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(searched for: doi:10.1037/pspa0000077)
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International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology pp 1-32; https://doi.org/10.1080/1750984x.2021.1966824

Abstract:
The sheer volume of available research and shifts toward evidence-based practice has led researchers and practitioners in sport and exercise psychology to rely increasingly on meta-analyses to summarize current knowledge, provide future research directions, and inform policy and practice. These issues highlight the imperative of precision and integrity in the conduct of meta-analyses in the discipline. This review provides a summary of meta-analytic methods relevant to sport and exercise psychology, identifies important issues and advances in meta-analytic methods, and provides best practice guidelines for meta-analysts to consider when synthesizing research in the discipline. In Part I, I provide an overview of the basic principles of meta-analysis and direct readers to accessible, non-technical treatments of the topic. In Part II, I introduce several key issues in meta-analysis and summarize the latest advances in each: effective assessment of heterogeneity; testing for moderators; dealing with dependency; evaluating publication bias and tracking down ‘fugitive literature’; and assessing sample size in meta-analysis. I also cover two emerging topics: testing theories using meta-analysis and open science and transparency practices in meta-analysis. I conclude the discussion of each issue by providing best practice guidelines, and refer the reader to further accessible texts to augment knowledge and understanding.
, Leandre R. Fabrigar, JoLynn Pek, Kathryn Hoisington-Shaw
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin; https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211030811

Abstract:
Traditionally, statistical power was viewed as relevant to research planning but not evaluation of completed research. However, following discussions of high false finding rates (FFRs) associated with low statistical power, the assumed level of statistical power has become a key criterion for research acceptability. Yet, the links between power and false findings are not as straightforward as described. Assumptions underlying FFR calculations do not reflect research realities in personality and social psychology. Even granting the assumptions, the FFR calculations identify important limitations to any general influences of statistical power. Limits for statistical power in inflating false findings can also be illustrated through the use of FFR calculations to (a) update beliefs about the null or alternative hypothesis and (b) assess the relative support for the null versus alternative hypothesis when evaluating a set of studies. Taken together, statistical power should be de-emphasized in comparison to current uses in research evaluation.
, Kenneth E. Vail, Cathy R. Cox
The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion pp 1-38; https://doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2021.1902647

Abstract:
Terror management theory suggests people can manage existential concerns through faith in their cultural systems, including religious beliefs. It is not clear, however, how people with a religious “quest” orientation manage such existential concerns. The present research explored the intersection between existential concern and religious quest. Quest individuals experience doubt, which comes at the cost of greater death-related anxieties (Study 1, n= 654), cognitions (Study 2, n = 167), and vulnerability against mortality reminders (Study 3, n= 226). Second, mortality salience (MS) led people high in quest to become more culturally open-minded (Study 4, n = 100), and less likely to believe-in or commit-to their supernatural agent (Study 5, n = 120). These responses were mitigated when quest individuals were first prompted to explore (a step toward resolving) their doubts and uncertainties (Study 6, n = 462). Implications for quest orientation and existential defense- vs. growth-motivation are discussed.
, , Paul Gerrans, Joanne Sneddon, Hester van Herk, Uwana Evers, Shalom Schwartz
European Journal of Personality; https://doi.org/10.1177/08902070211002965

Abstract:
Research has found that value–behavior relations are usually weak to moderate. But is this really the case? This paper proposes that the relations of personal values to behavior are stronger at higher levels of value importance and weaker at lower levels. In a large, heterogeneous sample, we tested this proposition by estimating quantile correlations between values and self-reported everyday behavior, at different locations along the distribution of value importance. We found the proposed pattern both for self-reports of everyday behaviors chosen intentionally to be value-expressive and everyday behaviors subject to strong situational constraints (e.g., spending allocation to clothing and footwear). Our findings suggest that value–behavior relations may be stronger than previously recognized, depending on value importance. People who attribute high importance to a value will not only engage in value-expressive behaviors more frequently, but as we move up the value importance distribution, the relations strengthen. In contrast, people who attribute low importance to a value not only engage in value-expressive behaviors less frequently, but as we move down the value importance distribution, the relations weaken. These findings provide important insight into the nature of values.
, Andrea Lizama Alvarado
Social Psychological Bulletin, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.32872/spb.v14i3.35320

Abstract:
Previous research has found inconsistent results on the impact of work-status (permanent vs. fixed term vs. causal work) on attitudinal and behavioural outcomes. This study explored this topic from a social identity perspective and examines the effect of communication climate, organisational and team identification on job-affective well-being, organisational commitment and intentions to recommend. In Study 1, 631 professionals working in Chile completed our survey. In Study 2, which was pre-registered, 520 professionals from the UK completed the same survey. In both studies we conducted multi-group path analyses comparing employees with three work-statuses: permanent, fixed-term, and casual workers (Study 1: n = 369, 129, and 131, respectively; Study 2: n = 438, 53, and 34, respectively). We found work-status influenced the relationship between organisational and team identification with job-affective well-being, but not with organisational citizenship behaviour or intentions to recommend. Across all groups, communication climate was an important predictor for identification measures, job-affective well-being and intention to recommend. These findings offer an understanding of the dynamics of social identification in the workplace that are related to work-status in the context of two different countries; Chile, a country that is characterised by high rates of fixed-term and casual job agreement and the UK, which has comparatively fewer non-standard work-arrangements.
Lerong Wang, Huimei Shi, , Yanni Li, Xiaohan Yu, Muran Shi, Hui Yan, Tong Li, Jia Lu, Yanfeng Suo, et al.
Published: 22 October 2019
Abstract:
The relationship among blood donation, cognition in blood donation and health condition of blood donors remains unclear. Based on our hypothesis, this study aimed to explore the mediating effect of cognition in blood donation on the relationship between blood donation and blood donors' health status. A total of 837 participants who had prior experience in donating whole blood were recruited into a cross-sectional survey. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Questionnaire on Cognition in Non-remunerated Blood Donation were used to evaluate the health status and the level of cognition in blood donation, respectively. Blood donation referred to the cumulative times of blood donation. The mediating effect of cognition in blood donation was analyzed by applying a path model. The results revealed that blood donation was positively related to the physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) of SF-36, and cognition in blood donation was shown to have a partial mediating effect on the relationship between blood donation and both PCS and MCS. The effect size of cognition in blood donation was 24.63% in PCS and 26.72% in MCS. Blood donation is positively correlated with SF-36 outcomes (PCS and MCS) of blood donors, and cognition in blood donation plays a partial mediating effect in the relationship between blood donation and PCS and MCS.
, Chadly Stern, Helen Neville
Published: 18 September 2019
Journal of Social Issues, Volume 75, pp 1240-1261; https://doi.org/10.1111/josi.12356

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Matthew Vanaman, Mary-Page Leggett, Laura Crysel,
Basic and Applied Social Psychology, Volume 41, pp 20-33; https://doi.org/10.1080/01973533.2018.1531000

Abstract:
This research developed the first measure of the need for moral cognition, or the tendency to seek out, talk about, reflect on, or otherwise engage with ethical or moral issues. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was conducted on transcripts from interviews with members of the target population and focus groups with content experts. Pilot items were administered to a large online sample; 2 latent factors were identified. Scores were assessed for test–retest reliability, and convergent-, discriminant-, and criterion-validity. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that the Need for Moral Cognition scale is a valid and reliable measure suitable for use in psychological research.
, Eric D. Wesselmann, Joseph Hilgard
Published: 14 November 2018
Perspectives on Behavior Science, Volume 42, pp 13-31; https://doi.org/10.1007/s40614-018-00186-8

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
European Review of Social Psychology, Volume 30, pp 1-38; https://doi.org/10.1080/10463283.2018.1542902

Abstract:
Current controversies in social psychology have sparked the promotion of new rules for evidence in the field. This “crisis of evidence” echoes prior concerns from the 1970s about a so-called “crisis of social psychology”, with such issues as replication and statistical significance once more under examination. I argue that parallel concerns about the relevance of our research, raised but not completely resolved in the 1970s crisis, also deserve a fresh look. In particular, the advances made in the current crisis of evidence came about because of changes in academic career incentives, particularly publishing. Today, many voices in psychology urge greater respect for relevance in topics, methods and communication, but the lack of clear and concrete incentives to do so has stood in the way of answers. I diagnose the current incentive structures, propose partial solutions that are within the reach of journal editors and professional societies, and conclude by discussing the links between relevance and evidence, as well as special challenges to the relevance of social psychology post-2016.
Mostafa Salari Rad, ,
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 115, pp 11401-11405; https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1721165115

Abstract:
Two primary goals of psychological science should be to understand what aspects of human psychology are universal and the way that context and culture produce variability. This requires that we take into account the importance of culture and context in the way that we write our papers and in the types of populations that we sample. However, most research published in our leading journals has relied on sampling WEIRD (Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic) populations. One might expect that our scholarly work and editorial choices would by now reflect the knowledge that Western populations may not be representative of humans generally with respect to any given psychological phenomenon. However, as we show here, almost all research published by one of our leading journals,Psychological Science, relies on Western samples and uses these data in an unreflective way to make inferences about humans in general. To take us forward, we offer a set of concrete proposals for authors, journal editors, and reviewers that may lead to a psychological science that is more representative of the human condition.
, Volker Gadenne, Bernard A. Nijstad
Basic and Applied Social Psychology, Volume 40, pp 384-395; https://doi.org/10.1080/01973533.2018.1513362

Abstract:
That most psychological research is conducted with students led to concerns that psychological laws apply only to this population. These fears are based on Campbell and Stanley’s concept of external validity that specifies the extent to which research findings can be generalized. This concept is based on an inductivist philosophy. As philosophers of science have argued since Hume, one cannot derive general laws from singular observations. Instead, one develops theories and uses empirical studies to test these theories. This solves the problem of generalization because the domain of applicability is specified by the theory. Reports that studies result in different findings when conducted in different cultures are unproblematic as long as these differences can be explained with psychological theories.
International Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 32, pp 447-461; https://doi.org/10.1080/02134748.2017.1352140

Abstract:
In this article we present a series of suggestions that those submitting articles to the Revista de Psicología Social can follow with the goal of increasing the rigour and informative value of the articles submitted. Specifically, we discuss and present three general recommendations: the first on increasing the transparency of the methodological description; the second on increasing the statistical power of the studies; and the third on the distinction between confirmatory and exploratory analyses. We also offer several additional recommendations aimed at making social psychology a more open science. Summing up, we believe that these recommendations can help to increase the quality of research in social psychology and, in particular, the quality of the research published in this journal.
Perspectives on Psychological Science, Volume 12, pp 694-698; https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691617701184

Abstract:
Is psychology headed in the right direction? In this essay, I share my views on the answer to this question. I begin by describing how recent advances in technology, heightened levels of interdisciplinary collaboration, a renewed emphasis on considering the broader implications of basic psychological research, and field-wide efforts to encourage optimal research practices have combined to tilt psychology’s trajectory upward. I then offer three suggestions for how to maintain the field’s upward slanting course: (a) collaborate more to build cumulative knowledge, (b) improve the way we communicate contextual factors in psychological research, and (c) examine the psychological effects of technology. I conclude by offering a single piece of advice for new researchers and a few closing comments.
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