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(searched for: doi:10.1075/prag.27.1.01che)
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, Naixing Wei
Published: 5 July 2022
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 28, pp 439-462; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.17005.su

Abstract:
This paper extends the concept of local grammar to speech act studies, focusing specifically on apologising in English. It aims primarily to demonstrate the usefulness of a local grammar approach to account for speech acts and ultimately to contribute to the on-going development of corpus pragmatics. Apology expressions in a corpus of scripted TV conversations are first automatically extracted and then manually examined in order to make sure that all remaining instances have the illocutionary force of apologising and thus qualify for further analysis. The subsequent local grammar analyses facilitate the establishment of a local grammar of apology, comprising 14 local grammar patterns. The analyses show that it is promising to develop a set of local grammars to account more adequately for speech acts in general. The relationship between local grammars, functional grammars, and general grammars is further discussed, which suggests that local grammars can be an alternative approach to functional-pragmatic studies of language and discourse. Directions for future research are outlined; and implications and applications are briefly discussed.
, Lisa Winder
Second language pragmatic development in study abroad contexts, Volume 7, pp 54-87; https://doi.org/10.1075/sar.21010.hal

Abstract:
The study abroad (SA) experience presents opportunities to enrich linguistic and cultural knowledge, but pragmatic development does not always follow a linear path. This investigation describes one interlanguage challenge: managing online interactions in upward email requests. Openings and closings in emails of two academic discourse communities are examined: (L1) English-speaking experts with three years of prior socialization into UK academic practices (n = 162) and (L2) Chinese English as a foreign language novices as newcomers on their SA stay (n = 159). The study aims to analyze sociocultural variance between the groups and whether a 10-month sojourn influences novice email practices. Results revealed novices and experts adopted markedly different strategies for interpersonal work. Experts tended to take a less formal, egalitarian stance when initiating emails while novices opted for increased levels of formality in structure and style. Most novices’ mismanagement could be traced back to first language influences or, more commonly, to an overreliance on formal letter writing techniques.
Talia Walker
EuroAmerican Journal of Applied Linguistics and Languages, Volume 9, pp 1-27; https://doi.org/10.21283/2376905x.15.1.235

Abstract:
EN This paper explores the strategies chosen by Australian learners of Italian when performing emailed apologies in Italian. Through a modified discourse completion task, 42 participants produced a total of 317 emails. This paper presents an adapted typology of these emailed apologies in Italian which, while drawing on previous literature, has been tailored to be more specific to and therefore more effective in the analysis of the data collected in this project. It was found that the apology act as performed by Australian learners of Italian consists of two principal components, the apology and the repair, the latter of which is optional but is usually included. In addition, supportive strategies can be included prior to or following either of these components to strengthen the illocutionary force of the apology act. The analysis also evidenced that while a broad speech act structure can be identified, the apology act is a complex phenomenon which can be performed with great variation. Key words: APOLOGIES, APOLOGY STRATEGIES, APOLOGY TYPOLOGY, AUSTRALIAN LEARNERS OF ITALIAN, EMAILED APOLOGIES ES Este estudio examina las estrategias elegidas por discentes australianos de italiano en las disculpas enviadas por e-mail. A través de un Discourse Completion Task modificado (actividad de finalización del discurso), 42 participantes produjeron un total de 317 e-mails. Este artículo presenta una tipología adaptada de disculpas en italiano enviadas por e-mail que, aunque tomada de la literatura precedente, se ha adecuado para que fuera más pertinente al proyecto. Se observa que el acto de disculpa del alumnado australiano de italiano se constituye de dos elementos principales: la disculpa y la reparación; este último es facultativo, pero se suele incluir. Además, se pueden utilizar estrategias de soporte antes o después de uno de los dos componentes para consolidar la fuerza ilocutiva del acto de disculpa. El análisis también ha demostrado que, por un lado, es posible identificar una estructura amplia del acto lingüístico, y por otro, el acto de disculpa es un fenómeno complejo cuya realización es altamente variable. Palabras claves: DISCULPAS, ESTRATEGIAS PARA DISCULPARSE, TIPOLOGÍA DE DISCULPAS, DISCENTES AUSTRALIANOS DE ITALIANO, DISCULPAS POR E-MAIL IT Questo studio esamina le strategie usate da apprendenti australiani di italiano per la formulazione di scuse in italiano inviate via e-mail. Attraverso un Discourse Completion Task modificato (attività di completamento del discorso), 42 partecipanti hanno prodotto un totale di 317 email. Questo articolo presenta una tipologia adattata di scuse in italiano inviate via e-mail che, pur attingendo dalla letteratura precedente, è stata adeguata per essere più attinente al presente progetto. Emerge che l’atto di scusarsi prodotto dagli studenti australiani di italiano è costituito da due elementi principali: la scusa e la riparazione; nonostante quest’ultimo sia facoltativo, viene di solito incluso. Inoltre, strategie di supporto possono essere impiegate prima o dopo una delle due componenti per consolidare la forza illocutoria dell’atto di scuse. L’analisi ha anche dimostrato che, se da un lato, è possibile identificare un’ampia struttura dell’atto linguistico, dall’altro, l’atto di scusarsi è un fenomeno complesso la cui realizzazione è altamente variabile. Parole chiave: SCUSE, STRATEGIE PER SCUSARSI, TIPOLOGIA DI SCUSE, APPRENDENTI AUSTRALIANI DI ITALIANO, SCUSE VIA EMAIL
Yi An, Hang Su, Mingyou Xiang
Published: 16 August 2021
Journal: Pragmatics
Pragmatics, Volume 32, pp 28-53; https://doi.org/10.1075/prag.19029.an

Abstract:
This study presents a corpus-based sociopragmatic investigation into apology responses (ARs) and gender differences in ARs in spoken British English. Using data taken from the recently released Spoken BNC2014, the investigation leads to an adjusted taxonomy of ARs which comprises five categories and several sub-categories. The investigation shows that ‘Lack of response’ is the most typical response, followed by ‘Acceptance’, ‘Rejection’, ‘Evasion’, and ‘Acknowledgement’. The results are discussed in relation to the process of attenuation that apologies have undergone (e.g. Jucker 2019), i.e. apologies are becoming more routinised and less meaningful. The proposed taxonomy is subsequently used to examine the extent to which male and female recipients respond to apologies differently. While the investigation suggests no significant differences in ARs across genders, it has been observed that there is some correlation between ARs and the gender of the apologiser. Finally, the implications and applications of the study are briefly discussed.
Hang Su
Published: 5 July 2021
Pragmatics and Society, Volume 12, pp 410-436; https://doi.org/10.1075/ps.18031.su

Abstract:
This paper presents a local grammar based diachronic investigation of apology in spoken British English, aiming to offer an alternative approach for diachronic speech act analysis and to further explore what the changing patterns of apology would suggest about the social-cultural changes happened and/or happening in the British society. The paper shows that the proposed local grammar approach can contribute to a more delicate and finer-grained speech act annotation scheme, which in turn facilitates a more reliable quantification of speech act realisations across contexts or time. The subsequent investigation shows that apologies in spoken British English are becoming more formulaic and less explicit, which suggests that either social distance has been reduced or that Britain might have become an even more stratified society.
Published: 2 October 2017
Language Awareness, Volume 26, pp 261-281; https://doi.org/10.1080/09658416.2017.1409231

Abstract:
Adopting retrospective verbal report, or RVR as the instrument, this study reports an analysis of the perceptions of native-English-speaking (NES) and non-native-English-speaking (NNES) students, who apologised to their instructors in coursework-related situations. Sixty NESs from different levels and disciplinary areas and 63 NNESs (Arabic and Chinese L1s) from an Intensive English programme were sampled to represent the student population in a US university. Each participant was asked to complete a discourse completion task (DCT) in response to three apology situations, and this resulted in a total of 369 apology messages. A RVR was conducted immediately following the completion of the DCT. Students’ perceptions gathered through the RVR were categorised according to four factors, including apology strategy use, professionalism, contextual variables, and language use. Results showed that NES and NNES students had different considerations in producing institutional apologies. For example, multiple NES students addressed the severity of the apology situations, which was not mentioned at all by NNES students. Both groups reported having minimal or no instruction on how apologies should be made in academic communication, an area that warrants pedagogical interventions.
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