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(searched for: doi:10.13182/nt81-a32753)
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S. S. Sadhal, P. S. Ayyaswamy, J. N. Chung
Engineering Materials and Processes pp 275-310; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-4022-8_6

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L.J. Huang, P.S. Ayyaswamy, Srinivas S. Sripada
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Volume 39, pp 3791-3797; https://doi.org/10.1016/0017-9310(96)00064-6

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M. Jicha, K. C. Karki, S. V. Patankar
Numerical Heat Transfer, Part A: Applications, Volume 26, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1080/10407789408955977

Abstract:
A numerical study of a turbulent gas-liquid droplet flow is presented using the Lagrangian approach for the discrete phase and the Eulerian approach for the continuous phase. The spray nozzle is mounted on the wall of a two-dimensional plane channel, The influence of different directional angles as well as the angle of spray on the velocity and temperature field of the main phase are studied. Three sine categories are used to model the spray with the mean mass diameter of I mm, Two different spray angles are defined, namely 10° and 60°, The average directional angle varies (measured from the wall) from 60° to 120°.
J C Barrett
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Volume 18, pp 753-764; https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/18/4/020

Abstract:
Mie theory is used to calculate the extinction and scattering efficiencies and the mean cosine of scattering for spherical water droplets. Tables and graphs are presented of properties averaged over the black-body distribution at temperatures of 280K, 350K and 413K for a range of droplet radii between 0.5 and 20 mu m. The accuracy of using these wavelength-averaged quantities in the calculation of heat fluxes is found to be typically better than 5% for droplets with radius greater than 5 mu m. The effect of small systematic changes in the refractive index is examined: a change of a few per cent in the real part may produce changes of three to six times as much in scattering efficiencies. The values predicted by commonly used approximation formulae are compared with Mie theory values: agreement is found to be poor for small drops and around 10% for drops with radii greater than 7 mu m.
Yasuo Motoki, Mitsuo Naritomi, Mitsugu Tanaka, Gunji Nishio, Kazuichiro Hashimoto, Susumu Kitani
Published: 1 November 1983
by AMNS
Nuclear Technology, Volume 63, pp 316-329; https://doi.org/10.13182/nt83-a33290

Abstract:
Heat removal tests for pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment spray were carried out to investigate effectiveness of the depressurization by Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute model containment (7-m diameter, 20 m high, and 708-m3 volume) with PWR spray nozzles. The depressurization rate is influenced by the spray heat transfer efficiency and the containment wall surface heat transfer coefficient. The overall spray heat transfer efficiency was investigated with respect to spray flow rate, weight ratio of steam/air, and spray height. The spray droplet heat transfer efficiency was investigated whether the overlapping of spray patterns gives effect or not. The effect was not detectable in the range of large value of steam/air, however, it was better in the range of small value of it. The experimental results were compared with the calculated results by computer code CONTEMPT-LT/022. The overall spray heat transfer efficiency was almost 100% in the containment pressure, ranging from 2.5 to 0.9 kg/cm2·G, so that the code was useful on the prediction of the thermal-hydraulic behavior of containment atmosphere in a PWR accident condition.
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