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(searched for: doi:10.5530/ijmedph.2017.1.10)
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Wan Hu, Lanlan Fang, Hengchuan Zhang, Ruyu Ni,
Environmental Science and Pollution Research pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-22318-z

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Published: 6 June 2022
by MDPI
Abstract:
This study investigates the air pollution-induced mortality rate during the second wave of COVID-19, which claimed several thousand lives in the capital city of India, New Delhi, even during a lockdown period. Delhi is a hotspot of unhealthy air quality. During the second wave of COVID-19 in 2021, surface ozone levels were observed to be higher, which had a direct impact on lung function, thereby making people more susceptible to COVID-19. The correlation coefficient between surface ozone concentration and mortality has been observed to be 0.74 at a 95% confidence level. This work focuses on the plausible impact and feedback of poor air quality induced by the burning of open-air funeral pyres due to the increased COVID-19 mortality rate in New Delhi, estimated by using an epidemiological model (AirQ+) of the World Health Organization. The mortality rate estimated quantitatively with the aid of AirQ+ is 1.27 excess deaths per 100,000 population due to surface ozone from pyre burning. The findings suggest transformational system goals before the resurgence of a subsequent wave.
Yiqi Zhou, , Yaning Chen, Jiahui Yi, Bin Wang, Yanfeng Di,
Published: 29 January 2022
Exposure and Health, Volume 14, pp 431-446; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-022-00463-7

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Rohit Sharma, Kamna Sachdeva, Anu Rani Sharma
Published: 3 September 2021
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, Dalia Valencia, Mirco Soffritti, Santiago Budría
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Volume 193, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-09180-1

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, Divyansh Sharma,
Environment, Development and Sustainability, Volume 23, pp 18204-18231; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-021-01434-9

Abstract:
Lockdown was imposed by the Indian government in the month of March 2020 as an early precaution to the COVID-19 pandemic which obstructed the socio-economic growth globally. The main aim of this study was to analyse the impact of lockdown (imposed in March and continued in April 2020) on the existing air quality in three megacities of India (Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata) by assessing the trends of PM10 and NO2 concentrations. A comparison of the percentage reduction in concentrations of lockdown period with respect to same period in year 2019 and pre-lockdown period (February 14–March 24) was made. It was observed from the study that an overall decrease of pollutant concentrations was in the ranges of 30–60% and 52–80% of PM10 and NO2, respectively, in the three cities during lockdown in comparison with previous year and pre-lockdown period. The overall decrease in concentrations of pollutants at urban sites was greater than the background sites. Highest decline in concentrations of PM10 were observed in Kolkata city, followed by Mumbai and Delhi, while decline in NO2 was highest in Mumbai. Results also highlighted that capital city Delhi had the worst air quality amongst three cities, with particulate matter (PM10) being the dominant pollutant. Although COVID-19 has significantly affected the human life considering the mortality and morbidity, lockdowns imposed to control the pandemic had significantly improved the air quality in the selected study locations, although for the short amount of period.
Anshika, , Raju Attada, Ramesh K. Vellore, Vijay K. Soni, Manju Mohan, Nagaraju Chilukoti
Published: 22 April 2021
Atmospheric Research, Volume 258; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosres.2021.105653

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, , Sergio Ibarra Espinosa, Leila Droprinchinski Martins, Vanessa Silveira Barreto Carvalho, Bruna Ferreira Ramin, Jayne Sousa Silva, Jorge Alberto Martins, Maria De Fatima Andrade
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 26, pp 31699-31716; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06200-z

Abstract:
In this paper, we analyze the variability of the ozone concentration over São Paulo Macrometropolis, as well the factors, which determined the tendency observed in the last two decades. Time series of hourly ozone concentrations measured at 16 automated stations from an air quality network from 1996 to 2017 were analyzed. The temporal variability of ozone concentrations exhibits well-defined daily and seasonal patterns. Ozone presents a significant positive correlation between the number of cases (thresholds of 100–160 μg m−3) and the fuel sales of gasohol and diesel. The ozone concentrations do not exhibit significant long-term trends, but some sites present positive trends that occurs in sites in the proximity of busy roads and negative trends that occurs in sites located in residential areas or next to trees. The effect of atmospheric process of transport and ozone formation was analyzed using a quantile regression model (QRM). This statistical model can deal with the nonlinearities that appear in the relationship of ozone and other variables and is applicable to time series with non-normal distribution. The resulting model explains 0.76% of the ozone concentration variability (with global coefficient of determination R1 = 0.76) providing a better representation than an ordinary least square regression model (with coefficient of determination R2 = 0.52); the effect of radiation and temperature are the most critical in determining the highest ozone quantiles.
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