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(searched for: doi:10.5530/ijmedph.2016.4.4)
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, Vivek K. Chouksey, L. Shivlata, Lalit K. Sahare, Ashish K. Thakur
Published: 26 July 2019
Journal: VirusDisease
VirusDisease, Volume 30, pp 367-372; https://doi.org/10.1007/s13337-019-00541-6

Abstract:
Viral hepatitis is a considerable public health burden affecting millions of people throughout the world. The incidence of viral hepatitis varies greatly depending upon geographic locations, age and gender. Exploring the etiological spectrum and clinic-epidemiological profile of acute viral hepatitis (AVH) becomes essential for strategizing the preventive measures to control the diseases. An epidemiological data depicting AVH situation and its etiologies is missing from central India. With the aim of fulfilling this lacuna, the present analysis was done on samples tested over a period of 2 years from July 2015 to June 2017. Of the 1901 hepatitis cases, 597 individuals (31.4%) were positive for AVH infection and HEV was the predominant cause followed by HBV, HAV and HCV. Co-infections of hepatitis viruses were detected in 42 cases. Co-infection of HEV with HBV was the commonest pattern. Male preponderance was observed among AVH positive cases and the age group of 26–45 years was the most susceptible to the viral hepatitis infections, except hepatitis A, which was the most frequent among children. Two hundred patients (33.45%) required hospitalization and 51 deaths were attributed to AVH infections. The analysis for the first time reports intricacies and viral etiologies of AVH in central India. Regular diagnosis of AVH etiology and monitoring of cases will help in patient management and assist disease control programs to take policy decisions.
Prabha Desikan, Zeba Khan
Published: 1 July 2017
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, Volume 35, pp 332-339; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijmm.ijmm_17_257

Abstract:
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have several important similarities including worldwide distribution, hepato-tropism, similar modes of transmission and the ability to induce chronic infection that may lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Since both viruses are individually known to cause the pathologies mentioned above, co-infection with both HBV and HCV would be expected to be linked with higher morbidity as well as mortality and impact healthcare resource utilisation. Precise estimate of the prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection would be needed to formulate policy decisions and plan communal health interventions. This systematic review and meta-analysis, therefore, aims to understand the prevalence of HBV and HCV co-infection in India based on the available literature. Following PRISMA guidelines, primary studies reporting the prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in India were retrieved through searches conducted in PubMed, Google SCHOLAR, Medline, Cochrane Library, WHO reports, Indian and International journals online. All online searches were conducted between December 2016 and February 2017. Meta-analysis was carried out using StatsDirect statistical software. Thirty studies published between 2000 and 2016 conducted across six regions of India were included in this review. The pooled HBV/HCV co-infection prevalence rate across the thirty studies was 1.89% (95% confidence intervals [CI] = 1.2%–2.4%). A high heterogeneity was observed between prevalence estimates. The HBV/HCV co-infection prevalence in different subgroups varied from 0.02% (95% CI = 0.0019%–0.090%) to 3.2% (95% CI = 1.3%–5.9%). The pooled prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in India was found to be 1.89%. This systematic review and meta-analysis revealed high prevalence of HBV/HCV co-infection in chronic liver patients, followed by HIV-positive patients, and then followed by persons who inject drugs and kidney disease patients
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