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(searched for: doi:10.1088/0964-1726/20/8/085025)
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Xiaojing Zhu, Donghong Ning, Zhuonan Hao, Hui Huang, Yan Zhi Sun, Hong Jia, , Tianhong Yan,
Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Volume 32, pp 1473-1483; https://doi.org/10.1177/1045389x20986994

Abstract:
This paper presents the modelling and experimental evaluation of a semi-active vehicle suspension installed with a self-powered MR damper which is able to perform variable stiffness. Its variable stiffness feature as well as the self-powering capability was evaluated and verified using a hydraulic Instron test system. The testing results show that the stiffness of the damper is dependent on the current which can be generated by the self-powering component. A mathematic model was established to describe the dynamic properties of the MR damper and its power-generating capability. Finally, the self-powered MR suspension was installed on a quarter car test rig for its vibration isolation evaluation. A controller based on the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) was developed for the stiffness control. The evaluation result illustrates that the proposed MR damper can reduce the acceleration and displacement of the sprung mass by 16.8% and 21.4% respectively, compared with the passive system.
Jianqiang Yu, , , Tao Wang, Yuxuan Liang
Published: 18 December 2020
Smart Materials and Structures, Volume 30; https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-665x/abd4fc

Abstract:
This paper presents the damping and stiffness characteristics of a magnetorheological (MR) isolator with variable damping and variable stiffness (VDVS) for broadband vibration suppression. The MR VDVS isolator is composed of a squeeze-mode MR fluid unit and a shear-mode MR elastomer unit to obtain controllable damping force and stiffness simultaneously. Comparing with the MR fluid device in shear mode and valve mode, the device in squeeze mode can provide large controllable damping force and good energy dissipation ability at both low and high frequency. Based on the conceptual design and finite element simulation of magnetic field, the MR isolator was designed, fabricated and tested. The characteristics of single variable stiffness, single variable damping and combination of both functions were performed by a series of experimental tests. The effects of current, frequency and displacement on the damping and stiffness are analyzed. A new algebraic parametric model was established to predict the hysteretic characteristics of MR isolator. The arctangent function-based model and hysteresis division method-based model were used to capture the hysteresis loops of MR fluid unit and MR elastomer unit, respectively. The results show that the feasibility of the proposed MR VDVS isolator to broadband vibration suppression. Besides, the model can capture the damping and stiffness characteristics of the proposed MR VDVS isolator.
Zhaoxue Deng, Qinghua Yang, Xuejiao Yang
Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Volume 31, pp 1126-1137; https://doi.org/10.1177/1045389x20910271

Abstract:
Magneto-rheological mount is one of the most effective vibration isolation devices for the vibration isolation system of vehicle powertrain. In this article, a flow type of magneto-rheological mount was proposed to control the vibration and the torque excitation of the engine when vehicle was in start/stop mode. A mathematical model for the flow type of magneto-rheological mount was formulated with consideration of the influence of current on magneto-rheological fluid viscosity and the relationship between liquid resistance effect and flow rate in damping gap. Then, a co-simulation optimal platform was developed by the Isight and the ANSYS, and the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II was used to optimize magnetic circuit. Subsequently, two prototypes of magneto-rheological mounts were manufactured according to the initial design and the optimal design model, and the dynamic performance test of magneto-rheological mount monomer and the vibration isolation performance test of the whole vehicle under start/stop mode were carried out, respectively. The experimental results showed that the controllability and the vibration isolation performance of the optimal design magneto-rheological mount were significantly improved compared with the initial design.
, Abolghassem Zabihollah
Published: 15 January 2020
Emerging Trends in Mechatronics; https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.86178

Abstract:
The magnetorheological fluids (MRF) are a generation of smart fluids with the ability to alter their variable viscosity. Moreover, the state of the MRF can be switched from the semisolid to the fluid phase and vice versa upon applying or removing the magnetic field. The fast response and the controllability are the main features of the MRF-based systems, which make them suitable for applications with high sensitivity and controllability requirements. Nowadays, MRF-based systems are rapidly growing and widely being used in many industries such as civil, aerospace, and automotive. This study presents a comprehensive review to investigate the fundamentals of MRF and manufacturing and applications of MRF-based systems. According to the existing works and current and future demands for MRF-based systems, the trend for future research in this field is recommended.
Shiwei Chen, Rui Li, Pengfei Du, Hengwei Zheng, Dingyu Li
Published: 24 April 2019
Frontiers in Materials, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.3389/fmats.2019.00068

Abstract:
This work mainly addresses the establishment of a phenomenological mechanical model for magnetorheological (MR) engine mounts under frequency variation and magnetic variation effects. First, the mounts' reaction force is divided into three parts: a Coulomb damping force, an elastic reaction force, and a viscous damping force. Then, by using correlation analysis on these forces with the frequency and magnetic field, a modified polynomial Bingham parameterized model is proposed. This model takes external current and external loading frequency as the variables. As a result of analyzing the relationship between energy dissipation and storage caused by the external displacement excitation, an identifying method is proposed to identify the nine parameters in the model. Based on this model, an experimental scheme was designed, and the force–displacement relationship of a typical MR mount under different working conditions was tested through an experiment. By using the proposed method, the relationship of the reaction force of an MR mount with current and external loading frequency was obtained. The experimental results show that the proposed model can correctly reflect the wide-frequency dynamic characteristics of the mounts in dynamic stiffness, lagging angle, and hysteretic curve.
, Abdelmonaam Sassi, Khaled Cherif,
Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Volume 29, pp 2919-2932; https://doi.org/10.1177/1045389x18781038

Abstract:
This article presents a new concept design for magnetorheological dampers, where the excitation circuit and magnetic field are applied from outside the magnetorheological chamber. This magnetorheological damper was designed and built to decrease the intrusive manufacturing operations and to maximize the working efficiency. The experimental tests made on the first prototype featuring this new technology was promising. The excitation of a set of 12 coils surrounding the body of the damper, by an electric current of 5 A, managed to increase the damping coefficient by up to 75%. A similar performance could be obtained by a current 9.4 times lower if the magnetic circuit is designed correctly. Compared to other devices, the actual design tolerates more the temperature elevation caused by the feeding of coils with high-intensity current, just because the heat is radiated outwards instead of being transferred directly to the magnetorheological fluid like in conventional designs. Finally, the numerical simulations made on Matlab show that the new magnetorheological damper, when mounted on a commercial vehicle, can considerably enhance its dynamic behavior and bring it back quickly to its stable position when the tires hit a bump on the road.
Guoliang Hu, Qianjie Liu, Ruqi Ding, Gang Li
Advances in Mechanical Engineering, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.1177/1687814017694581

Abstract:
In this article, the nonlinear damping characteristics of magnetorheological damper are expressed with hyperbolic tangent model to simulate its mechanical experimental results. The fitted hyperbolic tangent model can represent hysteretic behavior for magnetorheological damper exactly. Based on the hyperbolic tangent model, a quarter-car model with magnetorheological damper is established, and a new hybrid fuzzy and fuzzy proportional-integral-derivative (HFFPID) controller integrated with hybrid fuzzy control and fuzzy proportional–integral–derivative control is developed to improve the semi-active suspension performance, which can overcome the absence of precise mathematical model. Furthermore, numerical simulations for fuzzy proportional–integral–derivative (PID), hybrid fuzzy proportional–integral–derivative (HFPID), and HFFPID controllers are investigated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. The simulation results show that the body acceleration, suspension deflection, and tyre displacement can be reduced more effectively using HFFPID controller under sinusoidal road excitation. It can be further concluded that the suspension performance is improved more effectively by using HFFPID controller under random road excitation, especially in the peak points.
, Xin Tang, , Haiping Du
2017 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics (ICM) pp 444-448; https://doi.org/10.1109/icmech.2017.7921148

Abstract:
Researchers are always looking for ways to improve vehicle comfort and the idea of using variable stiffness and damping suspension systems has been attracting attentions. The presented research has designed, fabricated, and tested an innovative magnetorheological damper which is capable of controlling both stiffness and damping. This paper presented the detailed design and working principle of the advanced damper first and then detailed how the prototyped damper was tested by an MTS machine. The testing results verified its stiffness and damping controllable capability. Then a quarter-car model with the advanced damper was built to evaluate the performance of the damper. Sliding mode control was used to control the damper and the simulation results verified the variable stiffness and damping damper performs the best on vibration control compared with other dampers.
Chen Si, Xiaocong Zhu, Bin Yao, Jian Cao
2016 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics (AIM) pp 1473-1478; https://doi.org/10.1109/aim.2016.7576978

Abstract:
Magnetorheological (MR) fluid systems have been widely utilized in various industrial applications due to its advantages of fast response, simple mechanic-electric-transform circuit, less motion friction with no-moving part and less energy consumption compared to active force control devices. In this paper, a MR actuation system which uses MR fluids as the transmission medium is introduced. The network of MR valves which forms a Wheatstone bridge in the system is connected to a single rod hydraulic cylinder. The motion of the cylinder shaft can be conveniently controlled through adjusting the damping characteristic of MR control valves. A new working mode is put forward to implement more effective velocity adjustment. The theoretical model of the magnetorheological actuation system is presented, which considers the quasi-static characteristics of MR control valve, motion dynamics of hydraulic cylinder and working flow rate and pressures from pump components. Consequently, the uni-directional motion, bi-directional motion and velocity regulation of the MR actuation system under controllable excitation currents is analyzed along with simulation results. It is shown that the transient performance of the motion of the cylinder shaft can be significantly affected by the excitation current. The modeling and simulations can provide useful evaluation for optimal design and control synthesis of the MR valve actuation system.
Published: 15 June 2016
by MDPI
Abstract:
Magnetic linear gear provides a new and unique opportunity for coupling mechanical impedances and optimizing vibration damping. In the present paper a new magneto-mechanical vibration damper (the so-called Z-damper) is described. Its expected theoretical dynamic behavior shows a particularly high damping capability, a low frequency, as well as an optimal behavior for high frequencies.
Chunchuan Liu, , Steve Daley,
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Volume 56-57, pp 55-80; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2014.10.007

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Xiuting Sun, , ,
IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Volume 61, pp 5606-5614; https://doi.org/10.1109/tie.2013.2297297

Abstract:
Quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS) systems have been extensively studied and used as a useful vibration isolation device. In this paper, the feasibility of the application of a QZS system for vibration measurement is investigated. The structural parameters of the QZS system are first analyzed to ensure that the system is staying at stable equilibriums. Comparisons of the absolute motion of a general and typical vibration platform (e.g., a moving vehicle body) and the motion signal measured from the QZS system attached are then conducted to show the effectiveness of the method under different base excitations. Moreover, the case under which the QZS-based sensor system may not behave well is also studied and potential solutions are discussed. The QZS vibration system is shown to be a useful device for absolute displacement measurement in vibration control systems particularly for moving platforms compared with the exciting methods and would benefit a wide range of engineering practices.
Xiaocong Zhu, ,
Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Volume 24, pp 108-129; https://doi.org/10.1177/1045389x12461721

Abstract:
The magnetorheological control valve is a key element in magnetorheological dampers to achieve controllable damping characteristics in practice. The optimal design of magnetorheological control valves with an annular flow structure in two configurations of coil wire placements is investigated using a nondimensional analytical method. The achievable performances of the magnetorheological control valve are formulated in terms of several important nondimensional design parameters, which are defined based on the analytical models considering both mechanical flow characteristics and magnetic flux conservation in magnetorheological fluids and valve materials with a clear understanding and convenient specification in optimization. The design method first identifies a few optimal internal parameters through maximizing a single-objective function with predefined constraints. This can avoid empirical difficulty or uncertainty in weight selection in conventional multiobjective optimization methods and guarantee the worst-case performance. Then, the inherent sensitivity of the achievable performance with respect to external parameters is analyzed to provide practical instructions for appropriate design of the magnetorheological control valve. Finally, the analytical optimal results are verified by a finite element analysis, and a comparison is conducted to illustrate the excellent performance of a vibration isolation system employing the optimally designed magnetorheological control valve.
Xiaocong Zhu, ,
Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Volume 23, pp 839-873; https://doi.org/10.1177/1045389x12436735

Abstract:
Magnetorheological fluid technology has gained significant development during the past decades. The application of magnetorheological fluids has grown rapidly in civil engineering, safety engineering, transportation, and life science with the development of magnetorheological fluid–based devices, especially magnetorheological fluid dampers. The magnetorheological fluid dampers could offer an outstanding capability in semiactive vibration control due to excellent dynamical features such as fast response, environmentally robust characteristics, large force capacity, low power consumption, and simple interfaces between electronic input and mechanical output. To address the fast growing demand on magnetorheological fluid damping technology in extensive engineering practices, the state-of-the-art development is presented in this article, which provides a comprehensive review on the structure design and its analysis of magnetorheological fluid dampers (or systems). This can be regarded as a useful complement to several existing reviews in the recent literature on magnetorheological fluids technology, magnetorheological fluid applications, modeling of magnetorheological fluids and dampers, control strategies of magnetorheological fluid systems, and so on. The review begins with an introduction of the basic features and relevant applications of magnetorheological fluids. Then several basic structure design issues of magnetorheological fluid dampers are introduced. Following this, typical magnetorheological dampers are discussed according to the arrangement configurations of magnetorheological fluid cylinders and magnetorheological fluid control valves. Furthermore, reinforced structure designs of magnetorheological fluid dampers are provided, which focus on coil configuration, fluid resistance channel design, and electromagnetic design. Thereafter, design issues of magnetorheological fluid damper systems are discussed, which involves sensor-based magnetorheological fluid damper systems, self-powered magnetorheological fluid damper systems, fail-safe magnetorheological fluid damper systems, and integrated spring magnetorheological fluid damper systems. Importantly, to have a systematic quantitative viewpoint of the analysis and design of magnetorheological fluid dampers, the review ends with a summary of performance analysis issues, including performance specification, analytical modeling, parameter optimization, and so on.
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