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(searched for: doi:10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_1222_16)
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Shinji Sasada
Published: 20 August 2022
Journal: Haigan
Haigan, Volume 62, pp 277-285; https://doi.org/10.2482/haigan.62.277

Abstract:
従来,悪性胸水の診断に際しては,胸腔穿刺による胸水検査と盲目的胸膜生検が行われてきたが,その診断率は決して満足できるレベルではなかった.特に悪性胸膜中皮腫は前述の方法での陽性率は低く,誤診を招くおそれもあるため慎重な判断が必要である.我が国では1990年以降内科的胸腔鏡が導入され,胸膜病変を直接観察し生検することが可能となり診断率が飛躍的に向上した.肺癌診療においては病理診断のみならずバイオマーカー検索にも有用である.しかし胸膜病変はその原因にかかわらず肥厚,線維化し硬くなることが多いため生検技術の向上が求められる.本稿では内科的胸腔鏡の進歩と胸膜生検法の工夫について概説する.
, Soad M. Abdel-Ghany, Randa S. Hana, Aliaa A. R. Mohamed, Naglaa T. El-Melegy, Ayat A. Sayed
Published: 30 May 2021
Molecular Biology Reports, Volume 48, pp 4221-4232; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06436-4

Abstract:
Lung cancer is a lethal malignancy and is affected by genetic polymorphisms that contribute to an individual’s susceptibility to developing the disease. Several studies on lung cancer showed conflicting results. The aim of this study is to investigate whether individual or combined modifying effects of LOX G/A, GSTM1 active/null, GSTT1 active/null and GSTP1 Ile/Val polymorphisms are related to the risk of lung cancer in relation to smoking in the Egyptian population. This study is a hospital-based case control study that included 200 patients and 200 control subjects. Genotyping of the 4 studied genes was determined by Multiplex PCR for GSTM1 and GSTT1 and Taq man SNP assay for GSTP1 and LOX genes. The LOX G/A and GSTP1 Ile/Val in both homozygous and heterozygous variants, and the GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotype showed significant association with lung cancer. Combination between gene polymorphism and smoking increased the risk of developing cancer by 2.7 fold in the LOX GA+AA variant, 1.9 fold in the GSTM1 null variant, 4.8 fold in the GSTT1 null variant and 4.3 fold in the GSTP1 Ile/Val+Val/Val variant. The genetic combination (LOX GA+AA/GSTT1 active, LOX GG/GSTT1 null, LOX GA+AA/GSTT1 null, LOX GA+AA/GSTP1 Ile/Ile, LOX GG/GSTP1 Ile/Val+Val/Val and LOX GA+AA/GSTP1 Ile/Val+Val/Val) led to a higher lung cancer risk, compared to the reference group. The LOX GA/AA, GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null and GSTP1 Ile/Val, Val/Val genotypes contributed to increased lung cancer susceptibility. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of LOX genotyping in the Egyptian population. The combination of genotypes increased the risk of cancer, indicating the importance of gene–gene interaction and giving a targeted preventive approach.
, Masao Kobayashi
Published: 5 December 2018
Cell Death Discovery, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41420-018-0131-9

Abstract:
Mature neutrophils must be quickly removed from inflammatory sites to prevent tissue damage. Neutrophil removal is thought to be accomplished primarily through caspase-dependent apoptosis, which involves several genes of mitochondrial origin. However, mature neutrophils show reduced gene transcription and mitochondrial numbers. We predicted that neutrophils utilize other cell death mechanisms and investigated programmed cell death in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PMNCs or neutrophil fractions). Unlike MNCs, PMNCs did not undergo DNA fragmentation and were not TUNEL positive, but expressed LC3-II, an autophagy marker. We also found that during differentiation, autophagy inhibitor 3-MA, and not caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk, prevented segmentation of the nucleus, indicating that these cells undergo autophagy during maturation. Therefore, human neutrophils may undergo spontaneous autophagic cell death rather than apoptosis, during which autophagy may be essential for both maturation and death.
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