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Robert Bs Kamil, Kasra Bs Araghi, Marcel Ba Dupont, Pratyush Mbbs Shahi,
Contemporary Spine Surgery, Volume 24, pp 1-7;

Andrea De Rosa, , Marina Moncada, Pedro Roldán, , Thomaz E. Topczewski, Teresa Somma, , Josep González, Joaquim Enseñat, et al.
Published: 1 February 2023
World Neurosurgery, Volume 170;

Ebtesam Abdulla, Sabrina Rahman, Raphia Rahman, A.H.M. Ataullah, Mohammed Maan Al-Salihi, Ivan David Lozada-Martinez, Moshiur Rahman
Published: 22 December 2021
Journal: Neurosurgery
, Aimun A. B. Jamjoom, Michael T. C. Poon, Difei Wang, Isaac Phang, Mohamed Okasha, Matthew Boissaud-Cooke, Adam P. Williams, Aminul I. Ahmed
Journal of Neurosurgery, Volume 135, pp 1146-1154;

OBJECTIVE: Freehand external ventricular drain (EVD) insertion is associated with a high rate of catheter misplacement. Image-guided EVD placement with neuronavigation or ultrasound has been proposed as a safer, more accurate alternative with potential to facilitate proper placement and reduce catheter malfunction risk. This study aimed to determine the impact of image-guided EVD placement on catheter tip position and drain functionality.METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of a data set from a prospective, multicenter study. Data were collated for EVD placements undertaken in the United Kingdom and Ireland from November 2014 to April 2015. In total, 21 large tertiary care academic medical centers were included.RESULTS: Over the study period, 632 EVDs were inserted and 65.9% had tips lying free-floating in the CSF. Only 19.6% of insertions took place under image guidance. The use of image guidance did not significantly improve the position of the catheter tip on postoperative imaging, even when stratified by ventricular size. There was also no association between navigation use and drain blockage.CONCLUSIONS: Image-guided EVD placement was not associated with an increased likelihood of achieving optimal catheter position or with a lower rate of catheter blockage. Educational efforts should aim to enhance surgeons’ ability to apply the technique correctly in cases of disturbed cerebral anatomy or small ventricles to reduce procedural risks and facilitate effective catheter positioning.
, Marco Lai, Erik Edström, Gustav Burström, Petter Förander, Robert Homan, Flip Kor, Ronald Holthuizen, Benno H. W. Hendriks, Oscar Persson, et al.
Neurosurgical Focus, Volume 51;

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy (deviation from the target or intended path) and efficacy (insertion time) of an augmented reality surgical navigation (ARSN) system for insertion of biopsy needles and external ventricular drains (EVDs), two common neurosurgical procedures that require high precision. METHODS: The hybrid operating room–based ARSN system, comprising a robotic C-arm with intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) and integrated video tracking of the patient and instruments using nonobtrusive adhesive optical markers, was used. A 3D-printed skull phantom with a realistic gelatinous brain model containing air-filled ventricles and 2-mm spherical biopsy targets was obtained. After initial CBCT acquisition for target registration and planning, ARSN was used for 30 cranial biopsies and 10 EVD insertions. Needle positions were verified by CBCT. RESULTS: The mean accuracy of the biopsy needle insertions (n = 30) was 0.8 mm ± 0.43 mm. The median path length was 39 mm (range 16–104 mm) and did not correlate to accuracy (p = 0.15). The median device insertion time was 149 seconds (range 87–233 seconds). The mean accuracy for the EVD insertions (n = 10) was 2.9 mm ± 0.8 mm at the tip with a 0.7° ± 0.5° angular deviation compared with the planned path, and the median insertion time was 188 seconds (range 135–400 seconds). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that ARSN can be used for navigation of percutaneous cranial biopsies and EVDs with high accuracy and efficacy.
Cara Marie Rogers, Pamela S. Jones,
Journal of Neuro-Oncology, Volume 151, pp 479-490;

The use of intraoperative imaging has been a critical tool in the neurosurgeon's armamentarium and is of particular benefit during tumor surgery. This article summarizes the history of its development, implementation, clinical experience and future directions. We reviewed the literature focusing on the development and clinical experience with intraoperative MRI. Utilizing the authors' personal experience as well as evidence from the literature, we present an overview of the utility of MRI during neurosurgery. In the 1990s, the first description of using a low field MRI in the operating room was published describing the additional benefit provided by improved resolution of MRI as compared to ultrasound. Since then, implementation has varied in magnetic field strength and in configuration from floor mounted to ceiling mounted units as well as those that are accessible to the operating room for use during surgery and via an outpatient entrance to use for diagnostic imaging. The experience shows utility of this technique for increasing extent of resection for low and high grade tumors as well as preventing injury to important structures while incorporating techniques such as intraoperative monitoring. This article reviews the history of intraoperative MRI and presents a review of the literature revealing the successful implementation of this technology and benefits noted for the patient and the surgeon.
, Frank Wilde, Alexander Schramm, Nils-Claudius Gellrich
Published: 23 December 2020
Atlas of the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics, Volume 29, pp 97-108;

, , Y Huérfano, Y Manrique,
Published: 1 May 2020
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Volume 1547;

The X-ray angiography images are routinely used to assess the blood vessels. The acquisition procedure considers a medical imaging system which allows obtaining views of the vessel while the blood flows thought them. The X-ray source is influenced on the region to be viewed and then, the projection of the all anatomical structures in the champ of view is shown through an image intensifier. The information of the blood vessel is impacted for the other structures. Additionally, the blood and the contrast product required in the acquisition are not mixed homogeneously, producing artifacts in the images. Finally, the noise is also an impact factor in the quality of the angiography images. In the coronary vessel case, the branches of the network are superposed. In this paper, an enhancement procedure to diminish the uncertainty associated to X-ray angiography images is reported. The relation between two versions of the angiograms is determined using a fuzzy connector considering that this relation diminishes the images intrinsic uncertainty. These versions correspond with images filtered with low-pass and high-pass image filters, respectively. The technique is tested with images of the coronary and kidney vessels. The qualitative results show a good enhanced of the angiography images.
Garrett K Harada, Zakariah K Siyaji, Sadaf Younis, Philip K Louie, Dino Samartzis, Howard S An
Spine Surgery and Related Research, Volume 4, pp 99-110;

Objective: To review and highlight the historical and recent advances of imaging in spine surgery and to discuss current applications and future directions Methods: A PubMed review of the current literature was performed on all relevant articles that examined historical and recent imaging techniques used in spine surgery. Studies were examined for their thoroughness in description of various modalities and applications in current and future management. Results: We reviewed 97 articles that discussed past, present, and future applications for imaging in spine surgery. Although most historical approaches relied heavily upon basic radiography, more recent advances have begun to expand upon advanced modalities, including the integration of more sophisticated equipment and artificial intelligence. Conclusion: Since the days of conventional radiography, various modalities have emerged and become integral components of the spinal surgeon's diagnostic armamentarium. As such, it behooves the practitioner to remain informed on the current trends and potential developments in spinal imaging, as rapid adoption and interpretation of new techniques may make significant differences in patient management and outcomes. Future directions will likely become increasingly sophisticated as the implementation of machine learning, and artificial intelligence has become more commonplace in clinical practice.
, Jong-Hyun Ryu, Kilhwan Jeong, Kyu Gyeom Kim, Chang-Won Jeong, Kwon-Ha Yoon, Dae-Won Kim
Published: 17 October 2019
by 10.3233
Journal of X-Ray Science and Technology, Volume 27, pp 907-918;

Intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) system has been developed focusing on combining the advanced imaging techniques for the best imaging modality. However, the use of iCT system in the operating rooms is limited due to the lack of flexible mobility. This study aims to develop a mobile iCT imaging system and assess its imaging performance in a phantom study. The mobile iCT system with mecanum omni-directional wheels has three major components namely, a rotating gantry, a slip-ring and a stationary gantry. Performance of mecanum iCT system was evaluated using the indices of signal-to-noise (SNR), contrast-to noise (CNR), and spatial resolution (MTF). Anatomical landmarks on phantom images were assessed using a 5-point scale (5 = definitely seen; 4 = probably seen; 3 = equivocal; 2 = probably not seen; and 1 = definitely not seen). The mecanum iCT system can be conveniently used for a whole-body scan under intraoperative conditions even in narrow operating rooms due to a smaller turning radius. The image quality of the mecanum iCT system was found to be acceptable for clinical applications (with SNR = 162.72, CNR = 134.29 and MTF = 694 μm). The diagnostic scores on the phantom images were 'definitely seen' value. The proposed mecanum iCT system achieved the improved flexible mobility and has potential to better serve as a useful imaging tool in the clinical intraoperative setting.
Yi Liu, ZhengJie Wang, Xiang Li, Xiaowei Ma, Shuailiang Wang, , Weidong Yang, Wenhui Ma, Jing Wang
Published: 5 December 2018
Molecular Pharmaceutics, Volume 16, pp 108-117;

The complete excision of glioblastomas with maximal retention of surrounding normal tissues can significantly improve patient prognosis. Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) optical imaging of the tumor vasculature offers a non-invasive method for detection of early-stage glioblastoma and efficient monitoring of therapeutic responses. The aim of this study was to develop a novel NIRF imaging probe as a visualization tool for image-guided surgical resection of orthotopic glioblastoma. In this study, Cy5.5-RKL, Cy5.5-NKL and Cy5.5-DKL probes were successfully synthesized and their properties investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vivo, Cy5.5-RKL and Cy5.5-NKL were able to detect U87MG xenografts for at least 8 h p.i.. The maximum tumor to muscle ratios of Cy5.5-RKL and Cy5.5-NKL were 7.65 ± 0.72 and 5.43 ± 0.72, respectively. Of the probes, Cy5.5-RKL displayed the best delineation of the boundaries between orthotopic glioblastomas and normal brain tissue at 8 h p.i. In conclusion, NIRF imaging using Cy5.5-RKL is promising not only for diagnostic purposes but also for use in image-guided surgery for orthotopic glioblastoma or other superficial tumors.
, Lindsay N. Cates, Dane M. DeWees, Alexander Hannah, Pierre Mourad, Matthew Bruce, Christoph P. Hofstetter
Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, Volume 29, pp 306-313;

OBJECTIVE: Traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) causes an almost complete loss of blood flow at the site of injury (primary injury) as well as significant hypoperfusion in the penumbra of the injury. Hypoperfusion in the penumbra progresses after injury to the spinal cord and is likely to be a major contributor to progressive cell death of spinal cord tissue that was initially viable (secondary injury). Neuroprotective treatment strategies seek to limit secondary injury. Clinical monitoring of the temporal and spatial patterns of blood flow within the contused spinal cord is currently not feasible. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether ultrafast contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) Doppler allows for detection of local hemodynamic changes within an injured rodent spinal cord in real time.METHODS: A novel ultrafast CEUS Doppler technique was developed utilizing a research ultrasound platform combined with a 15-MHz linear array transducer. Ultrafast plane-wave acquisitions enabled the separation of higher-velocity blood flow in macrocirculation from low-velocity flow within the microcirculation (tissue perfusion). An FDA-approved contrast agent (microbubbles) was used for visualization of local blood flow in real time. CEUS Doppler acquisition protocols were developed to characterize tissue perfusion both during contrast inflow and during the steady-state plateau. A compression injury of the thoracic spinal cord of adult rats was induced using iris forceps.RESULTS: High-frequency ultrasound enabled visualization of spinal cord vessels such as anterior spinal arteries as well as central arteries (mean diameter [± SEM] 145.8 ± 10.0 µm; 76.2 ± 4.5 µm, respectively). In the intact spinal cord, ultrafast CEUS Doppler confirmed higher perfusion of the gray matter compared to white matter. Immediately after compression injury of the thoracic rodent spinal cord, spinal cord vessels were disrupted in an area of 1.93 ± 1.14 mm2. Ultrafast CEUS Doppler revealed a topographical map of local tissue hypoperfusion with remarkable spatial resolution. Critical loss of perfusion, defined as less than 40% perfusion compared to the surrounding spared tissue, was seen within an area of 2.21 ± 0.6 mm2.CONCLUSIONS: In our current report, we introduce ultrafast CEUS Doppler for monitoring of spinal vascular structure and function in real time. Development and clinical implementation of this type of imaging could have a significant impact on the care of patients with tSCI.
, Johann Hofereiter, Nicole Terpolilli, Torleif Sandner, Stefan Zausinger, Jörg-Christian Tonn, Friedrich-Wilhelm Kreth, Christian Schichor
International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery, Volume 14, pp 397-407;

Currently, intraoperative computed tomography (iCT) is a scarcely used technique in neurosurgery. It remains unclear whether this phenomenon is explained by unfavorable iCT-related workflows and/or a limited number of indications. We here analyzed workflows of an installed dual-room iCT (DR-iCT) as compared to surgical procedures lacking iCT. We compared infection rates, utilizations rates, and the spectrum of indications of DR-iCT with that of a previously used single-room iCT.
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