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(searched for: doi:10.4103/jcrt.jcrt_990_15)
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Published: 24 March 2022
Journal: Cureus
Abstract:
With a thorough investigation of the etiology of medulloblastomas, a comprehensive review was done to categorize available clinical trials in order to discuss the future potential of breakthroughs in treatment options. The pertinent issues of medulloblastoma therapy with radiation being inapplicable to children under the age of 3, and therapies causing toxicity are detailed and discussed in the context of understanding how the current therapies may address these suboptimal treatment modalities. This study aggregated published studies from the US government clinical trials website and filtered them based on their direct treatment towards medulloblastomas. Thirty-two clinical trials were applicable to be analyzed and the treatment mechanisms were discussed along with the efficacy; molecular groupings of medulloblastomas were also investigated. The investigated therapies tend to target sonic hedgehog (SHH)-subtype medulloblastomas, but there is a necessity for group 3 subtype and group 4 subtype to be targeted as well. Due to the heterogeneous nature of tumor relapse in groups 3 and 4, there are less specified trials towards those molecular groupings, and radiation seems to be the main scope of treatment. Medulloblastomas being primarily a pediatric tumor require treatment options that minimize radiation to increase the quality of living in children and to prevent long-term symptoms of over radiation. Exploring symptomatic treatment with donepezil in children with combination therapies may be a potential route for future trials; immunotherapies seem to hold potential in treating patients reacting adversely to radiation therapy.
Published: 14 December 2021
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Shavali Shaik, Shinji Maegawa,
Published: 3 August 2021
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, Volume 25, pp 615-619; https://doi.org/10.1080/14728222.2021.1982896

Abstract:
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain cancer in children, and most frequently arises in the cerebellum [1–3]. Molecular profiling has allowed their classification into four subgroups: ...
Yan-Ling Sun, Jing-Jing Liu, Shu-Xu DU, Wan-Shui Wu, Li-Ming Sun
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi = Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, Volume 23, pp 164-168

Abstract:
To study the clinical features of children with recurrent medulloblastoma (MB) and treatment regimens. A retrospective analysis was performed on 101 children with recurrent MB who were admitted to the hospital from August 1, 2011 to July 31, 2017. The children were followed up to July 31, 2020. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. The Cox regression model was used for multivariate regression analysis. Of the 101 children, 95 underwent remission induction therapy, among whom 51 had response, resulting in a response rate of 54%. The median overall survival (OS) time after recurrence was 13 months, and the 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 50.5%±5.0%, 19.8%±4.0%, and 10%±3.3% respectively. There was no significant difference in the 5-year OS rate between the children with different ages (< 3 years or 3-18 years), sexes, pathological types, or Change stages, between the children with or without radiotherapy before recurrence or re-irradiation after recurrence, and between the children with different times to recurrence (< 12 months or ≥ 12 months after surgery) (P > 0.05). There were significant differences in the 5-year OS rate between the children with or without reoperation after recurrence and between the children with different recurrence sites (P < 0.05). The children with reoperation after recurrence had a significantly longer survival time than those without reoperation (P=0.007), and the risk of death in children undergoing reoperation after recurrence was 0.389 times (95% confidence interval:0.196-0.774) that in children who did not undergo such reoperation. As for the recurrence of MB, although remission induction therapy again can achieve remission, such children still have a short survival time. Only reoperation can significantly prolong survival time, and therefore, early reoperation can be considered to improve the outcome of children with recurrent MB.
Shavali Shaik, Shinji Maegawa, Amanda R Haltom, Feng Wang, Xue Xiao, Tara Dobson, Ajay Sharma, Yanwen Yang, Jyothishmathi Swaminathan, Vikas Kundra, et al.
Published: 20 January 2021
Molecular Oncology, Volume 15, pp 1486-1506; https://doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.12903

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