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(searched for: doi:10.1177/0899764017713874)
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Duncan J. Mayer
Published: 26 September 2022
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly; https://doi.org/10.1177/08997640221126147

Abstract:
Many nonprofit organizations operate under immense financial pressure. Revenue volatility is a common target for managers to minimize under the assumption that maintaining consistent revenue enhances the viability of the organization while high revenue volatility may disrupt planning. However, the relationship between revenue volatility and the viability of nonprofit organizations is poorly understood. This article presents the first empirical test of the link between volatility and dissolution in U.S. public charities from 2010 to 2018 ( N = 2,126,894) using discrete time survival models. The results show that a 10% increase in revenue volatility predicts an increase in dissolution risk between 7% and 14%. In addition, the effect of revenue volatility varies by the age of the organization, suggesting volatility may be a greater threat to older organizations than to those newly formed. Implications for managers and future research are discussed.
Teresa Harrison,
Published: 10 December 2021
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 51, pp 713-735; https://doi.org/10.1177/08997640211057394

Abstract:
This article introduces a novel empirical approach to the nonprofit literature that can measure competition between nonprofit organizations. Our approach provides a framework to determine how the number of organizations may be incorporated into empirical competitive analysis. We then systematically estimate the average population needed to support a given number of nonprofits in a market. We find that, for the 10 nonprofit industries examined, markets reach competitive levels once four or more nonprofits have entered. The results suggest that a relatively small number of nonprofits are needed to ensure robust competition. Our findings demonstrate that donor market competition is both predictive in nonprofit entry decisions and remarkably similar to competitive behavior among for-profit firms. We discuss several implications of these findings, in terms of both policy and future empirical research.
Paula Lentz, Kristen Getchell, James Dubinsky, Mary Katherine Kerr
International Journal of Business Communication; https://doi.org/10.1177/23294884211062174

Abstract:
Despite increased giving in 2019, competition for donations among nonprofits remains high, especially when a charitable organization’s niche overlaps with that of others’. Consequently, nonprofit charitable organizations must tell stories that persuade donors to support their mission and contribute. This study uses positioning theory to examine how websites of the charitable organizations that appeared in Forbes Magazine’s 2019 top 100 charities use storytelling to facilitate their ethos such that they gain support and thus increase their donor base. The results revealed that nonprofits use positioning to establish two types of partnerships: invited and assumed. Furthermore, the coding revealed three primary types of positioning within these partnerships: savior-follower, business partners, and teacher-student. These positions organize and set the parameters for each organization’s story and will not only influence and potentially dictate the speech acts that follow, but also the responsibilities and rights of all those involved.
Andrew Sullivan, Saerim Kim,
Published: 30 August 2021
Public Management Review, Volume 25, pp 262-285; https://doi.org/10.1080/14719037.2021.1972682

Abstract:
What happens to local services’ performance when service-provider density increases in a community? The answer is difficult. To explore how density relates to multiple aspects of performance, this study aims to examine the effects of service-providers’ density on service outputs and policy outcomes. Using a panel dataset of local homeless service planning bodies, the Continuum of Care Programme, we found that service outputs improved; however, the prevalence of homelessness did not decrease. Drawing upon organizational density theory, our findings contribute to the extant knowledge on public management by exploring how service-provider density relates to service outputs and policy outcomes separately.
, Jessica Berrett, Jason Coupet
Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-021-00342-w

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, Tiffany Amorette Young
Published: 5 February 2020
The Social Science Journal, Volume 57, pp 432-449; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soscij.2019.03.013

Abstract:
Based upon the existing literatures surrounding collective action and the environmental justice frame, consciousness-raising is a social tool for community constituents facing the hazards of environmental pollution to community health. Environmental pollution is a complex phenomenon that poses grand societal challenges including global implications and locally situated contexts. We believe that locally situated social problems, such as air pollution emissions, influence the functions of community philanthropy, a means of effective collective civic action. By drawing upon resource mobilization theory and organizational ecology theory, this study aims to examine the direct effects of the social problem of environmental pollution to community health and its impact on collective resource mobilization. This is accomplished by analyzing both the organizational growth of the environmental nonprofit sector in terms of the density and aggregated resources at the community level, conceptualized here as community philanthropy. Collective civic action supports environmental activism and is embodied in the shared beliefs, values, and understandings of a community whom seek a legitimate means of collective action; these opportunities are often provided by the nonprofit sector. We also examine the moderating role of community racial diversity on this relationship. Empirical results demonstrate that in racially diverse communities, community philanthropy is facilitated when facing the social problem of increased environmental pollution. Our problem-driven research implies that community racial diversity may impact the mobilization of collective resources when dealing with locally situated social problems.
International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, Volume 39, pp 201-220; https://doi.org/10.1108/ijssp-05-2018-0078

Abstract:
PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between social capital and collective action at the county level in the US while incorporating the moderating effects of community racial diversity and urbanity and to find the changing effects of social capital on philanthropic collective action for community education.Design/methodology/approachThis paper employs a quantitative research design. The dependent variable measures philanthropic collective action for community education while the independent variable for social capital is measured as a community level index. Moderating variables include a community racial diversity index and urbanity. This analysis tests and interprets interaction effects using moderated multiple regression (MMR), with the baselines of MMR being grounded to multivariate ordinary least squares (OLS) regression. Analyses are carried out in the context of the USA during 2006 and 2010, with US counties employed as the unit of analysis.FindingsThe effects of social capital on philanthropic contributions decline in counties with low- and mid-levels of racial diversity. On the contrary, the effects of social capital increase in highly racially diverse counties. The three-way interaction model result suggests that racial diversity positively moderates social capital on philanthropic collective action for community education where the effect of social capital is strong and positive in highly racially diverse urban communities.Originality/valueThis research complicates the notion that social capital and racial diversity are negatively associated when exploring collective action and community education, and suggests effects of social capital varies with moderating effects on philanthropic collective action for community education.
, Nadeen Makhlouf,
Published: 27 July 2018
Public Performance & Management Review, Volume 42, pp 461-482; https://doi.org/10.1080/15309576.2018.1470013

Abstract:
Nonprofits’ capacity and scope can impact organizational performance, separately and jointly. Yet, the relationship between the two constructs remains unexplored. In this article, we examine the association between organizational capacity and scope. Relying on a dataset of environmental nonprofit organizations in Lebanon, we find that, when examined separately, human resources and external relations capacities are significantly associated with single-domain organizations while strategic planning and financial capacities are significantly associated with multiple-domain organizations. When considered together, however, external relations lose such association. Implications for practice and future research on the effect of organizational scope and capacity on nonprofit performance are discussed.
Published: 10 October 2017
Nonprofit Policy Forum, Volume 8, pp 211-235; https://doi.org/10.1515/npf-2016-0012

Abstract:
The number of nonprofit organizations is rapidly increasing, which has led nonprofit practitioners to complain of funding scarcity, nonprofit scholars to closely study nonprofit competition, and policymakers to consider increasing nonprofit barriers to entry. Underlying each of these perspectives is an assumption of limited financial resources. We empirically examine this assumption using county-level panel data on nonprofit human services organizations from the National Center for Charitable Statistics. Contrary to the limited resources assumption, our fixed-effects models show that increasing nonprofit density, at its current levels, has the effect of increasing sector financial resources in each county. We suggest that these findings prompt a tradeoff for policymakers. A sector with free market entry results in a nonprofit sector with more, smaller nonprofits, but such a sector may have the capacity to serve more people because it has more total sector financial resources. Conversely, a sector with higher barriers to entry would translate to a sector with fewer, larger nonprofits with less overall capacity due to fewer sector financial resources.
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