region, where livestock raising is a key income source, and plant-based utilization for ethno-veterinary practices is widely practiced. In this context, this study was conducted with the aim of documenting the ethno-veterinary use of plant resources in different bio-geographical regions of Jammu and Kashmir's Himalayas (J & KH). Semi-structured interviews and group discussions were used to collect information. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Pearson correlation were conducted to analyze the data. We documented 148 species from 53 families that locals used for various purposes: medicine, fodder, tonic, antidote, magic, and also used to protect themselves from ectoparasite such as Pediculus humanus capitis by the local inhabitants. There were significant differences in the relative usage of plant resources across the three biogeographic regions. Comparatively, the highest number (41%) of plant species were used for ethnoveterinary in the Jammu region, while the lowest number (28%) of species were used in Kashmir. Across the regions, Kashmir and Jammu had the highest level of species similarity (17%), while Jammu and Ladakh had the lowest (1%). A cross-regional assessment of plant resources revealed that 18% of plants were shared among the regions. The reported use of Amaranthus blitum, Morus alba, Ficus palmata, Vitex negundo, Juniperus semiglobosa, Ulmus wallichiana, and Rumex nepalensis are novel for the ethno-veterinary uses of this part of the Himalayan region. The various dry unique traditional fodder preparations (gaaslov, gass khor, pan baath, kaandbaath, Lovgooad, Karb, and Phungma) from plant resources are reported for the first time from the Himalayan region and can be ascribed to the novelty of this study. Plant resources were not only a source of fodder and medicine but also presented themselves as an opportunity for livelihood generation. Therefore, our findings bridge the knowledge gap by documenting key ethnoveterinary applications of native plant species from the study region that are used to cure livestock diseases and disorders by the mountain inhabitants.
Frontiers in Veterinary Science, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.930533
Traditional herbal remedies are used worldwide for treating both human and livestock health issues. Though such uses are relatively well-explored for humans, the ethnoveterinary uses of plant-based remedies in the healthcare choices of livestock in Nepal and associated knowledge are largely ignored. This is important as sustainable livestock production is an emerging issue. This study reviews the existing ethnobotanical studies conducted in Nepal and reports the use of 393 species of plants from 114 botanical families in ethnoveterinary practices. Thirty-four different ailments were treated using these plants. The present review revealed that Nepal has a rich diversity of ethnoveterinary plants. This study shows that traditional herbal medicine plays a significant role in meeting the livestock healthcare needs of Nepali farmers and hence is a viable practice. The study also contributes a wealth of knowledge about ethnoveterinary practices for further planning and use. This will provide an option for livestock farmers who cannot afford allopathic medicine or who are not allowed to use such medicine under organic farming schemes that are likely to be a part of sustainable livestock farming programs in Nepal soon.
Frontiers in Pharmacology, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.861577
Livestock is the main backbone of the rural economy of an agriculture-based country like India. To mitigate the economic loss due to livestock’s poor performance and illness, folk phytotherapy for livestock healthcare is still actively practiced in India. Literature survey revealed that the laterite region of eastern India, characterized by its cultural, ethnic, and biological diversities, as well as topographical uniqueness, lacks comprehensive information on ethnoveterinary medicinal knowledge. The objective of the present study includes documentation of traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) from the northern laterite region in eastern India. Ethnoveterinary medicinal data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, free listing, and focus group discussions. The factor for informants’ consensus (Fic), fidelity level (FL), and cultural value (CV) index have been employed for quantitative analyses. Jaccard index (JI) was used to check the knowledge similarity. Altogether, 1,234 citations were made by 132 participants. In total, 232 recorded ethnomedicinal species are used for preparing 306 remedies to treat 79 health disorders of livestock. Recorded species are distributed in 92 families, and Fabaceae is identified as the most medicinally diversified. Uses of 24 angiospermic taxa, one pteridophyte, and two fungal species were exclusively new to the existing inventory of Indian traditional ethnoveterinary medicine. In 20 disease categories, the informant consensus (Fic) value ranges from 0.4 to 0.83. According to the FL value and use-mention factor, 23 EVM plants have been identified as the most important species in the respective disease categories. Value of CV index highlighted nine species as culturally most significant (CV ≥ 0.0025 and frequency of citation ≥20) in the laterite region of eastern India. A large extent of recorded data are quite worthy for the Indian folk veterinary medicinal repository. A handful of new data reported here and statistically justified culturally most significant species will provide the golden opportunity for bioprospecting research.
Frontiers in Veterinary Science, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.815294
Domestic animals play a vital role in the development of human civilization. Plants are utilized as remedies for a variety of domestic animals, in addition to humans. The tribes of North Waziristan are extremely familiar with the therapeutic potential of medicinal plants as ethnoveterinary medicines. The present study was carried out during 2018–2019 to record ethnoveterinary knowledge of the local plants that are being used by the tribal communities of North Waziristan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. In all, 56 medicinal plant species belonging to 42 families were identified, which were reported to treat 45 different animal diseases. These included 32 herbs, 12 shrubs, and 12 trees. Among the plant families, Asteraceae contributed the most species (5 spp.), followed by Amaranthaceae (4 spp.), Solanaceae (4 species), and Alliaceae, Araceae, and Lamiaceae (2 spp. each). The most common ethnoveterinary applications were documented for the treatment of blood in urine, bone injury, colic, indigestion, postpartum retention, skin diseases, constipation, increased milk production, mastitis, foot, and mouth diseases.
Biology, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11030455
Traditional diets exist in all cultures and geographic regions, and they often represent healthy eating options. Traditional culinary preparations have, however, often undergone profound change, even in the isolated Himalayan region. Therefore, we adapted methods to identify traditional plant foraging activities to better understand their significance in food system sustainability, as well as to promote innovative local gastronomies. Information on wild food and foraging practices was gathered from varied ethnic groups such as Kashmiri, Gujjars, Pahari, Dogra, Bakarwal, Balti, Beda and Brokpa through interviews (n = 716) and group discussions (n = 67) in four bio-geographic regions of the Jammu and Kashmir Himalayas (J&KH). The data were subjected to ordination techniques (Principal Component Analysis) via R software Ver. 4.0.0. We documented 209 food species, of which 73% were plants and 27% animals, used by the inhabitants of four bio-geographic regions of J&KH. The highest number of food plant species was recorded in Indian Kashmir, followed by Jammu, Azad Kashmir and Ladakh (81, 65, 60 and 27 species, respectively), and the maximum number of animal species was reported in Indian Kashmir, followed by Azad Kashmir, Ladakh and Jammu (33, 21, 19 and 17 species, respectively). The Azad Kashmir and Indian Kashmir regions showed greater similarity, whereas the least overlap was observed between Kashmir and Ladakh. The PCA showed considerable variation between different regions, and specific groups of species were more related to one specific region than others. The reported uses of Abies pindrow, Acacia modesta, Bergenia ciliata, Bergenia stracheyi and Juglans regia among plants, and Jynx torquilla, Streptopelia orientalis and Tadorna ferruginea among animals, are novel for the gastronomy of this part of the Himalayan region. We also recorded for the first time from this region seven unique food preparations of wild animals. This study documented extensive traditional knowledge on the usage of wild species, and is the first scientific description of wild food species and their vernacular names in the Western Himalayas, Jammu and Kashmir. Our findings can contribute significantly to combating food insecurity by revitalizing and reconsidering the rich bio-cultural food heritage around which local traditional communities have developed their food systems.
Food Science and Technology, Volume 42; https://doi.org/10.1590/fst.113421
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, Volume 17, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-021-00480-x
Background The utilization of plants and plant resources for various ethnobotanical purposes is a common practice in local towns and villages of developing countries, especially in regard to human and veterinary healthcare. For this reason, it is important to unveil and document ethnomedicinal plants and their traditional/folk usage for human and livestock healthcare from unexplored areas. Here we advance our findings on ethnomedicinal plants from Haripur District, Pakistan, not only for conservation purposes, but also for further pharmacological screenings and applied research. Methodology Information of ethnomedicinal plants was obtained using a carefully planned questionnaire and interviews from 80 local people and traditional healers (Hakims) in Haripur District, Pakistan, from 2015 to 2017. Informed consent was obtained from each participant before conducting the interview process. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices, such as relative frequency of citation (RFC), use value (UV) and Jaccard index (JI), were calculated for each recorded species. Correlation analysis between the RFC and UV was tested by Pearson’s correlation, SPSS (ver. 16). Results A total of 80 plant species (33 herbs, 24 trees, 21 shrubs and 2 climbers) belonging to 50 families were being used in the study area to treat livestock and human diseases. Lamiaceae was the most dominant family with 7 species (8.7%), followed by Fabaceae with 6 species (7.5%), and Moraceae with 5 species (6.2%). Local people used different methods of preparation for different plant parts; among them, decoction/tea (22 species) was the popular method, followed by powder/grained (20 species) and paste/poultice (14 species). It was observed that most of the species (~ 12 to 16 species) were utilized to treat human and livestock digestive system-related problems, respectively. The Jaccard index found that plant usage in two studies (District Abbottabad and Sulaiman Range) was more comparable. Local people mainly relied on folk medicines due to their rich accessibility, low cost and higher efficacy against diseases. Unfortunately, this important traditional knowledge is vanishing fast, and many medicinal plants are under severe threat. The most threats associated to species observed in the study area include Dehri, Garmthun, Baghpur, Najafpur and Pharala. Conclusion The study has indicated that local people have higher confidence in the usage of ethnomedicinal plants and are still using them for the treatment of various ailments. Comparative analysis with other studies may strongly reflected the novel use of these plants, which may be due to the deep-rooted and unique socio-cultural setup of the study area. However, awareness campaigns, conservation efforts and pharmacological and applied research are required for further exploration and may be a step in the right direction to unveil prospective pharmaceuticals.
Veterinary Medicine and Science, Volume 7, pp 2068-2085; https://doi.org/10.1002/vms3.582
Medicinal plants are highly used in the ethnoveterinary practice as considerable livestock resources in remote areas. The aim of the present study is to explore the ethnoveterinary medicinal practices in three different communities and discuss the cross-cultural consensus on the usage of medicinal plants for the treatment of animals. The field survey was conducted by the animal healers of the area during the different seasons of plant growth. A total of 83 informants were interviewed through Semi-structured interview involving experts of traditional knowledge in 21 localities of the three regions (Zhob, D. I. Khan and Mianwali) were conducted. Findings of the study were quantitatively analyzed through the informant consensus factors to identify the homogeneity information provided by the informants. Furthermore, cross-culture consensuses were analyzed and recorded data were represented in a tabulated and Venn diagrams. In particularly, 59 species of plants were documented in the comparative analysis. Among them, 32 plant species were recorded in Pashto community, while Punjabi and Sarakai communities exhibited nine and four plant species, respectively. Whereas cross-cultural analysis showed 14 medicinal plants that were commonly utilized by three different ethnic communities, that indicated low interregional consensus in regard to ethnoveterinary practices of medicinal plants. The current study showed that different communities and ethnic groups sharing some traditional knowledge and cross-culturally approaches have been reported from traditional uses of plants against livestock's diseases. Therefore, current findings are the opportunities to scrutinize the plants for the discovery of new drug sources for humans and animals.
Sustainability, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13095258
The tribal belt of the Hindu Kush mountains is famous for its unique culture, ethnography, wild food plants, food systems, and traditional knowledge. People in this region gather wild plants and plant parts using them directly or in traditional cuisine, or sell them in local markets. However, there is a huge lack of documentation of the food system, particularly that related to wild food plants (WFP). In the current study, we focus on the uses and contributions of WFPs in the traditional tribal food system of the Hindu Kush valleys along the Pakistan–Afghanistan border. Ethnobotanical data were gathered through questionnaire surveys of 84 informants, including 69 men and 15 women, belonging to 21 different villages of the chosen area. In tribal societies men and women rarely mix and thus very few women took part in the surveys. We documented 63 WFP species belonging to 34 botanical families, of which 27 were used as vegetables, 24 as fruits, six in different kinds of chutneys (starters), and six as fresh food species. Fruits were the most used part (41%), followed by leaves (24%), aerial parts (24%), seeds (7%), stems (3%), and young inflorescences (1%). The reported uses of Carthamus oxyacantha, Pinus roxburghii seeds, and Marsilea quadrifolia leaves are novel for the gastronomy of Pakistan. The results reveal that WFPs provide a significant contribution to local food systems and play a role in addressing human nutritional needs, which are usually not met through farming practices. The tribal peoples of the Hindu Kush use WFPs for their nutritional value, but also as a cultural practice—an inseparable component of the tribal community’s lifestyle. This important traditional knowledge about the gathering and consumption of WFPs, however, is eroding at an alarming rate among younger generations due to the introduction of fast-food, modernization, and globalization. Therefore, appropriate strategies are imperative not only to safeguard traditional plants and food knowledge and practices, as well as the cultural heritage attached to them, but also to foster food security and thus public healthcare via local wild foods in the region.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 267; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113200
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, Volume 16, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-020-00369-1
Background: Ethnoveterinary medicine is crucial in many rural areas of the world since people living in remote and marginal areas rely significantly on traditional herbal therapies to treat their domestic animals. In Pakistan, communities residing in remote areas, and especially those still attached to pastoralist traditions, have considerable ethnoveterinary herbal knowledge and they sometimes use this knowledge for treating their animals. The main aim of the study was to review the literature about ethnoveterinary herbals being used in Pakistan in order to articulate potential applications in modern veterinary medicine. Moreover, the review aimed to analyze possible cross-cultural and cross regional differences. Methods: We considered the ethnobotanical data of Pakistan published in different scientific journals from 2004 to 2018. A total of 35 studies were found on ethnoveterinary herbal medicines in the country. Due to the low number of field studies, we considered all peer-reviewed articles on ethnoveterinary herbal practices in the current review. All the ethnobotanical information included in these studies derived from interviews which were conducted with shepherds/animals breeders as well as healers. Results: Data from the reviewed studies showed that 474 plant species corresponding to 2386 remedies have been used for treating domestic animals in Pakistan. The majority of these plants belong to Poaceae (41 species) followed by the Asteraceae (32 species) and Fabaceae (29 species) botanical families, thus indicating a possible prevalence of horticultural-driven gathering patterns. Digestive problems were the most commonly treated diseases (25%; 606 remedies used), revealing the preference that locals have for treating mainly minor animal ailments with herbs. The least known veterinary plants recorded in Pakistan were Abutilon theophrasti, Agrostis gigantea, Allardia tomentosa, Aristida adscensionis, Bothriochloa bladhii, Buddleja asiatica, Cocculus hirsutus, Cochlospermum religiosum, Cynanchum viminale, Dactylis glomerata, Debregeasia saeneb, Dichanthium annulatum, Dracocephalum nuristanicum, Flueggea leucopyrus, Launaea nudicaulis, Litsea monopetala, Sibbaldianthe bifurca, Spiraea altaica, and Thalictrum foetidum. More importantly, cross-cultural comparative analysis of Pathan and non-Pathan ethnic communities showed that 28% of the veterinary plants were mentioned by both communities. Cross-regional comparison demonstrated that only 10% of the plant species were used in both mountain and plain areas. Reviewed data confirm therefore that both ecological and cultural factors play a crucial role in shaping traditional plant uses. Conclusion: The herbal ethnoveterinary heritage of Pakistan is remarkable, possibly because of the pastoral origins of most of its peoples. The integration of the analyzed complex bio-cultural heritage into daily veterinary practices should be urgently fostered by governmental and non-governmental institutions dealing with rural development policies in order to promote the use of local biodiversity for improving animal well-being and possibly the quality of animal food products as well.
Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre, Volume 20; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bcdf.2019.100201
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Published: 11 February 2019
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, Volume 59; https://doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1565489
Considered as the “King of spices”, black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is a widely used spice which adds flavor of its own to dishes, and also enhances the taste of other ingredients. Piper nigrum has also been extensively explored for its biological properties and its bioactive phyto-compounds. There is, however, no updated compilation of these available data to provide a complete profile of the medicinal aspects of P. nigrum. This study endeavors to systematically review scientific data on the traditional uses, phytochemical composition, and pharmacological properties of P. nigrum. Information was obtained using a combination of keywords via recognized electronic databases (e.g., Science Direct and Google Scholar). Google search was also used. Books and online materials were also considered, and the literature search was restricted to the English language. The country with the highest number of traditional reports of P. nigrum for both human and veterinary medicine was India, mostly for menstrual and ear-nose-throat disorders in human and gastrointestinal disorders in livestock. The seeds and fruits were mostly used, and the preferred mode of preparation was in powdered form, pills or tablets, and paste. Piper nigrum and its bioactive compounds were also found to possess important pharmacological properties. Antimicrobial activity was recorded against a wide range of pathogens via inhibition of biofilm, bacterial efflux pumps, bacterial swarming, and swimming motilities. Studies also reported its antioxidant effects against a series of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species including the scavenging of superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, DPPH, ABTS, and reducing effect against ferric and molybdenum (VI). Improvement of antioxidant enzymes in vivo has also been reported. Piper nigrum also exhibited anticancer effect against a number of cell lines from breast, colon, cervical, and prostate through different mechanisms including cytotoxicity, apoptosis, autophagy, and interference with signaling pathways. Its antidiabetic property has also been confirmed in vivo as well as hypolipidemic activity as evidenced by decrease in the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein and increase in high-density lipoprotein. Piper nigrum also has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective effects. The major bioactive compound identified in P. nigrum is piperine although other compounds are also present including piperic acid, piperlonguminine, pellitorine, piperolein B, piperamide, piperettine, and (-)-kusunokinin, which also showed biological potency. Most pharmacological studies were conducted in vitro (n = 60) while only 21 in vivo and 1 clinical trial were performed. Hence, more in vivo experiments using a pharmacokinetic and pharmacokinetic approach would be beneficial. As a conclusive remark, P. nigrum should not only be regarded as “King of spices” but can also be considered as part of the kingdom of medicinal agents, comprising a panoply of bioactive compounds with potential nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, Volume 14, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-018-0242-7
This study seeks to better understand the human-nature interface and to measure the variability of plant use knowledge among cultures, through inter- and intracultural analyses. We compared plant collection, use, and management of two culturally distinct groups (Baitadi and Darchula) of the Nepal Himalaya. They inhabit different physiographic regions, yet share the same ecological landscape, environmental resources, and livelihood challenges. We hypothesized that the elderly, native, and traditional healers living in remote and rural places possess more diverse and detailed knowledge of plant use and conservation than young, non-native, and non-healers. A total of 106 people were contacted for interviews, and 100 (68 men and 32 women) agreed to share ethnobotanical, demographic, and socioeconomic information. They were asked about the three most important plants for their socioeconomic benefit, culture, primary health care, and livelihood. The knowledge of plant collection, use, and its transfer was strongly associated with the cultural heritage whereas the ecogeographical condition influences the ways in which plants are collected and used. The divergent knowledge of plant collection, use, and transfer between the participants of Baitadi and Darchula was significantly (p < 0.001) attributed to the cultural heritage of the area. The low consensus of plant use (FiC 0–0.87; IASc 0–0.67) between Baitadi and Darchula district could be due to cultural divergence, varied accessibility, physiographic heterogeneity, and biodiversity uniqueness. Differences in plant use knowledge may help in diversifying the strategies of plant use in accordance with the livelihood, culture, and environment, and therefore, more studies measuring these aspects can further the ecosystem and cultural health of the region.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13002-018-0212-0
The pastoral lifestyle of Indigenous communities of Bajaur Agency is bringing them close to natural remedies for treating their domestic animals. Several studies have been conducted across the globe describing the importance of traditional knowledge in veterinary care. Therefore, this study was planned with the aim to record knowledge on ethnoveterinary practices from the remote areas and share sit with other communities through published literature. Data was gathered from community members through semi-structured interviews and analyzed through informant consensus factor (Fic) to evaluate the consent of current ethnoveterinary practices among the local people. In total, 73 medicinal plants were recorded under the ethnoveterinary practices. Most widely used medicinal plants with maximum use reports (URs) were Visnaga daucoides Gaertn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Solanum virginianum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., and Curcuma longa L. New medicinal values were found with confidential level of citations for species including Heracleum candicans and Glycerhiza glabra. Family Apiaceae was the utmost family with high number (7 species) of medicinal plants. Maximum number of medicinal plants (32) was used for gastric problems. High Fic was recorded for dermatological (0.97) followed by reproductive (0.93) and gastrointestinal disorders (0.92). The main route of remedies administration was oral. Current study revealed that the study area has sufficient knowledge on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants. This knowledge is in the custody of nomadic grazers, herders, and aged community members. Plants with new medicinal uses need to be validated phytochemically and pharmacologically for the development of new alternative drugs for veterinary purposes.