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(searched for: doi:10.1080/10508414.2017.1313096)
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Barbara Mika, Katarzyna Grzegorczyk, Marta Galant-Gołębiewska, Marta Maciejewska
Published: 1 September 2022
Journal of KONBiN, Volume 52, pp 53-76; https://doi.org/10.2478/jok-2022-0023

Abstract:
The eye tracking technique is increasingly used in the context of examining the method of processing visual information from instruments and displays located in the cockpit of an airplane. An important aspect is monitoring the pilot’s visual behavior in the most difficult phase of the flight, which is the landing of the plane. Six people participated in the research, divided into three groups according to their experience. The subjects performed three landing approaches in various weather conditions. During the study, the visual behavior of the participants was recorded using the Pupil Invisible eye tracker. Based on the analysis of heatmaps and areas of interest, differences in the distribution and number of fixations in the visual field between pilots with different aviation experience were shown.
, Josua Marlok, Nicole Bandow, Kerstin Witte
Published: 23 July 2022
Multimedia Tools and Applications pp 1-28; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11042-022-13474-y

Abstract:
In recent years, Virtual Reality (VR) has become a valuable tool in rehabilitation and sports training applications. New technologies offer opportunities to combine various systems and use them for sports-related scientific purposes. For instance, examining the visual perception of athletes within a standardized environment could be helpful to understand the differences between novices and experts in their visual behavior and could further reveal possible training applications for enhancing athletes’ visual attention. The current systematic literature review thematizes the importance of eye-tracking (ET) systems’ usage integrated into head-mounted displays (HMDs) in virtual environments for further inclusion in sports-related usage. An overview of possible implementations is given, and additional recommendations for using the combined technic regarding sports are made. Although only one study examined gaze behavior during sports activity within a standardized virtual environment, 38 relevant papers were identified using the ET systems integrated into the HMDs, which ideas can be transferred to the sports sector. The increased usability and fidelity in the virtual environment enabled through the combined technology were illustrated, and different approaches were listed in using and calculating gaze parameters. This literature review examines the possibility of integrating ET in VR, which can be further used to improve usability, interaction methods, image presentation, and visual perception analyses within future physical training scenarios. The compiled studies have shown that the existing methods are feasible due to the performance of the integrated ET systems but still need to be improved for practical use.
Sarah Piechowski, Bernd Johannes, Willi Pustowalow, Michael Arz, Edwin Mulder, Jens Jordan, Oliver T. Wolf, Jörn Rittweger
Aerospace medicine and human performance, Volume 93, pp 480-486; https://doi.org/10.3357/amhp.6005.2022

Abstract:
BACKGROUND: Manually controlled docking of a spacecraft to a space station is an operational task that poses high demands on cognitive and perceptual functioning. Effective processing of visual information is crucial for success. Eye tracking can reveal the operator’s attentional focus unobtrusively and objectively. Therefore, our aim was to test the feasibility of eye tracking during a simulation of manual docking and to identify links between visual information processing and performance.METHODS: We hypothesized that duration and number of gazes to specific regions of interest of the simulation (total dwell time and number of dwells) would be associated with docking accuracy. Eye movements were recorded in 10 subjects (30% women, M = 33.4 yr old) during the 6° head-down tilt bed rest study AGBRESA during 20 training sessions with the 6df learning program for spacecraft docking.RESULTS: Subjects’ gaze was directed most frequently and longest to the vizor (185 dwells and 22,355 ms per task) followed by the two instrument displays (together 75 dwells and 4048 ms per task). We observed a significant positive relationship between number and duration of visual checks of speed and distance to the docking point and the accuracy of the docking maneuver.DISCUSSION: In conclusion, eye tracking provides valuable information related to docking accuracy that might prospectively offer the opportunity to improve docking training effectiveness.Piechowski S, Johannes B, Pustowalow W, Arz M, Mulder E, Jordan J, Wolf OT, Rittweger J. Visual attention relates to operator performance in spacecraft docking training. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2022; 93(6):480–486.
, David Rudi, Emanuel Meier, ,
International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2022.2075627

Abstract:
Contemporary aircraft cockpits rely mostly on audiovisual information propagation which can overwhelm particularly novice pilots. The introduction of tactile feedback, as a less taxed modality, can improve the usability in this case. As part of a within-subject simulator study, 22 participants are asked to fly a visual-flight-rule scenario along a predefined route and identify objects in the outside world that serve as waypoints. Participants fly two similar scenarios with and without a tactile belt that indicates the route. Results show that with the belt, participants perform better in identifying objects, have higher usability and user experience ratings, and a lower perceived cognitive workload, while showing no improvement in spatial awareness. Moreover, 86% of the participants state that they prefer flying with the tactile belt. These results suggest that a tactile belt provides pilots with an unobtrusive mode of assistance for tasks that require orientation using cues from the outside world.
Published: 17 May 2022
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review pp 1-27; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-022-02117-w

Abstract:
Peripheral vision is fundamental for many real-world tasks, including walking, driving, and aviation. Nonetheless, there has been no effort to connect these applied literatures to research in peripheral vision in basic vision science or sports science. To close this gap, we analyzed 60 relevant papers, chosen according to objective criteria. Applied research, with its real-world time constraints, complex stimuli, and performance measures, reveals new functions of peripheral vision. Peripheral vision is used to monitor the environment (e.g., road edges, traffic signs, or malfunctioning lights), in ways that differ from basic research. Applied research uncovers new actions that one can perform solely with peripheral vision (e.g., steering a car, climbing stairs). An important use of peripheral vision is that it helps compare the position of one’s body/vehicle to objects in the world. In addition, many real-world tasks require multitasking, and the fact that peripheral vision provides degraded but useful information means that tradeoffs are common in deciding whether to use peripheral vision or move one’s eyes. These tradeoffs are strongly influenced by factors like expertise, age, distraction, emotional state, task importance, and what the observer already knows. These tradeoffs make it hard to infer from eye movements alone what information is gathered from peripheral vision and what tasks we can do without it. Finally, we recommend three ways in which basic, sport, and applied science can benefit each other’s methodology, furthering our understanding of peripheral vision more generally.
Published: 31 March 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Robotics
Abstract:
As a result of several governments closing educational facilities in reaction to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, almost 80% of the world’s students were not in school for several weeks. Schools and universities are thus increasing their efforts to leverage educational resources and provide possibilities for remote learning. A variety of educational programs, platforms, and technologies are now accessible to support student learning; while these tools are important for society, they are primarily concerned with the dissemination of theoretical material. There is a lack of support for hands-on laboratory work and practical experience. This is particularly important for all disciplines related to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), where labs and pedagogical assets must be continuously enhanced in order to provide effective study programs. In this study, we describe a unique perspective to achieving multi-sensory learning through the integration of virtual and augmented reality (VR/AR) with haptic wearables in STEM education. We address the implications of a novel viewpoint on established pedagogical notions. We want to encourage worldwide efforts to make fully immersive, open, and remote laboratory learning a reality.
Published: 14 October 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Safety
Abstract:
Poor cockpit monitoring has been identified as an important contributor to aviation accidents. Improving pilots’ monitoring strategies could therefore help to enhance flight safety. During two different sessions, we analyzed the flight performance and eye movements of professional airline pilots in a full-flight simulator. In a pre-training session, 20 pilots performed a manual approach scenario as pilot flying (PFs) and were classified into three groups according to their flight performance: unstabilized, standard, and most accurate. The unstabilized pilots either under- or over-focused various instruments. Their number of visual scanning patterns was lower than those of pilots who managed to stabilize their approach. The most accurate pilots showed a higher perceptual efficiency with shorter fixation times and more fixations on important primary flight instruments. Approximately 10 months later, fourteen pilots returned for a post-training session. They received a short training program and performed a similar manual approach as during the pre-training session. Seven of them, the experimental group, received individual feedback on their own performance and visual behavior (i.e., during the pre-training session) and a variety of data obtained from the most accurate pilots, including an eye-tracking video showing efficient visual scanning strategies from one of the most accurate pilots. The other seven, the control group, received general guidelines on cockpit monitoring. During the post-training session, the experimental group had better flight performance (compared to the control group), and its visual scanning strategies became more similar to those of the most accurate pilots. In summary, our results suggest that cockpit monitoring underlies manual flight performance and that it can be improved using a training program based mainly on exposure to eye movement examples from highly accurate pilots.
Published: 13 September 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Sensors
Sensors, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21186135

Abstract:
Background—The visual inspection of aircraft parts such as engine blades is crucial to ensure safe aircraft operation. There is a need to understand the reliability of such inspections and the factors that affect the results. In this study, the factor ‘cleanliness’ was analysed among other factors. Method—Fifty industry practitioners of three expertise levels inspected 24 images of parts with a variety of defects in clean and dirty conditions, resulting in a total of N = 1200 observations. The data were analysed statistically to evaluate the relationships between cleanliness and inspection performance. Eye tracking was applied to understand the search strategies of different levels of expertise for various part conditions. Results—The results show an inspection accuracy of 86.8% and 66.8% for clean and dirty blades, respectively. The statistical analysis showed that cleanliness and defect type influenced the inspection accuracy, while expertise was surprisingly not a significant factor. In contrast, inspection time was affected by expertise along with other factors, including cleanliness, defect type and visual acuity. Eye tracking revealed that inspectors (experts) apply a more structured and systematic search with less fixations and revisits compared to other groups. Conclusions—Cleaning prior to inspection leads to better results. Eye tracking revealed that inspectors used an underlying search strategy characterised by edge detection and differentiation between surface deposits and other types of damage, which contributed to better performance.
Yohan Kang, May Jorella Lazaro,
Published: 13 September 2021
International journal of industrial ergonomics, Volume 86; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2021.103202

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Huibin Jin, Zhanyao Hu, , Mingjian Chu, Guoliang Zou, Guihua Yu,
IEEE Access, Volume 9, pp 44757-44769; https://doi.org/10.1109/access.2021.3066880

Abstract:
To explore how pilots’ distribution of visual attention affects flight performance, twenty male pilots (novices and experts with 407 ± 11.3 h and 4127 ± 77 h of flight experience, respectively) were enlisted to complete the instrument holding pattern and approach procedure on the DA-42 simulator. The distribution of visual attention was based on eye movement data recorded during the flight to investigate how pilots scan the flight instrument panel, which was divided into six areas of interest (AOIs). To evaluate the pilots’ flight performance an expert scoring method was used. During the outbound-leg stage, experts paid significantly more visual attention to the airspeed indicator, altimeter and reference system, whereas for the approach phase, they devoted more attention to the airspeed indicator, altimeter and vertical speed indicator. Results showed that experts’ proportions of gaze duration on different AOIs contributed to their better performance. An effective visual attention model can be developed on this study to improve air traffic safety.
, Jason M. Tangen, Rachel A. Searston
Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, Volume 6, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-021-00282-5

Abstract:
Experts outperform novices on many cognitive and perceptual tasks. Extensive training has tuned experts to the most relevant information in their specific domain, allowing them to make decisions quickly and accurately. We compared a group of fingerprint examiners to a group of novices on their ability to search for information in fingerprints across two experiments—one where participants searched for target features within a single fingerprint and another where they searched for points of difference between two fingerprints. In both experiments, we also varied how useful the target feature was and whether participants searched for these targets in a typical fingerprint or one that had been scrambled. Experts more efficiently located targets when searching for them in intact but not scrambled fingerprints. In Experiment 1, we also found that experts more efficiently located target features classified as more useful compared to novices, but this expert-novice difference was not present when the target feature was classified as less useful. The usefulness of the target may therefore have influenced the search strategies that participants used, and the visual search advantages that experts display appear to depend on their vast experience with visual regularity in fingerprints. These results align with a domain-specific account of expertise and suggest that perceptual training ought to involve learning to attend to task-critical features.
, Vsevolod Peysakhovich, Mickaël Causse
Published: 18 February 2021
Journal: PLoS ONE
Abstract:
During a flight, pilots must rigorously monitor their flight instruments since it is one of the critical activities that contribute to update their situation awareness. The monitoring is cognitively demanding, but is necessary for timely intervention in the event of a parameter deviation. Many studies have shown that a large part of commercial aviation accidents involved poor cockpit monitoring from the crew. Research in eye-tracking has developed numerous metrics to examine visual strategies in fields such as art viewing, sports, chess, reading, aviation, and space. In this article, we propose to use both basic and advanced eye metrics to study visual information acquisition, gaze dispersion, and gaze patterning among novices and pilots. The experiment involved a group of sixteen certified professional pilots and a group of sixteen novice during a manual landing task scenario performed in a flight simulator. The two groups landed three times with different levels of difficulty (manipulated via a double task paradigm). Compared to novices, professional pilots had a higher perceptual efficiency (more numerous and shorter dwells), a better distribution of attention, an ambient mode of visual attention, and more complex and elaborate visual scanning patterns. We classified pilot’s profiles (novices—experts) by machine learning based on Cosine KNN (K-Nearest Neighbors) using transition matrices. Several eye metrics were also sensitive to the landing difficulty. Our results can benefit the aviation domain by helping to assess the monitoring performance of the crews, improve initial and recurrent training and ultimately reduce incidents, and accidents due to human error.
, Anna Hohm, Annabell Michalek, Timo Egenolf, Christian Markus, Oliver Happel
Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society; https://doi.org/10.1177/0018720821991651

Abstract:
Objective In the context of anesthesiology, we investigated whether the salience effort expectancy value (SEEV) model fit is associated with situation awareness and perception scores. Background The distribution of visual attention is important for situation awareness—that is, understanding what is going on—in safety-critical domains. Although the SEEV model has been suggested as a process situation awareness measure, the validity of the model as a predictor of situation awareness has not been tested. Method In a medical simulation, 31 senior and 30 junior anesthesiologists wore a mobile eye tracker and induced general anesthesia into a simulated patient. When inserting a breathing tube into the mannequin’s trachea (endotracheal intubation), the scenario included several clinically relevant events for situation awareness and general events in the environment. Both were assessed using direct awareness measures. Results The overall SEEV model fit was good with no difference between junior and senior anesthesiologists. Overall, the situation awareness scores were low. As expected, the SEEV model fits showed significant positive correlations with situation awareness level 1 scores. Conclusion The SEEV model seems to be suitable as a process situation awareness measure to predict and investigate the perception of changes in the environment (situation awareness level 1). The situation awareness scores indicated that anesthesiologists seem not to perceive the environment well during endotracheal intubation. Application The SEEV model fit can be used to capture and assess situation awareness level 1. During endotracheal intubation, anesthesiologists should be supported by technology or staff to notice changes in the environment.
The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/24721840.2020.1862658

Abstract:
Objective: To reduce the gap between old and new eye-tracking studies in aviation by raising the interest of the scientific community in some of the pioneering works. We present two emblematic cases: the misattributed origin of the use of eye-tracking techniques in aviation to Paul M. Fitts and his collaborators, and the forgotten (and often reinvented) oculometer training tape technique. Background: Over the last century, military and civilian researchers have used eye-tracking techniques to solve many challenges faced by the aviation industry, from assessing new graphical displays to testing procedural trainings. Yet, these techniques have been always classified as merely promising. The difficulty of using eye trackers outside of a laboratory environment, and the labor-intensive data extraction and interpretation procedures have long been considered a barrier to implementing eye-tracking techniques in aviation settings. Method: We revised original scientific articles as well as military and civilian technical reports on the use of eye-tracking techniques in aviation settings from the beginning of Aviation Psychology. Results: A systematic failure in recognizing and learning from the pioneering works might be a concomitant explanation for classifying the use of eye-tracking techniques as merely promising. Conclusion: Taking together past and present findings, it would not be over-optimistic to state that eye-tracking finally went from being a “promising” technique in aviation to a “proven” one.
Giuseppe Rainieri, Federico Fraboni, Gabriele Russo, Martin Tul, Andrea Pingitore, Alessia Tessari, Luca Pietrantoni
Aerospace medicine and human performance, Volume 92, pp 11-19; https://doi.org/10.3357/amhp.5681.2021

Abstract:
INTRODUCTION: The visual scanning techniques used by helicopter pilots are a critical skill to accomplish safe and correct landing. According to the human information processing theory, visual scanning techniques can be analyzed as a function of fixation location, number, and duration of fixations.METHODS: This study assessed these techniques in expert and novice pilots during an open sea flight simulation in a low-workload condition, consisting of a daylight and good weather simulation, and in a high-workload condition of night-time, low visibility, and adverse weather conditions. Taking part in the study were 12 helicopter pilots. Mental workload was assessed through psychological measures (NASA-TLX). The pilots performance was assessed and eye movements were recorded using an eye-tracker during four phases of the flight simulations.RESULTS: Overall, pilots made more fixations out of the window (OTW; 22.54) than inside the cockpit (ITC; 11.08), Fixations were longer OTW (830.17 ms) than ITC (647.97 ms) and they were shorter in the low-demand condition (626.27 ms). Further, pilots reported higher mental workload (NASA-TLX) in the high-demand condition compared to the low-demand condition, regardless of their expertise, and expert pilots reported a lower mental workload compared to novice pilots.DISCUSSION: Pilots performance and perceived mental workload varied as a function of expertise and flight conditions. Pilots rely on instrument support during the cruise phase and external visual cues during the landing phase. The implications for a new visual landing system design are discussed.Rainieri G, Fraboni F, Russo G, Tul M, Pingitore A, Tessari A, Pietrantoni L. Visual scanning techniques and mental workload of helicopter pilots during simulated flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2021; 92(1):1119.
Published: 28 July 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Applied Sciences
Applied Sciences, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10155211

Abstract:
During their professional career, pilots often experience a change in workplace conditions in the form of an aircraft cockpit ergonomics change. Change of working conditions may impact their perception of flight data or the pilot’s psychophysiological condition, especially in cases of inexperienced pilots. The presented study deals with the influence of cockpit ergonomics change on the performance and pilot workload during a training course. We divided 20 subjects with no previous practical flying experience into two training groups (Gr. A and Gr. B). The flight training was focused on acquisition of basic piloting skills where both groups experienced cockpit ergonomics change in different training phases. The performance (piloting precision) was assessed based on deviations from predetermined parameters of the monitored flight manoeuvres. Heart rate variability qualified the extent of workload. The study showed the influence of the cockpit arrangement on piloting precision, where the transition to other type of cockpit ergonomics did not influence pilots’ subjective workload with statistical significance.
Benjamin T. Carter,
Published: 3 June 2020
International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 155, pp 49-62; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2020.05.010

Abstract:
This guide describes best practices in using eye tracking technology for research in a variety of disciplines. A basic outline of the anatomy and physiology of the eyes and of eye movements is provided, along with a description of the sorts of research questions eye tracking can address. We then explain how eye tracking technology works and what sorts of data it generates, and provide guidance on how to select and use an eye tracker as well as selecting appropriate eye tracking measures. Challenges to the validity of eye tracking studies are described, along with recommendations for overcoming these challenges. We then outline correct reporting standards for eye tracking studies.
Christophe Antony Lounis, Almoctar Hassoumi, Olivier Lefrancois, Vsevolod Peysakhovich, Mickael Causse
Abstract:
Flight instruments, from which a pilot monitors an aircraft, usually serve as areas-of-interest (AOI) that help to investigate the dynamics of the visual behavior of pilots. Consequently, several meta-metrics have been proposed to provide more information than common variables such as the number of fixations and saccades, the fixation durations, the saccade amplitude, and the standard dwell time. Researchers are however still searching for the best metrics for better insights into eye movements during scene exploration or inspection. In this work, we propose extending the formerly well established κ-coefficient metric defined by Krejtz et al. [2016] that allows discerning ambient and focal attention. Using AOI and transitions between them, we have derived a new measure that enables assessment of the distribution of visual attention (via eye-tracking data). Professional pilots’ eye movements were recorded while they were performing a flight scenario with full automation, including phases of flight (take-off, cruise, landing). Our analysis suggests that the take-off, cruise, and landing phases call for checking of specific areas, evidenced by the number of fixations and their durations. Furthermore, we compare our metric to the standard κ-coefficient and validate our approach using data collected during an experiment with 11 certified aircraft pilots. Here, we were able to show that the derived metric can be an interesting alternative for visual behavior investigation. The modified κ-coefficient can be used as a metric to investigate visual attention distribution, with application in cockpit monitoring assessment during training sessions or potentially during real flights.
, Gal Ziv, Ignace T. C. Hooge, Oron Levin, Thomas De Brouwere, Johny Verschakelen, Siska Dauwe, A. Mark Williams, , Werner F. Helsen
Published: 4 May 2020
Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, Volume 82, pp 2837-2850; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-020-02033-y

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Joe Thompson, Neda Anvari, Somaya Judi Azmand, Jordan Barnes, Robin C. A. Barrett, Romanos Byliris, Yue Chen, Katerina Dolguikh, Kayla Fischler, et al.
Published: 24 April 2020
Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, Volume 82, pp 2434-2447; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13414-020-02019-w

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Steffen Hölscher, Thomas Dautermann
Aviation Psychology and Applied Human Factors, Volume 10, pp 3-12; https://doi.org/10.1027/2192-0923/a000177

Abstract:
Head-up displays (HUD) assist pilots, especially in the approach and landing phase. In this paper we compared pilots’ eye-tracking behavior between a pathway-in-the-sky layout versus the more conventional two-dimensional symbology in an HUD in a fixed-based cockpit simulator. In particular, we wanted to assess how visual attention was distributed within each layout (tunnel and standard). Performance and eye-tracking data were recorded, as well as workload and situation awareness measures. Results showed that the tunnel-in-the-sky symbology provided a very high tracking performance with low perceived workload and high perceived situational awareness. The analysis of the eye-tracking data revealed possible attentional tunneling with the tunnel-in-the-sky symbology and large differences between the displays in the distribution of visual attention.
Emily Hartkop, Christopher D. Wickens, John Keller, Anne C. McLaughlin
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 63, pp 1948-1952; https://doi.org/10.1177/1071181319631399

Abstract:
Efficiency of search often comes with experience. We explored search processes during a highly dynamic and complex task: rock climbing. In general, we found similarities between expert and non-expert climbers regarding their visual search and differences in their tactile search. Analyses determined that experts and non-experts did not differ in their visual fixations toward areas of interest (AOIs), but differed in their mean fixation times depending on the terrain. Experts performed fewer investigative touches than non-experts, suggesting that experts might have climbed faster due to their reliance on visual rather than tactile cues. These findings support the theory of information foraging in a dynamic environment by suggesting that non-experts used tactile search to acquire information rather than relying on visual search.
Salem Naeeri, Saptarshi Mandal, Ziho Kang
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, Volume 63, pp 111-115; https://doi.org/10.1177/1071181319631092

Abstract:
Performance decrement associated with pilot fatigue is considered a leading contributor to aviation accidents and fatalities. The output of prevalent pilot fatigue methodologies (both subjective & objective) either suffer from human judgement bias or require complex data processing. Moreover, studies catering to long duration flight missions have not been performed. Presently, we investigate the impact of fatigue on pilot performance for long duration of a flight mission composed of multiple take-offs and landings. We propose a new multimodal approach that integrates traditional fatigue metrics with eye tracking methodology. The effect of fatigue on the pilots’ eye movements was evaluated using information theory-based entropy measures. Results showed an increase in the fatigue level (measured by mean reaction times and the number of lapses) with increase in flight duration. The entropy measures showed that visual attention distribution and scanning strategy both became random in nature as fatigue level increased in pilots. Obtained results suggest fatigue decreases both information searching and processing capability in pilots. The proposed method can show which aspect of the pilot performance becomes impaired by fatigue and thus can be applied to evaluate fatigue onset in real time, which enables timely recovery interventions.
Published: 8 November 2019
Journal: Ergonomics
Ergonomics, Volume 63, pp 61-79; https://doi.org/10.1080/00140139.2019.1685132

Abstract:
This work investigates the potential of providing commercial aviation flight instructors with an eye tracking enhanced observation system to support the training process. During training, instructors must deal with many parallel tasks, such as operating the flight simulator, acting as air traffic controllers, observing the pilots and taking notes. This can cause instructors to miss relevant information that is crucial for debriefing the pilots. To support instructors, the instructor ASsistant SYSTem (iASSYST) was developed. It includes video, audio, simulator and eye tracking recordings. iASSYST was evaluated in a study involving 7 instructors. The results show that with iASSYST, instructors were able to support their observations of errors, find new errors, determine that some previously identified errors were not errors, and to reclassify the types of errors that they had originally identified. Instructors agreed that eye tracking can help identifying causes of pilot error. Practitioner Summary: This paper introduces an instructor assistant system, which is evaluated in a user study involving 7 airline flight instructors. The system can be used by airline flight instructors to complement their observations, as a basis for discussions with pilots during debriefing, and by airline pilots to improve their flight performance.
, Peter Kiefer, Ioannis Giannopoulos, Martin Raubal
Published: 19 July 2019
Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces, Volume 14, pp 25-48; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12193-019-00309-8

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 1 December 2018
by MDPI
Journal: Symmetry
Abstract:
Control of robot arms is often required in engineering and can be performed by using different methods. This study examined and symmetrically compared the use of a controller, eye gaze tracker and a combination thereof in a multimodal setup for control of a robot arm. Tasks of different complexities were defined and twenty participants completed an experiment using these interaction modalities to solve the tasks. More specifically, there were three tasks: the first was to navigate a chess piece from a square to another pre-specified square; the second was the same as the first task, but required more moves to complete; and the third task was to move multiple pieces to reach a solution to a pre-defined arrangement of the pieces. Further, while gaze control has the potential to be more intuitive than a hand controller, it suffers from limitations with regard to spatial accuracy and target selection. The multimodal setup aimed to mitigate the weaknesses of the eye gaze tracker, creating a superior system without simply relying on the controller. The experiment shows that the multimodal setup improves performance over the eye gaze tracker alone (p0.05).
, Ignace T. C. Hooge, Gal Ziv, Siska Dauwe, Ken Evens, Tony De Wolf, Oron Levin, , Werner F. Helsen
Published: 21 November 2018
Journal: PLoS ONE
Abstract:
The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between expertise, performance, and gaze behavior in a complex error-detection cockpit task. Twenty-four pilots and 26 non-pilots viewed video-clips from a pilot’s viewpoint and were asked to detect malfunctions in the cockpit instrument panel. Compared to non-pilots, pilots detected more malfunctioning instruments, had shorter dwell times on the instruments, made more transitions, visited task-relevant areas more often, and dwelled longer on the areas between the instruments. These results provide evidence for three theories that explain underlying processes for expert performance: The long-term working memory theory, the information-reduction hypothesis, and the holistic model of image perception. In addition, the results for generic attentional skills indicated a higher capability to switch between global and local information processing in pilots compared to non-pilots. Taken together, the results suggest that gaze behavior as well as other generic skills may provide important information concerning underlying processes that can explain successful performance during flight in expert pilots.
, Christopher D. Wickens, Rithi Baruah
The International Journal of Aerospace Psychology, Volume 28, pp 98-112; https://doi.org/10.1080/24721840.2018.1514978

Abstract:
Objective: The aim of this article is to present a comprehensive review of eye-tracking measures and discuss different application areas of the method of eye tracking in the field of aviation. Background: Psychophysiological measures such as eye tracking in pilots are useful for detecting fatigue or high-workload conditions, for investigating motion sickness and hypoxia, or for assessing display improvements and expertise. Method: We review the uses of eye tracking on pilots and include eye-tracking studies published in aviation journals, with both a historical and contemporary view. We include 79 papers and assign the results to the following three categories: Human performance, aircraft design, health and physiological factors affecting performance. We then summarize the different uses of eye tracking in each category and highlight metrics which turned out to be useful in each area. Our review is complementary to that of Ziv (2016). Results: On the basis of these analyses, we propose useful application areas for the measurement of eye tracking. Eye tracking has the potential to be effective in terms of preventing errors or injuries by detecting, for example, fatigue or performance decrements. Applied in an appropriate manner in simulated or real flight it can help to ensure optimal functioning of man–machine systems. Conclusion: Further aviation psychology and aerospace medicine research will benefit from measurement of eye movements.
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