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(searched for: doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00808)
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International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189484

Abstract:
Concerns about negative consequences of gambling diffusion are increasing. Prevention and harm reduction strategies play a crucial role in reducing gambling supply and harms. This study aims to conduct an umbrella review of the effectiveness of gambling preventive and harm reduction strategies, which can be implemented at a local level and targeted at adults. It was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Sixteen reviews were analyzed, and 20 strategies were selected and classified in 4 areas with different targets and aims. Reducing the supply of gambling is an effective strategy both for the general population and for risky or problematic gamblers. Demand reduction interventions have been found to have limited effects but most of them are mainly focused on knowledge about risks and odds ratios. Risk reduction strategies aim to reduce contextual risk factors of the area where gambling is provided, change the gambling locations’ features, and modify individual behaviors while gambling. Smoking and alcohol bans or restrictions are considered one of the most effective strategies. Finally, harm reduction strategies targeted at problematic gamblers are potentially effective. Some relevant implementation conditions are identified and the results show inconsistent effects across different targets.
Published: 29 August 2021
Abstract:
We were interested in exploring the associations and effects of experimental language (i.e., native – L1, or foreign – L2), dilemma type (i.e., personal – D1 or impersonal – D2), the digital device participants used (i.e., PC/laptop or smartphone), along with gender and age in sacrificial COVID-19 and non-COVID moral dilemmas. We performed two studies involving 522 participants aged 18 to 69 in April 2020. In Study 1, we found no significant associations between the dilemma type and the digital device. However, most participants chose to sacrifice an older COVID-19 patient in a critical medical condition to prioritize rescuing similar, younger patients (i.e., 45-year-old males). Results also suggested that male and younger participants were more likely to choose the utilitarian option when the sacrificial dilemma was presented in French. In study 2 (i.e., non-COVID-19), participants made significantly more utilitarian choices in the personal dilemmas presented in French. Results are discussed concerning the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic context and its emotional impact on moral judgment.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168518

Abstract:
Intertemporal choices are very prevalent in daily life, ranging from simple, mundane decisions to highly consequential decisions. In this context, thinking about the future and making sound decisions are crucial to promoting mental and physical health, as well as a financially sustainable lifestyle. In the present study, we set out to investigate some of the possible underlying mechanisms, such as cognitive factors and emotional states, that promote future-oriented decisions. In a cross-sectional experimental study, we used a gain and a loss version of an intertemporal monetary choices task. Our main behavioural result indicated that people are substantially more impulsive over smaller and sooner monetary losses compared to equivalent gains. In addition, for both decisional domains, significant individual difference predictors emerged, indicating that intertemporal choices are sensitive to the affective and cognitive parameters. By focusing on the cognitive and emotional individual factors that influence impulsive decisions, our study could constitute a building block for successful future intervention programs targeted at mental and physical health issues, including gambling behaviour.
Published: 1 May 2021
by MDPI
Behavioral Sciences, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs11050066

Abstract:
Making morally sensitive decisions and evaluations pervade many human everyday activities. Philosophers, economists, psychologists and behavioural scientists researching such decision-making typically explore the principles, processes and predictors that constitute human moral decision-making. Crucially, very little research has explored the theoretical and methodological development (supported by empirical evidence) of utilitarian theories of moral decision-making. Accordingly, in this critical review article, we invite the reader on a moral journey from Jeremy Bentham’s utilitarianism to the veil of ignorance reasoning, via a recent theoretical proposal emphasising utilitarian moral behaviour—perspective-taking accessibility (PT accessibility). PT accessibility research revealed that providing participants with access to all situational perspectives in moral scenarios, eliminates (previously reported in the literature) inconsistency between their moral judgements and choices. Moreover, in contrast to any previous theoretical and methodological accounts, moral scenarios/tasks with full PT accessibility provide the participants with unbiased even odds (neither risk averse nor risk seeking) and impartiality. We conclude that the proposed by Martin et al. PT Accessibility (a new type of veil of ignorance with even odds that do not trigger self-interest, risk related preferences or decision biases) is necessary in order to measure humans’ prosocial utilitarian behaviour and promote its societal benefits.
, Maria Pershina, Jannik Zeiser, Farbod Nosrat Nezami, Gordon Pipa, Achim Stephan,
Published: 1 November 2019
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02415

Abstract:
Self-driving cars have the potential to greatly improve public safety. However, their introduction onto public roads must overcome both ethical and technical challenges. To further understand the ethical issues of introducing self-driving cars, we conducted two moral judgement studies investigating potential differences in the moral norms applied to human drivers and self-driving cars. In the experiments, participants made judgements on a series of dilemma situations involving human drivers or self-driving cars. We manipulated which perspective situations were presented from in order to ascertain the effect of perspective on moral judgements. Two main findings were apparent from the results of the experiments. First, human drivers and self-driving cars were largely judged similarly. However, there was a stronger tendency to prefer self-driving cars to act in ways to minimize harm, compared to human drivers. Second, there was an indication that perspective influences judgements in some situations. Specifically, when considering situations from the perspective of a pedestrian, people preferred actions that would endanger car occupants instead of themselves. However, they did not show such a self-preservation tendency when the alternative was to endanger other pedestrians to save themselves. This effect was more prevalent for judgements on human drivers than self-driving cars. Overall, the results extend and agree with previous research, again contradicting existing ethical guidelines for self-driving car decision making and highlighting the difficulties with adapting public opinion to decision making algorithms.
, , Takashi Nakao, Georg Northoff
Published: 14 March 2019
Scientific Reports, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40743-y

Abstract:
As technology in Artificial Intelligence has developed, the question of how to program driverless cars to respond to an emergency has arisen. It was recently shown that approval of the consequential behavior of driverless cars varied with the number of lives saved and showed interindividual differences, with approval increasing alongside the number of lives saved. In the present study, interindividual differences in individualized moral decision-making at both the behavioral and neural level were investigated using EEG. It was found that alpha event-related spectral perturbation (ERSP) and delta/theta phase-locking - intertrial coherence (ITC) and phase-locking value (PLV) - play a central role in mediating interindividual differences in Moral decision-making. In addition, very late alpha activity differences between individualized and shared stimuli, and delta/theta ITC, where shown to be closely related to reaction time and subjectively perceived emotional distress. This demonstrates that interindividual differences in Moral decision-making are mediated neuronally by various markers - late alpha ERSP, and delta/theta ITC - as well as psychologically by reaction time and perceived emotional distress. Our data show, for the first time, how and according to which neuronal and behavioral measures interindividual differences in Moral dilemmas can be measured.
International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Volume 128, pp 41-60; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhcs.2019.01.005

Abstract:
In order to evaluate and facilitate the provision of health information online, we must first understand how it is perceived by those who use it. Two important considerations in research on patients’ information use in online healthcare provider choice are the need for a conceptual framework for studying information types and methods for studying information use. Therefore, our first contribution lies in using Donabedian's structure-process-outcome model of healthcare quality to identify specific patterns of preference and information use in online healthcare provider choice, and differences in information use between two healthcare provider types. Our second contribution lies in identifying differences in results between data collection methods (importance rating/selection, concurrent self-report of online information use and retrospective information use) in relation to choice tasks. In a mixed-methods design, provider type (primary and secondary care) was systematically varied during participants’ use of the infomediary NHS Choices. Participants preferred process topics over structure topics, in contrast with the results of concurrent and retrospective self-report. We conclude that the differences in results between the types of data collection method reflect underlying differences in choice task. Future research should address the use of novel infomediary user-interfaces, and infomediaries in relation to the use of other information sources and (e-)health literacy.
Published: 22 October 2018
by MDPI
Abstract:
Autonomous vehicles (AVs) are supposed to identify obstacles automatically and form appropriate emergency strategies constantly to ensure driving safety and improve traffic efficiency. However, not all collisions will be avoidable, and AVs are required to make difficult decisions involving ethical and legal factors under emergency situations. In this paper, the ethical and legal factors are introduced into the driving decision-making (DDM) model under emergency situations evoked by red light-running behaviors. In this specific situation, 16 factors related to vehicle-road-environment are considered as impact indicators of DDM, especially the duration of red light (RL), the type of abnormal target (AT-T), the number of abnormal target (AT-N) and the state of abnormal target (AT-S), which indicate legal and ethical components. Secondly, through principal component analysis, seven indicators are selected as input variables of the model. Furthermore, feasible DDM, including braking + going straight, braking + turning left, braking + turning right, is taken as the output variable of the model. Finally, the model chosen to establish DDM is the T-S fuzzy neural network (TSFNN), which has better performance, compared to back propagation neural network (BPNN) to verify the accuracy of TSFNN.
, Jonathan Sippel, Bonan Zhao, Levin Hornischer, Morgan Savary, Zoi Terzopoulou, Pierre Faucher, Simone F. Griffioen
Published: 11 October 2018
Abstract:
Why do people make deontological decisions, although they often lead to overall unfavorable outcomes? One account is receiving considerable attention: deontological judgments may signal commitment to prosociality and thus may increase people’s chances of being selected as social partners–which carries obvious long-term benefits. Here we test this framework by experimentally exploring whether people making deontological judgments are expected to be more prosocial than those making consequentialist judgments and whether they are actually so. In line with previous studies, we identified deontological choices using the Trapdoor dilemma. Using economic games, we take two measures of general prosociality towards strangers: trustworthiness and altruism. Our results procure converging evidence for a perception gap according to which Trapdoor-deontologists are believed to be more trustworthy and more altruistic towards strangers than Trapdoor-consequentialists, but actually they are not so. These results show that deontological judgments are not universal, reliable signals of prosociality.
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