(searched for: doi:10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_448_17)
Published: 28 July 2022
Journal: Frontiers in Oncology
Frontiers in Oncology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.941752
Objective: To explore the correlation of CT-MRI pathology with lung tumor ablation lesions by comparing CT, MRI, and pathological performance of rabbit lung VX2 tumor after thermal ablation.Methods: Thermal ablation including microwave ablation (MWA) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) was carried out in 12 experimental rabbits with lung VX2 tumors under CT guidance. CT and MRI performance was observed immediately after ablation, and then the rabbits were killed and pathologically examined. The maximum diameter of tumors on CT before ablation, the central hypointense area on T2-weighted image (T2WI) after ablation, and the central hyperintense area on T1-weighted image (T1WI) after ablation and pathological necrosis were measured. Simultaneously, the maximum diameter of ground-glass opacity (GGO) around the lesion on CT after ablation, the surrounding hyperintense area on T2WI after ablation, the surrounding isointense area on T1WI after ablation, and the pathological ablation area were measured, and then the results were compared and analyzed.Results: Ablation zones showed GGO surrounding the original lesion on CT, with a central hypointense and peripheral hyperintense zone on T2WI as well as a central hyperintense and peripheral isointense zone on T1WI. There was statistical significance in the comparison of the maximum diameter of the tumor before ablation with a central hyperintense zone on T1WI after ablation and pathological necrosis. There was also statistical significance in the comparison of the maximum diameter of GGO around the lesion on CT with the surrounding hyperintense zone on T2WI and isointense on T1WI after ablation and pathological ablation zone. There was only one residual tumor abutting the vessel in the RFA group.Conclusions: MRI manifestations of thermal ablation of VX2 tumors in rabbit lungs have certain characteristics with a strong pathological association. CT combined with MRI multimodal radiomics is expected to provide an effective new method for clinical evaluation of the immediate efficacy of thermal ablation of lung tumors.
Published: 14 April 2022
Journal: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Journal of Thoracic Imaging, Volume 37, pp 201-216; https://doi.org/10.1097/rti.0000000000000651
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for the guidance and follow-up of percutaneous minimally invasive interventions in many body parts. In the thorax, computed tomography (CT) is currently the most used imaging modality for the guidance and follow-up of needle biopsies and thermal ablations. Compared with CT, MRI provides excellent soft tissue contrast, lacks ionizing radiation, and allows functional imaging. The role of MRI is limited in the thorax due to the low hydrogen proton density and many air-tissue interfaces of the lung, as well as respiratory and cardiac motion. Here, we review the current experience of MR-guided thoracic needle biopsies and of MR-guided thermal ablations targeting lesions in the lung, mediastinum, and the chest wall. We provide an overview of MR-compatible biopsy needles and ablation devices. We detail relevant MRI sequences and their relative advantages and disadvantages for procedural guidance, assessment of complications, and long-term follow-up. We compare the advantages and disadvantages of CT and MR for thoracic interventions and identify areas in need of improvement and additional research.
Published: 19 November 2021
Journal: European Radiology
European Radiology, Volume 32, pp 3288-3296; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08387-7
Objective: To determine the early treatment response after microwave ablation (MWA) of inoperable lung neoplasms using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value calculated 24 h after the ablation. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 47 patients with 68 lung lesions, who underwent percutaneous MWA from January 2008 to December 2017. Evaluation of the lesions was done using MRI including DWI sequence with ADC value calculation pre-ablation and 24 h post-ablation. DWI-MR was performed with b values (50, 400, 800 mm2/s). The post-ablation follow-up was performed using chest CT and/or MRI within 24 h following the procedure; after 3, 6, 9, and 12 months; and every 6 months onwards to determine the local tumor response. The post-ablation ADC value changes were compared to the end response of the lesions. Results: Forty-seven patients (mean age: 63.8 ± 14.2 years, 25 women) with 68 lesions having a mean tumor size of 1.5 ± 0.9 cm (range: 0.7–5 cm) were evaluated. Sixty-one lesions (89.7%) showed a complete treatment response, and the remaining 7 lesions (10.3%) showed a local progression (residual activity). There was a statistically significant difference regarding the ADC value measured 24 h after the ablation between the responding (1.7 ± 0.3 × 10−3 mm2/s) and non-responding groups (1.4 ± 0.3 × 10−3 mm2/s) with significantly higher values in the responding group (p = 0.001). A suggested ADC cut-off value of 1.42 could be used as a reference point for the post-ablation response prediction (sensitivity: 66.67%, specificity: 84.21%, PPV: 66.7%, and NPV: 84.2%). No significant difference was reported regarding the ADC value performed before the ablation as a factor for the prognosis of treatment response (p = 0.86). Conclusion: ADC value assessment following ablation may allow the early prediction of treatment efficacy after MWA of inoperable lung neoplasms. Key Points: • ADC value calculated 24 h post-treatment may allow the early prediction of MWA efficacy as a treatment of pulmonary tumors and can be used in the early immediate post-ablation imaging follow-up.• The pre-treatment ADC value of lung neoplasms is not different between the responding and non-responding tumors.
Published: 3 November 2021
Journal: Frontiers in Oncology
Frontiers in Oncology, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.615174
Objectives: To retrospectively observe the instantaneous changes in intratumor density heterogeneity after microwave ablation (MWA) of lung tumors and to determine their prognostic value in predicting treatment response and local tumor progression (LTP).Methods: Pre- and post-MWA computed tomography (CT) images of 50 patients (37-males; 13-females; mean-age 65.9 ± 9.7y, 39 primary and 11 metastasis) were analyzed to evaluate changes in intratumor density. Global, regional, and local scale radiomics features were extracted to assess intratumor density heterogeneity. In four to six weeks, chest enhanced CT was used as the baseline evaluation of treatment response. The correlations between the parametric variation immediately after ablation and the visual score of ablation response (Rvisu) were analyzed by nonparametric Spearman correlation analysis. The 1-year LTP discrimination power was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify the independent prognostic features.Results: Although no significant volume changes were observed after ablation, the radiomics parameters changed in different directions and degrees. The mean intensity value from baseline CT image was 30.3 ± 23.2, and the post-MWA CT image was -60.9 ± 89.8. The ratio of values change was then calculated by a unified formulation. The largest increase (522.3%) was observed for cluster prominence, while the mean CT value showed the largest decline (321.4%). The pulmonary tumors had a mean diameter of 3.4 ± 0.8 cm. Complete ablation was documented in 36 patients. Significant correlations were observed between Rvisu and quantitative features. The highest correlations were observed for changes in local features after MWA, with r ranging from 0.594 to 0.782. LTP developed in 22 patients. The Cox regression model revealed Δcontrast% and response score as independent predictors (Δcontrast%: odds ratio [OR]=5.61, p=0.001; Rvisu: OR=1.73, p=0019). ROC curve analysis showed that Δcontrast% was a better predictor of 1-year LTP. with higher sensitivity (83.5% vs. 71.2%) and specificity (87.1% vs. 76.8%) than those for Rvisu.Conclusions: The changes in intratumor density heterogeneity after MWA could be characterized by analysis of radiomics features. Real-time density changes could predict treatment response and LTP in patients with pulmonary tumors earlier, especially for tumors with larger diameters.
Published: 16 July 2020
Journal: Insights Into Imaging
Insights Into Imaging, Volume 11, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13244-020-00884-5
Interventional radiology plays an important and increasing role in cancer treatment. Follow-up is important to be able to assess treatment success and detect locoregional and distant recurrence and recommendations for follow-up are needed. At ECIO 2018, a joint ECIO-ESOI session was organized to establish follow-up recommendations for oncologic intervention in liver, renal, and lung cancer. Treatments included thermal ablation, TACE, and TARE. In total five topics were evaluated: ablation in colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), TARE in CRLM, TACE and TARE in HCC, ablation in renal cancer, and ablation in lung cancer. Evaluated modalities were FDG-PET-CT, CT, MRI, and (contrast-enhanced) ultrasound. Prior to the session, five experts were selected and performed a systematic review and presented statements, which were voted on in a telephone conference prior to the meeting by all panelists. These statements were presented and discussed at the ECIO-ESOI session at ECIO 2018. This paper presents the recommendations that followed from these initiatives. Based on expert opinions and the available evidence, follow-up schedules were proposed for liver cancer, renal cancer, and lung cancer. FDG-PET-CT, CT, and MRI are the recommended modalities, but one should beware of false-positive signs of residual tumor or recurrence due to inflammation early after the intervention. There is a need for prospective preferably multicenter studies to validate new techniques and new response criteria. This paper presents recommendations that can be used in clinical practice to perform the follow-up of patients with liver, lung, and renal cancer who were treated with interventional locoregional therapies.
Published: 15 April 2019
Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies, Volume 29, pp 107-113; https://doi.org/10.1080/13645706.2019.1601632
Purpose: We aim to evaluate the efficacy, safety and survival time of microwave ablation (MWA) with adjuvant antiangiogenic therapy-endostatin in animal models. Material and methods: A total of 40 rabbits successfully implanted with VX2 tumors were randomly assigned to four experimental groups: Group A underwent only microwave ablation of the tumors; Group B received only antiangiogenic drugs endostatin; Group C received endostatin immediately after MWA; Group D followed up without treatment. Results: Two months post-treatment, tumor sizes of Group A and Group C were reduced to 1.936 ± 0.373 cm3 and 1.592 ± 0.382 cm3, respectively. However, tumors grew to 15.091 ± 1.735 cm3 and 47.825 ± 7.664 cm3 in Group B and the control group. Three months post-treatment, tumor sizes in Group A and Group C maintained as 1.395 ± 0.394 cm3 and 1.482 ± 0.305 cm3, significantly smaller than Group B (35.277 ± 6.019 cm3). All animals in the control group died, while four (40%) survived in Group B (Endo Group). The numbers of survivals in Groups A and C were seven (70%) and eight (80%), respectively. The lowest metastasis rate (2/10, 20%) was observed in Group C (combination therapy). Conclusion: The combination of MWA and antiangiogenic therapy triggered a significant reduction in the growth rate and metastases of tumors and may potentially improve survivals.
Published: 1 February 2019
Conference: 2019 IEEE 15th International Conference on the Experience of Designing and Application of CAD Systems (CADSM), 2019-2-26 - 2019-3-2
The questions of processing and analysis of complex digital signals are considered. Such signals are represented in a form of digital lung images, which were made with use of computed tomography. The main aim of processing and analysis of input images is the identification of potential lung nodules. To solve such a problem an appropriate procedure has been suggested, which is based on the binarization of input image and its fragmentation into energy levels, the use of methodology of neural networks for identification of lung nodules. It was shown that suggested procedure allows to identify the intraparenchymal location of lung nodule with a probability of 98.5%, subpleural location with a probability of 75.4%. The proportion of false detections is 8%.
Published: 12 March 2018
Journal: Thoracic Cancer
Thoracic Cancer, Volume 9, pp 548-554; https://doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.12611
Background The study was conducted to retrospectively evaluate the safety and effectiveness of computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) for peripheral non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 11 patients with a single lung after pneumonectomy. Methods From May 2011 to March 2015, 11 single-lung patients (8 men and 3 women; mean age 60.3 years, range 46–71) with peripheral NSCLC underwent 12 sessions of MWA. Eleven tumors measuring 13–52 mm (mean 30.2 mm) were treated. Follow-up was performed via CT scan at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the procedure and annually thereafter. Clinical outcomes were evaluated and complications after MWA were summarized. Results At a median follow-up period of 20 months (range 6–38), four patients showed evidence of local recurrence at a rate of 36.4% (4/11). Median overall survival was 20 months. The overall survival rates at one, two, and three years after MWA were 88.7%, 63.6%, and 42.3%, respectively. Complications after MWA included pneumothorax (33.3%), hemoptysis (33.3%), intrapulmonary bleeding (25%), pleural effusion (16.7%), and pulmonary infection (8.3%). None of the patients died during the procedure or in the 30 days after MWA. Conclusion CT-guided percutaneous MWA is safe and effective for the treatment of peripheral NSCLC in patients with a single lung after prior pneumonectomy.