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(searched for: doi:10.18203/issn.2455-4529.intjresdermatol20172505)
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, Marlene Heckl, , , Henrique Resende Rodrigues, , , Carolina De Almeida E Silva, , , et al.
Published: 9 March 2018
JMIR mHealth and uHealth, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.2196/mhealth.9794

Abstract:
Background: The incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other major cancer both in Brazil and worldwide. Southeast Brazil has especially high incidences of melanoma, and early detection is low. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a primary risk factor for developing melanoma. Increasing attractiveness is a major motivation among adolescents for tanning. A medical student-delivered intervention that takes advantage of the broad availability of mobile phones and adolescents’ interest in their appearance indicated effectiveness in a recent study from Germany. However, the effect in a high-UV index country with a high melanoma prevalence and the capability of medical students to implement such an intervention remain unknown. Objective: In this pilot study, our objective was to investigate the preliminary success and implementability of a photoaging intervention to prevent skin cancer in Brazilian adolescents. Methods: We implemented a free photoaging mobile phone app (Sunface) in 15 secondary school classes in southeast Brazil. Medical students “mirrored” the pupils’ altered 3-dimensional (3D) selfies reacting to touch on tablets via a projector in front of their whole grade accompanied by a brief discussion of means of UV protection. An anonymous questionnaire capturing sociodemographic data and risk factors for melanoma measured the perceptions of the intervention on 5-point Likert scales among 356 pupils of both sexes (13-19 years old; median age 16 years) in grades 8 to 12 of 2 secondary schools in Brazil. Results: We measured more than 90% agreement in both items that measured motivation to reduce UV exposure and only 5.6% disagreement: 322 (90.5%) agreed or strongly agreed that their 3D selfie motivated them to avoid using a tanning bed, and 321 (90.2%) that it motivated them to improve their sun protection; 20 pupils (5.6%) disagreed with both items. The perceived effect on motivation was higher in female pupils in both tanning bed avoidance (n=198, 92.6% agreement in females vs n=123, 87.2% agreement in males) and increased use of sun protection (n=197, 92.1% agreement in females vs n=123, 87.2% agreement in males) and independent of age or skin type. All medical students involved filled in a process evaluation revealing that they all perceived the intervention as effective and unproblematic, and that all pupils tried the app in their presence. Conclusions: The photoaging intervention was effective in changing behavioral predictors for UV protection in Brazilian adolescents. The predictors measured indicated an even higher prospective effectiveness in southeast Brazil than in Germany (>90% agreement in Brazil vs >60% agreement in Germany to both items that measured motivation to reduce UV exposure) in accordance with the theory of planned behavior. Medical students are capable of complete implementation. A randomized controlled trial measuring prospective effects in Brazil is planned as a result of this study. [JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2018;6(3):e60]
, Bianca Lisa Faria, Martina Gatzka, Olber Moreira De Faria, Markus V Heppt, Michael C Kirchberger, Dirk Schadendorf, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Fabian Buslaff, Oscar Campos Lisboa, et al.
Published: 6 March 2018
by BMJ
Journal: BMJ Open
Abstract:
IntroductionThe incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other major cancer both in Brazil and worldwide. The Southeast of Brazil has especially high incidences of melanoma, and early detection is low. Exposure to UV radiation represents a primary risk factor for developing melanoma. Increasing attractiveness is a major motivation for adolescents for tanning. A medical student-delivered intervention that harnesses the broad availability of mobile phones as well as adolescents’ interest in their appearance may represent a novel method to improve skin cancer prevention.Methods and analysisWe developed a free mobile app (Sunface), which will be implemented in at least 30 secondary school classes, each with 21 students (at least 30 classes with 21 students for control) in February 2018 in Southeast Brazil via a novel method called mirroring. In a 45 min classroom seminar, the students’ altered three-dimensional selfies on tablets are ‘mirrored’ via a projector in front of their entire class, showing the effects of unprotected UV exposure on their future faces. External block randomisation via computer is performed on the class level with a 1:1 allocation. Sociodemographic data, as well as skin type, ancestry, UV protection behaviour and its predictors are measured via a paper–pencil questionnaire before as well as at 3 and 6 months postintervention. The primary end point is the group difference in the 30-day prevalence of daily sunscreen use at a 6-month follow-up. Secondary end points include (1) the difference in daily sunscreen use at a 3-month follow-up, (2) if a self-skin examination in accordance with the ABCDE rule was performed within the 6-month follow-up and (3) the number of tanning sessions.Ethics and disseminationEthical approval was obtained from the ethics committee of the University of Itauna. Results will be disseminated at conferences and in peer-reviewed journals.Trial registration numberNCT03178240; Pre-results.
Published: 8 September 2017
Journal of Medical Internet Research, Volume 19; https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.8661

Abstract:
Background: Around 90% of melanomas are caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and are therefore eminently preventable. Tanning behavior is mostly initiated in early adolescence, often with the belief that it increases attractiveness; the problems related to malignant melanoma and other skin cancers are too far in the future to fathom. Given the substantial amount of time children and adolescents spend in schools, as well as with their mobile phones, addressing melanoma prevention via both of these ways is crucial. However, no school-based intervention using mobile apps has been evaluated to date. We recently released a photoaging mobile app, in which a selfie is altered to predict future appearance dependent on UV protection behavior and skin type. Objective: In this pilot study, we aimed to use mobile phone technology to improve school-based melanoma prevention and measure its preliminary success in different subgroups of students with regard to their UV protection behavior, Fitzpatrick skin type and age. Methods: We implemented a free photoaging mobile phone app (Sunface) in 2 German secondary schools via a method called mirroring. We “mirrored” the students’ altered 3-dimensional (3D) selfies reacting to touch on mobile phones or tablets via a projector in front of their whole grade. Using an anonymous questionnaire capturing sociodemographic data as well as risk factors for melanoma we then measured their perceptions of the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale among 205 students of both sexes aged 13-19 years (median 15 years). Results: We measured more than 60% agreement in both items that measured motivation to reduce UV exposure and only 12.5% disagreement: 126 (63.0%) agreed or strongly agreed that their 3D selfie motivated them to avoid using a tanning bed, and 124 (61.7%) to increase use of sun protection. However, only 25 (12.5%) disagreed with both items. The perceived effect on motivation was increased in participants with Fitzpatrick skin types 1-2 in both tanning bed avoidance (n=74, 71.8% agreement in skin types 1-2 vs n=50, 53.8% agreement in skin types 3-6) and increased use of sun protection (n=70, 68.0% agreement in skin types 1-2 vs n=52, 55.3% agreement in skin types 3-6), and also positively correlated with higher age. Conclusions: We present a novel way of integrating photoaging in school-based melanoma prevention that affects the students’ peer group, considers the predictors of UV exposure in accordance with the theory of planned behavior, and is particularly effective in changing behavioral predictors in fair-skinned adolescents (Fitzpatrick skin types 1-2). Further research is required to evaluate the intervention’s prospective effects on adolescents of various cultural backgrounds. [J Med Internet Res 2017;19(9):e319]
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