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(searched for: doi:10.1177/0899764011418836)
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Public Performance & Management Review, Volume 43, pp 1209-1235; https://doi.org/10.1080/15309576.2020.1752267

Abstract:
When nonprofit organizations deliver services on behalf of the government, the government agency has the opportunity to select the optimal number of providers to maximize performance. Should more providers deliver services across smaller areas to increase local tailoring or should contracts be consolidated so fewer providers deliver services across larger areas to take advantage of economies of scale? This paper examines a series of contract consolidations aimed at improving the performance and reducing the costs of the Combined Federal Campaign (CFC), the Office of Personnel Management’s workplace giving program for federal employees, which is administered by contracts with nonprofit intermediaries. Using a difference-in-differences analysis based on waves of contract consolidations over time, I find that larger service areas typically had lower giving and costs on a per employee basis. The consolidation process itself tended to decrease average giving further but had no additional effect on costs. Combined, these effects yield no change in costs per dollar raised for larger or consolidated service areas; the benefits of contract consolidation were more modest than CFC administrators had hoped.
Published: 20 December 2018
Journal of Business Ethics, Volume 165, pp 453-467; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-018-4093-x

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
The American Review of Public Administration, Volume 48, pp 644-658; https://doi.org/10.1177/0275074017701223

Abstract:
Workplace giving campaigns, like the Combined Federal Campaign, have increased in participation and prominence in recent years. Organizations across all sectors of society frequently encourage employees to voluntarily donate either directly or through payroll deduction. In the nascent research on workplace giving, there has been relatively little focus on how employee attributes, especially motivational and organizational commitment traits, might be related to voluntary participation in workplace giving campaigns. In our article, we explore the role of these factors in an employee’s decision to participate in workplace giving campaigns. Using data from a large, public university, we examine two distinct aspects of participation: (a) the decision to participate in a workplace giving campaign and (b) how much those who participated chose to give. Our analyses demonstrate that these decisions reflect two motivational processes that must be considered in examining the determinants of individual workplace giving behavior. Answering these questions will help deepen our understanding of employee workplace giving in its increasing prominence as a tool of social partnership.
, Rebecca Nesbit, Brett Agypt
Published: 13 December 2015
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 45, pp 1258-1275; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764015619704

Abstract:
In this article, we address a gap in our knowledge of workplace philanthropy. We explore the factors that distinguish givers from nongivers in workplace campaigns using observational data from a population of employees at a large, public university that has sponsored two annual giving campaigns from 2001 to 2008. The analyses correct for common issues—such as nonresponse and self-reporting biases—that frequently arise in empirical studies of philanthropy. This article is intended to supplement previous research that focuses on workplace givers. We conclude that several factors distinguish workplace givers from nongivers, such as age, gender, salary, duration of employment, and rank. This fuller exploration of workplace giving contributes to a broader understanding of philanthropic giving and its many manifestations.
, , Brittany L. Kienker
Published: 13 January 2015
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 45, pp 87-111; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764014565468

Abstract:
The phenomenon of workplace giving is underexamined in the scholarly literature; philanthropic gifts by employees to their nonprofit employers have received less attention within national and transnational contexts. This study considered the association between university staff propensity toward “internal workplace giving” and donor characteristics, drawing on literature about organizational commitment and identification as a beginning for advancing theoretical understanding of employee–employer relationships and giving at both the micro-level and meso-level. The sample of 17,038 employees covered 3 years at Indiana University, an American, public, multicampus institution. Despite its specific national and cultural context, the study raises relevant issues about workplace giving. Relational and personal characteristics were found to be significant predictors for determining who donates; using these characteristics to predict giving levels, however, was less successful. The study anticipates a growing need for related research and provides direction for further methodological and theoretical approaches.
, Brittany L. Kienker, Victor M. H. Borden
International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, Volume 19, pp 262-276; https://doi.org/10.1002/nvsm.1501

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Published: 12 May 2014
European Journal of Higher Education, Volume 4, pp 373-387; https://doi.org/10.1080/21568235.2014.912948

Abstract:
Philanthropy in Irish higher education has an interesting historical reference point, with the role Atlantic Philanthropies played in steering the agenda for philanthropy in higher education institutions. To investigate the question of philanthropic culture in Ireland, this research draws on policy documents and academic literature related to Ireland to analyse how creating and fostering a philanthropic culture (in particular for giving) is discussed. An illustrative case study of an Irish higher educational institution is presented to explore the culture of giving. The case study findings suggest that the university's philanthropic infrastructure educate students and alumni on the role of philanthropy in developing the campus, while identifying future strategic giving opportunities. The wider literature reinforces the need to build infrastructure, to expand national policy and to extend this education on the value of philanthropy in the public discourse.
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