(searched for: doi:10.1075/avt.13.21red)
Linguistics in the Netherlands, Volume 38, pp 21-39; https://doi.org/10.1075/avt.00048.bim
We investigate the discourse structure of Free Indirect Discourse passages in narratives. We argue that Free Indirect Discourse reports consist of two separate propositional discourse units: an (explicit or implicit) frame segment and a reported content. These segments are connected at the level of discourse structure by a non-veridical, subordinating discourse relation of Attribution, familiar from recent SDRT analyses of indirect discourse constructions in natural conversation (Hunter, 2016). We conducted an experiment to detect the covert presence of a subordinating frame segment based on its effects on pronoun resolution. We compared (unframed) Free Indirect Discourse with overtly framed Indirect Discourse and a non-reportative segment. We found that the first two indeed pattern alike in terms of pronoun resolution, which we take as evidence against the pragmatic context split approach of Schlenker (2004) and Eckardt (2014), and in favor of our discourse structural Attribution analysis.
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.701486
Perspective-taking is fundamental for language comprehension, including the interpretation of subjective adjectives (e.g., fun, tasty, and amazing). To understand these adjectives, one needs to know whose opinion is being conveyed—in other words, who is the attitude-holder or perspectival center. Although the perspective-sensitivity of subjective adjectives has received considerable attention in prior work in formal semantics, potential effects of sensory modality (e.g., sight, taste, and smell) on the process of attitude-holder identification have not been systematically investigated. This paper reports a series of studies testing whether interpretation of subjective adjectives depends on whether they refer to the visual, olfactory (smell) vs. gustatory (taste) domains. The results provide evidence that sensory modality has a significant impact on the process of identifying the attitude-holder. This outcome suggests that perspective-sensitivity is highly context-dependent, and the observed modality effects align well with the biological and social properties of sight, taste, and smell.
Frontiers in Communication, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomm.2021.625757
In this paper, we investigate the question of whether and how perspective taking at the linguistic level interacts with perspective taking at the level of co-speech gestures. In an experimental rating study, we compared test items clearly expressing the perspective of an individual participating in the event described by the sentence with test items which clearly express the speaker’s or narrator’s perspective. Each test item was videotaped in two different versions: In one version, the speaker performed a co-speech gesture in which she enacted the event described by the sentence from a participant’s point of view (i.e. with a character viewpoint gesture). In the other version, she performed a co-speech gesture depicting the event described by the sentence as if it was observed from a distance (i.e. with an observer viewpoint gesture). Both versions of each test item were shown to participants who then had to decide which of the two versions they find more natural. Based on the experimental results we argue that there is no general need for perspective taking on the linguistic level to be aligned with perspective taking on the gestural level. Rather, there is clear preference for the more informative gesture.
Zeitschrift für germanistische Linguistik, Volume 47, pp 28-69; https://doi.org/10.1515/zgl-2019-0002
S: Erlebte Rede (free indirect style) is a narrative technique used to present reports of consciousness which to some extent blends direct and indirect speech. It is characterized by the interaction of specific linguistic markers which allow the presentation of a character’s point of view while simultaneously maintaining the narrative frame. A character’s thoughts are expressed in the third person, indicative and narrative tense giving the impression that the voice of both the narrator and the character somehow overlap. This contribution summarizes the research on erlebte Rede, focussing on German. Regarding narratological aspects, I discuss linguistic problems specific to identification and analysis of texts which employ erlebte Rede. This paper primarily addresses the use of erlebte Rede in fiction, although it is also found in non-fiction.
Meta, Volume 57, pp 924-942; https://doi.org/10.7202/1021225ar
In news translation, some of the most prominent issues still debated on concern news translation as gatekeeping, the application of traditional models and the issue of the very definition of translation itself. Within this context, this paper will focus on the use of translation in news production in the Cypriot context. Data from Cypriot newspapers and the Cypriot Press and Information Office (PIO) point to the assumption that translation is used for disseminating national policy in ways which might stand in a conflicting relationship with issues pertaining to translation ethics. While news reporting is almost by necessity a carrier of national ideology, the same cannot be assumed automatically for material which is translated. The ultimate aim is to show how national ideologies violate the desired informativity of news and to challenge the ethical ‘‘uniformity’’ observed between news reporting and news translation, in favor of a higher ethical awareness on the part of journalists and newspapers. The underlying premise of the article is that news translation could perhaps be treated according to the same ethical considerations as translation in the conventional sense, despite the recontextualization and filtering of the content expressed.
Discourse & Communication, Volume 4, pp 227-242; https://doi.org/10.1177/1750481310373218
This study examines the discourse representation of migrant voices in two Spanish broadsheets and two freesheets through the analysis of quoted utterances. Data analyzed were gathered within the framework of a year-long EU research pilot project aimed at developing a cost-effective methodology to comparatively analyze print media content from six EU member states (FRA2—2007—3200—02-NP-02, 2008). Within the paradigm of CDA and drawing on Appraisal Theory (Martin and White, 2005), we analyzed the writer’s use of different types of reported speech, the corresponding reporting verbs, the endorsement of the reported voices, and the attitudes and emotions that these denote. Results show some significant differences in the way immigrants’ voices are reported in Spanish broadsheets and freesheets. While the stories from the broadsheets depict voices of human suffering, freesheets articles show a different immigrant voice: one which is confident, successful, and well-adapted to the host environment.
Published: 27 April 2009
Linguistics, Volume 47; https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2009.029
The aim of this article is to describe and classify a number of different forms of English reported speech (or thought), and subsequently to analyze and represent them within the theory of FDG. First, the most prototypical forms of reported speech are discussed (direct and indirect speech); subsequently some less prototypical modes of report (free direct and indirect speech, as well as a number of hybrid constructions) are considered. It is argued that these different constructions vary along two major parameters: direct versus indirect and framed versus free. It is therefore suggested that instead of representing different positions on a scale, these constructions are better regarded as occupying different slots in a matrix. In terms of FDG analysis, the difference between direct speech and indirect speech is shown to correspond to a difference in the type of entity denoted by the speech complement (a discourse act versus communicated content). The ±frame distinction is reflected in the representation of the communicated content (fully expressed versus holophrastic). The even less prototypical constructions, too, are given their own analysis; it is demonstrated that these constructions occupy their own position in the matrix
Published: 29 January 2004
Text - Interdisciplinary Journal for the Study of Discourse, Volume 24; https://doi.org/10.1515/text.2004.24.4.547
‘Distancing indirect speech or thought’ (DIST) is defined as a noncanonical form of speech or thought representation which is characterized by the singleness of deictic center across both component clauses: Contrary to direct, indirect, or free indirect speech/thought, no truly separate consciousness (‘sayer/cognizant’) is represented by the current speaker (‘speaker’), even though the grammar of speech or thought representation is used. In this way, a ‘corrective’, distancing effect vis-à-vis the main proposition is obtained. Examples include He mailed you earlier today, he said and Did I want that? (she asked). In this article, I will argue that two structurally distinct subtypes of DIST have to be recognized, viz. ‘representational’ and ‘scopal’ DIST. I will discuss these as they manifest themselves in different registers (academic discourse, news reports, literary texts), and will associate them on the basis of this text analysis with distinct contextual usage types. Finally, I will relate representational and scopal DIST in terms of a cline of increasing subjectification.