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(searched for: doi:10.1177/0899764002238098)
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Published: 19 September 2022
Journal of Public Affairs Education pp 1-21;

Halloween provides an opportunity to teach public administration and nonprofit management concepts in a fun way, which increases student retention and understanding. Teaching cases are an evidence-based pedagogical tool that facilitates active learning and brings together perspective-taking, critical thinking, and problem-solving. This article presents five themed mini-teaching cases perfect for Halloween that can be taught individually or together: emotional labor in dark tourism; risk management for nefarious volunteers; cemetery management; financial management through zombie philanthropy; and nonprofit demise. The lessons integrate real-world scenarios with public administration concepts in a timely, fun, and evidence-based delivery method. Each case includes a scholarly interpretation through a public administration or nonprofit management lens, learning objectives, discussion and test questions, and reading and viewing recommendations. These five lessons provide a wide-reaching, foundational application for any public administration and nonprofit management classroom.
, Markus Göbel, Marit Grewe‐Salfeld, Barbara Herbert, Yuka Matsuo, Christiana Weber
Published: 2 December 2021
International Journal of Management Reviews;

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Joss Greene
Published: 24 February 2021
Journal: Organization
Organization, Volume 28, pp 930-948;

While prior research shows how community-based organizations (CBO’s) create new social ties and solidarities, we know less about CBO’s that formalize preexisting relationships of care. Analyzing transgender nonprofits as a strategic case, this article develops the concept of kinship organizations: organizations that incorporate norms, networks, and resources from kinship systems into a formal organization that provides regular social services. Drawing on 7 months of ethnography and 36 formal interviews with staff and clients, I explore how transgender kinship organizations function, develop, and impact broader transgender community. Kinship organizations are highly responsive to crisis, are able to leverage personal and organizational resources, and are therefore capable of providing personalized rapid-response care to very precarious transgender people. On the other hand, subsuming kinship within a nonprofit transforms relationships of mutual care into unidirectional service relationships and relationships of chosen family into work-based hierarchies. This account of kinship organizations contributes to the theory on organizational development and provides new conceptual tools for analyzing boundaries between organizations and communities.
Published: 26 October 2020
Global Public Health pp 1-14;

Community mobilisation improves outcomes from HIV to maternal and child health. Yet, little health research has explored why some community groups are better able to mobilise than others. We address this gap by considering the case of Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, which sought to foster community mobilisation, including the creation of community-based groups serving men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers (FSWs), and injection drug users (IDUs). Using quantitative and qualitative data collected from 58 community-based groups from 2009–2012 across six Indian states, we analyse variation in groups’ action on behalf of their members. Based on a mixed effects logistic regression, we find that older groups and those with bank accounts, crisis committees, or strategic relationships were most likely to take action on behalf of members by demanding rights or confronting gatekeepers and opinion leaders. Analysis of qualitative data reveals the types of action organisations took on behalf of members (mediation, removal of community members from harm, and advocacy), but also that sometimes organisations refused to take action, or community members declined their assistance. These findings indicate that organisations formalising, creating structures for social action, and building networks are important strategies to foster community mobilisation.
Susan M. Chambré
Published: 1 June 2020
Social Service Review, Volume 94, pp 373-421;

This article considers whether there have been substantial changes in volunteering in the United States. Drawing on an extensive review of historical, ethnographic, and survey data, it focuses on trends, styles, and motivations of volunteers. The article describes how volunteer rates are cyclical and contingent on social and cultural changes, including events that serve as national traumas, such as wars, natural disasters, and the 9/11 attacks. Many features of volunteering have been consistent over time, but there have been some notable changes, including greater participation by the young and the old and a sharp decline in volunteer rates for people lacking a college education. Volunteers continue to be influenced by humanitarian and altruistic motives, and a desire to give back to organizations that benefit friends and family has become more prominent.
, Lucy Dwight, Nuri Heckler
Published: 23 March 2020
Urban Affairs Review, Volume 57, pp 460-491;

Nonprofits have been posited to have benefits for communities and neighborhoods, including reduction of crime. Empirical research has provided mixed results. Drawing on both criminological and theories of public organization and organizational ecology, this article examines the effects of nonprofit density on neighborhood crime in Denver, Colorado, between 2010 and 2015. Controlling for demographic and environmental influences, as well as the effects of spatiotemporal autoregression, results suggest that a higher density of both place-based and generic nonprofits ameliorate rates of crime. In contrast, nonprofits focused on crime reduction have a significant positive curvilinear effect on several types of crime. Findings also suggest that while nonprofits at the micro-ecological level increase crime to a point, the impact is negligible compared with other factors. Moreover, a relatively high density of place-based or generic nonprofits may have some benefits at higher densities, indicating a synergistic effect.
Published: 4 October 2019
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 49, pp 502-522;

We examine a phenomenon which includes people who have had transformative experiences while abroad and traveling, and who have returned home to the United States and become philanthropic entrepreneurs: they start their own international nonprofit organizations. We set out to examine the motivations for giving to international causes through these nonprofits, called grassroots, international non-governmental organizations (GINGOs), which allow individuals to actualize their calling to serve distant places and causes. As an exploratory, qualitative inquiry, we build on recent survey and experiment data about motivations to international giving and donor choice. In particular, GINGO leaders as philanthropic entrepreneurs challenge two main deterrents related to international giving: trust and its influence on willingness to donate to international causes and the adage that “charity begins at home.” Our findings support suggestions in the literature that personal networks and word of mouth are important in donor choice and incentivizing giving to international causes.
, , Terry L. Cooper
The American Review of Public Administration, Volume 49, pp 931-943;

This study examines the perceived effectiveness of neighborhood councils (NCs) in Los Angeles, a government-sanctioned and financed institutional innovation in urban governance. The study considers NC boards as a dynamic and open social system that interacts with NCs’ internal and external environment. We propose that three factors—internal capacity, external networking, and attention-action congruence—are related to perceived NC effectiveness. The findings from a questionnaire survey of 80 NCs show that NC leaders perceive their organizations to be moderately effective. While internal capacity contributes to all three dimensions of effectiveness, external networking enhances NCs’ effectiveness in solving community issues and advising about city policies. Attention-action congruence, which examines the correspondence between NC board members’ issue orientation and actual actions, is positively related to NCs’ effectiveness in advising about city policies. The study concludes with considerations for enhancing the effectiveness of neighborhood associations.
, Helen K. Liu
Published: 29 March 2019
International Public Management Journal pp 1-25;

Studies on organization and management theory use status to explain intra-organizational behaviors such as developing alliances and partnerships by drawing on the practices of the private sector. We extend the concept of status to the public sector to study how the different status of partners influences their collaboration. Through studying collaboration in the field of HIV/AIDS disease control in China from 2015 to 2017, we assess how status asymmetry (different-status partners) affects collaboration by comparing several dimensions of different-status organizations, including their structure, funding distribution, target population, and service category. We find that, through structure design, a collaboration between high- and low-status organizations improves health service delivery in the epidemic disease control process by providing more integrated health schemes. This article contributes to the body of knowledge on collaboration by studying the dynamic role of status, thereby helping practitioners better understand how to effectively manage collaboration with status asymmetry.
, Jeff Pollack, Brian Nagy, Matthew Rutherford, Susan Coombes
Published: 20 February 2019
Entrepreneurship Research Journal, Volume 9;

Social enterprises viewed as viable from societal perspectives are often regarded differently from traditional business perspectives. To examine this difference, we undertook two empirical studies of risk tolerance and legitimacy perceptions among observers of social enterprise and for-profit ventures. In Study 1, participants (n = 115) drawn randomly from Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing marketplace for human intelligence tasks, examined two hypothetical cases and completed the risk tolerance scale of the Jackson Personality Inventory. Results show that social enterprises were seen as having lower industry legitimacy, especially by individuals with lower risk tolerance. Here, industry legitimacy mediated the effect of venture purpose on cognitive legitimacy. In Study 2, practicing entrepreneurs (n = 23) narratively interpreted Study 1 results from social enterprise and traditional business perspectives. Both studies demonstrate that social enterprise legitimacy evaluations vary based on risk tolerance and the type of legitimacy in question. Overall findings show that explicit observations of risk tolerance effects, and multidimensional conceptualizations of legitimacy, are important to accurate evaluations of social enterprises.
, , Robert A Greer
Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Volume 29, pp 535-555;

The proliferation of special-purpose districts and the increasing complexity of local governance systems has been well documented. However, even as new special districts are created, others are being dissolved. This article investigates the extent to which both internal and external factors are at play in municipal utility district dissolutions. Decades of existing empirical studies on private, nonprofit, and interest organizations show that factors internal to organizations, such as institutional structure and resources are significant covariates of organizational mortality. Equally important are external factors, where density dependence and resource partitioning pressures influence organizational survival. Public sector organizations, such as special-purpose water districts, operate in relatively well monitored and statutorily constrained environments, however. Drawing upon the organizational mortality literature, we examine when and why municipal utility water districts that operate in fragmented service delivery systems dissolve. The results show that the relationship between internal and external organizational variables and special-purpose organizational dissolutions is more nuanced than existing research suggests.
Fredrik O. Andersson
Published: 12 September 2018
Nonprofit Policy Forum, Volume 9;

Individuals creating new nonprofit organizations are often viewed as being driven by intrinsic and altruistic motives pulling them into becoming a nonprofit entrepreneur. However, individuals can also be pushed towards self-employment in the nonprofit sector because of negative external forces, a phenomenon labeled necessity nonprofit entrepreneurship. This article explores necessity nonprofit entrepreneurs to illustrate how they differ from those not explicitly driven by necessity in starting up a new nonprofit, and what policy implications and questions necessity nonprofit entrepreneurship raises for nonprofit stakeholders.
German Journal of Exercise and Sport Research, Volume 47, pp 205-220;

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance, Volume 41, pp 359-375;

This study examines the significance of organizational founding and leadership by focusing on the minority founders of nine community-based–human service organizations in a neighborhood of concentrated disadvantage. It discusses founders’ motivations, barriers encountered, and strategies employed in establishing and operating such organizations. The paper draws on both institutional and resource dependence perspectives by paying particular attention to how minority founders seek to establish legitimacy and secure resources, but it also makes an important contribution to these perspectives by noting the distinct challenges and advantages for minority founders operating in a racialized context. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Published: 10 June 2016
Nonprofit Management and Leadership, Volume 27, pp 95-112;

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 22 May 2016
Journal: Human Relations
Human Relations, Volume 69, pp 1937-1958;

This article examines how tensions in institutional logics, created in the formation of hybrid organizations, are played out, and partially resolved, through micro-level interactions within everyday work. Drawing on the negotiated order perspective, our research examined how the ‘context’, ‘processes’ and ‘outcomes’ of micro-level negotiations reflect and mitigate tensions between institutional logics. Our ethnographic study of a public–private partnership within the English healthcare system identified tensions within the hybrid organization around organizational goals and values, work activities, hierarchies and the materials and technologies of work. We also identified processes of negotiation between actors, which contributed to negotiated settlements, at times combining elements of parent institutional logics, and at other times serving to keep parent logics distinct. The article demonstrates the relevance of negotiated order perspective to current institutional logics literature on hybrid organizations.
, Fredrik O. Andersson
International Journal of Public Administration, Volume 39, pp 883-894;

In this conceptual article we use the experience of the longstanding Milwaukee private school voucher program to categorize different failure types within the hollow state. Specifically, we argue that the overall performance of the hollow state is dependent on the performance of organizations operating within the hollow state, that organizational failures are inevitable in hollow state activities, and that such failures can be categorized as marketplace failures, service failures, institutional failures, or customer service failures. We conclude that policy makers must plan for the reality of organizational failures in the hollow state if such arrangements are to be effective.
David H. Smith, Brent Never, John Mohan, Lionel Prouteau, Lars Torpe
Published: 1 January 2016
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Fredrik O. Andersson
Published: 8 September 2015
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 45, pp 806-824;

The purpose of this article is to provide a window into the earliest phase of nonprofit organizational formation. Using a sample of 91 nascent nonprofit entrepreneurs and a framework from the entrepreneurship literature identifying the vital capacities for new venture development success, this exploratory article examines the capacity endowments of nascent nonprofits. The results indicate that nascent nonprofits have rather well-developed venture ideas and also a good understanding of whom they will serve. However, few have developed programs or services ready to be implemented or established relations with real beneficiaries and/or payers. In addition, this research highlights differences in capacity between nascent nonprofit entrepreneurs with and without previous start-up experience.
Chris Skelcher, Steven Rathgeb Smith
Published: 20 July 2014
Public Administration, Volume 93, pp 433-448;

We propose a novel approach to theorizing hybridity in public and nonprofit organizations. The concept of hybridity is widely used to describe organizational responses to changes in governance, but the literature seldom explains how hybrids arise or what forms they take. Transaction cost and organizational design literatures offer some solutions, but lack a theory of agency. We use the institutional logics approach to theorize hybrids as entities that face a plurality of normative frames. Logics provide symbolic and material elements that structure organizational legitimacy and actor identities. Contradictions between institutional logics offer space for them to be elaborated and creatively reconstructed by situated agents. We propose five types of organizational hybridity – segmented, segregated, assimilated, blended, and blocked. Each type is theoretically derived from empirically observed variations in organizational responses to institutional plurality. We develop propositions to show how our approach to hybridity adds value to academic and policy-maker audiences.
H. MacIndoe
Published: 16 December 2013
State and Local Government Review, Volume 45, pp 283-295;

This article uses data from a survey of nonprofit executive directors in Boston, Massachusetts to address the question: which factors influence the propensity for and intensity of nonprofit-local government collaborations? The likelihood of collaboration (or propensity) is influenced by resource dependence on government and foundation funding, reduced transaction costs, and perceived competition with other nonprofits. The strength (or intensity) of nonprofit-local government relationships is positively associated with nonprofit capacity, resource diversification, factors associated with reduced transaction costs, and participation in a nonprofit membership association. These findings have important implications for government practitioners and nonprofit leaders who seek to foster stronger collaborations.
Nicholas E. Florek
Journal of Sustainable Finance & Investment, Volume 3, pp 155-175;

Social enterprise, broadly defined as the innovative use of resources to achieve social goals, is an expanding part of the global economy that has the potential to address pressing social problems ranging from education to health care. It is a growing component of what is often referred to as the third sector; the part of the economy that encompasses organizations that are neither governmental nor for-profit business institutions. Within the last two decades, governments have begun to take note of this trend and make policy changes to support the sustained emergence of these enterprises. One policy option that has recently emerged in Europe and the United States is the creation of a separate regulatory framework for social enterprises via new forms of legal organization. This article explores the effectiveness of one new type of social enterprise legal organization, the UK's Community Interest Company. By analysing data collected from the UK's National Survey of Third Sector Organisations in 2009, this article asks whether organizations operating as Community Interest Companies exhibit some of the characteristics that policy makers intended to foster when drafting the new legislation? Our findings suggest that the hypothesized relationship is positive in both these cases but the results of the analysis support only a positive relationship between community interest companies and prioritization of earned income. Community interest companies are more likely to rely on earned income for at least 50% of their funding than any other organizational form among third sector organizations.
Published: 8 February 2013
The Journal of Development Studies, Volume 49, pp 1284-1298;

This study examines survival patterns in a large, representative panel of Ugandan non-governmental organisations (NGOs) between 2002 and 2008. It finds no evidence that more effective or more altruistic NGOs have a greater likelihood of survival. The main determinant of survival appears to be access to grants, and NGOs without grants struggle to survive. An investigation of the grant allocation mechanism suggests that effectiveness does not increase an NGO's likelihood of receiving a grant. Grant allocation appears to be neither fair nor effective, but rather to be awarded on the basis of habit rather than merit: once a grant has been allocated there is a strong tendency for it to persist. The odds are stacked against small NGOs that have not previously received grants. A picture emerges of two parallel NGO worlds: one where revenues are small, variable and hard to come by and survival is not very likely, and the other where revenues are high, more stable and more accessible and survival is more likely. The study suggests it may be difficult for an NGO to move from the former to the latter.
, Rebecca Nesbit
Published: 21 September 2012
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 42, pp 603-621;

In this study, the authors explore how the dynamics associated with the founding of new nonprofit organizations, the characteristics of the founders, and the developmental life cycles of nonprofit organizations contribute to the seemingly fragmented landscape of the nonprofit sector. Based on data collected from interviews with 31 nonprofit organizations, we find that new nonprofits are being created by passionate, entrepreneurial individuals who hope to make a difference in the community. Although these organizations are typically small, with few staff members and small budgets, the extent to which they rely on volunteers and are connected to the broader community varies considerably. Moreover, many founders had little experience volunteering or working in the sector. The findings from this study have important implications for the professional development of nonprofit staff, leaders, and volunteers, and they shed new light on how we think about and describe the founders of nonprofit organizations.
Published: 26 July 2012
Administration & Society, Volume 45, pp 974-1004;

The article presents a framework of nonprofit human resource management (NHRM) that emphasizes the context of nonprofits, organizational and employee characteristics. Drawing on contingency theory and social exchange theory, the article examines the multidimensional contingencies in the environment of nonprofit organizations and the characteristics of employees that underlie NHRM. Three underlying principles and five models of NHRM are presented to explain the dimensions of NHRM. The concept of social alignment, implications for nonprofit management research, and practice are discussed.
VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, Volume 24, pp 214-240;

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, Volume 6, pp 246-264;

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore narratives in a new nonprofit arts center. It includes the macro-, meso-, and personal narratives that keep the center organized in the midst of the chaotic everyday activities. It advocates the explanatory force of narrative as an alternative to organizational life cycle theory for understanding organizational startups. Design/methodology/approach – This narrative ethnography involved participant observation, full participation, and narrative interviews over a three-year period. Using grounded theory, narratives were examined to discover how they engendered and maintained order. Findings – This paper contributes to the understanding narratives as a constitutional organizing and sensemaking process, including the narratives of “do it yourself,” and economic production, family and home, and personal narratives that constitute community, community boundaries, and identity, adding to our knowledge of organizing. Research limitations/implications – The research examined only one local nonprofit arts center, therefore the findings are specific to this site and the same types of narratives may not necessarily be found in other nonprofits. Originality/value – This paper examines a nonprofit during start-up. It validates support for the examination of organizations through narrative ethnography and narrative interviewing. It purports that narratives constitute social identity, rather than being the evidence of social identity.
David A. Campbell
Published: 10 December 2010
Nonprofit Management and Leadership, Volume 21, pp 139-153;

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 13 April 2010
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 40, pp 662-681;

Nonprofits receive funding from multiple revenue sources, including private contributions and earned program revenues. In this article, we hypothesize that the composition of revenues is a result of the nature of services provided—specifically whether services are public, private, or mixed in the nature of their benefits. Using subfields from three major fields in the National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities (NTEE), this study divides nonprofits according to service type and estimates the impact of service character on particular revenue streams and overall revenue diversification. Generally, we find that the proportion of revenues generated by earned program revenues is lowest for the category deemed public, highest for those with mostly private benefits, and midway for those classified as mixed. Similarly, the more public a nonprofit’s services, the greater its reliance on donations. We also identify some puzzling results that suggest the need for continued investigation.
David A. Campbell
The American Review of Public Administration, Volume 40, pp 351-369;

Over 250 new nonprofit organizations were founded in the immediate aftermath of the 9/11 attacks. This study explores the characteristics of those organizations, the role they played and founders' motivations. The creation of new organizations is compared to the Disaster Resource Center's typology of organized responses to disaster. The study finds that classification of the organized response to recovery efforts following 9/11 requires a different typology and identifies two elements: derivative and unaffiliated organizations. Most of the new 9/11 organizations were temporary and defined long-term recovery as one to two years; those that endured five years had close institutional or experiential ties to victims’ families. New organizations created in response to disaster have a shorter lifespan than other populations of new organizations. The study indicates that the setting of a disaster and how its victims are defined affect the kinds of organizations people create, their role and endurance.
Roy Cain,
Published: 20 May 2009
Qualitative Social Work, Volume 8, pp 249-265;

This article examines how medical advances of the past decade affect social services for people living with HIV. Data for the study were drawn from in-depth interviews with 59 social service providers in Ontario, Canada. New antiretroviral treatments help many people to live longer and healthier lives with HIV. As a result of the improved health of clients, the focus of much of the work of social service providers has changed from acute health concerns to more chronic social issues. HIV can be just one of many complex issues in the lives of clients living with HIV/AIDS, as workers increasingly confront social problems, such as poverty, inadequate housing, or unavailable drug treatment services. Workers may have little training or experience in dealing with such issues. The article describes how agencies and workers have had to adapt to new practice realities resulting from effective HIV treatments.
, Sung Min Park
Review of Public Personnel Administration, Volume 29, pp 103-133;

Job involvement is a principal factor in the lives of most people; employees in the workplace are mentally and emotionally influenced by their degree of involvement in work. Using the data from the National Administrative Studies Project III, this study empirically compares the level of job involvement between managers in the public and nonprofit sectors and explores different aspects including demographic, managerial, and institutional factors that contribute to the apparent differences. The results of the study indicate that the mean level of nonprofit managers' job involvement is significantly greater than for public managers. Each sector had specific variables that significantly and uniquely contributed to job involvement. Overall, the results suggest a need to more fully investigate the various mechanisms and functions of situational and organizational contexts, organizational norms, and culture that were associated with job involvement regardless of sector. Implications and limitations of this research are also discussed.
Deborah A. Carroll, Keely Jones Stater
Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Volume 19, pp 947-966;

This article investigates whether revenue diversification leads to greater stability in the revenue structures of nonprofit organizations. Our findings suggest that nonprofits can indeed reduce their revenue volatility through diversification, particularly by equalizing their reliance on earned income, investments, and contributions. This positive effect of diversification on revenue stability implies that a diversified portfolio encourages more stable revenues and consequently could promote greater organizational longevity. Despite any additional complexity or crowding out, nonprofit managers may increase the financial stability of their organizations by adding additional revenue streams. However, our analysis also reveals several other important factors that contribute to nonprofit revenue stability. In particular, increasing a nonprofit organization's total expenses and fund balance reduces volatility, suggesting larger nonprofits and organizations with greater growth potential experience greater revenue stability. Finally, the results suggest nonprofits relying primarily on contributions will experience more volatility, whereas nonprofits located within urban areas will have more stable revenue structures over time.
Published: 19 September 2008
EuroMed Journal of Business, Volume 3, pp 305-319;

PurposeThis study aims to analyse the driving forces that either favour or inhibit internet adoption by organisations operating in the non‐profit sector.Design/methodology/approachFollowing a quantitative methodological approach, a national survey was applied to a sample of 392 Portuguese non‐profit organisations to empirically test the proposed conceptual model. Logistic regression, which enables to test models to predict categorical outcomes with two categories was used to analyse the data.FindingsFindings drawn from this study identify key factors that facilitate or inhibit internet adoption by non‐profit organisations. The internet is perceived as a potential tool for the dissemination of social values and programs of action, the improvement of public image, the enhancement of customer satisfaction, and the improvement of service delivery. By contrast, lack of expertise and start‐up costs have been identified as the most significant inhibitors. In addition, size, age and international affiliation are shown as important internet adoption facilitators.Practical implicationsThis study offers the opportunity to rethink existing policies and to set forth specific measures that can be designed to encourage and foster the use of the internet by non‐profit organisations.Originality/valueThe relevance of this study is set against a lack of consistent, detailed research on the factors determining internet adoption within the context of the non‐profit sector.
Juan J. Fernandez
Published: 27 September 2007
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 37, pp 113-137;

Voluntary associations play increasingly important roles in many industrialized societies. However, little is still known about why they die. This article attempts to fill this gap. It reconstructs the history of 41 closed Spanish voluntary associations of Madrid's metropolitan area through archival research and semistructured interviews to define the causes of their dissolutions. The conclusions indicate that the majority of the organizations dissolved due to mission completion (particularly goal fulfillment) and resource insufficiency. This article also uses central predictions of new institutionalism, population ecology, and resource dependence theories and shows that these three models provide valuable insights to account for these dissolutions. As each theory respectively predicts, those organizations with lower sociopolitical legitimacy, that were younger and smaller, or that were funded by only one source dissolved younger.
Robert B. Fischer, Amanda L. Wilsker, Dennis Young
Published: 1 January 2007
SSRN Electronic Journal;

Nonprofit organizations offer a wide range of goods and services and seek funding from a variety of revenue sources. Our working theory n this paper is that the
, Joseph Galaskiewicz, Jeff A Larson
Published: 1 June 2004
Public Management Review, Volume 6, pp 159-188;

Ecological studies have consistently reported that younger organizations are more likely to close or disband than older organizations. This article uses neo-institutional theory and social capital theory to explore this finding. We derive hypotheses from these perspectives and test them on a panel of nonprofit organizations in Minneapolis-St Paul (USA) using event history analysis. We find that larger organizations and organizations more dependent upon private donations are less likely to close, and government funding reduces the age effect on mortality; that is, older and younger publicly funded organizations are equally likely to survive or fail. However, among older organizations, not having government funding increases chances of survival. In contrast, volunteer staffing accentuates the age effect. Older organizations that were more dependent on volunteers had a lower likelihood of closure than younger organizations dependent on volunteers, while age had no effect on closure for organizations not dependent on volunteers. We conclude by examining our findings in light of the extant thinking on the liability of newness and the role of institutional and network embeddedness on the chances of organizational survival.
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