(searched for: doi:10.1017/s1357729800042521)
Grass and Forage Science, Volume 57, pp 11-18; https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2494.2002.00296.x
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Animal Science, Volume 66, pp 105-113; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1357729800008882
Juke was expressed from two silages of contrasting fermentation type with either high (H) or low (L) levels of lactic acid and reconstituted either with the silage from which it had been expressed or the other silage. This procedure produced four dietary treatments (HH, HL, LL, LH) each differing in fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments HH, HL, LL, and LH contained 81, 71, 59, and 49 g lactic acid per kg dry matter (DM) and 101, 133, 193 and 159 g ammonia-N per kg total nitrogen (TN) respectively. The four diets were offered to four steers (mean live weight 679 (s.e. 49) kg) in a four-period change-over design experiment. Each period was of 17 days duration. DM intakes were recorded daily, with intakes on days 8 to 17 used in the statistical analysis of data. On day 12 of each experimental period, rumen fluid samples were taken throughout a 24-h period. The rates of disappearance of DM, nitrogen (N), modified acid-detergent fibre (MADF) and neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) in the rumen were determined on days 14 to 17 using the polyester bag technique. DM intakes were 7·2, 6·9, 6·0 and 6·0 (s.e. 0·50) kg/day (P = 0·08) for HH, HL, LL and LH dietary treatments respectively. Diet had no significant effect on eating behaviour, rumen fermentation parameters or degradability of DM, N, MADF and NDF fractions (P > 0·05). Silage L increased rumen fluid pH (P< 0·05), reduced buffering capacity (P< 0·05) and increased the molar proportion of propionic acid and n-butyric acid (P< 0·05 and P< 0·01) compared with silage H. Silage L also had a lower DM apparent digestibility, D-value and DM, (P< 0·001), N and MADF (P< 0·05) degradabilities than silage H. The higher DM intake of dietary treatment HH compared with dietary treatments LL and LH could not be explained by any single constituent of the silages although it was apparent that physical characteristics of the silage were more important in determining intake than the chemical characteristics.
Food Science and Technology International, Volume 3, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1177/108201329700300101
A topical review of pickled vegetables is presented that encompasses scientific considerations rele vant to processing with the ultimate goal of generating interest for this ancient preservation tech nique. The emphasis is placed on the potential application of pickling to a group of high quality vegetables, and directing research and development pertaining to pickling in a more educated way. A critical literature survey is presented on issues such as transport of solutes, in situ fermen tation, and textural changes throughout the pickling process.
Animal Science, Volume 60, pp 347-359; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1357729800013229
A study was carried out to examine the effects of ensiling and pattern of silage fermentation on nitrogen and energy utilization, rumen fermentation and rumen degradation characteristics of forage by lactating dairy cows. Six nonfistulated dairy cows and three rumen fistulated dairy cows were offered fresh grass (G) or grass silage produced from the same sward which had undergone either an extensive (E) or restricted (R) fermentation. Animals offered extensively fermented silage had liigher urinary nitrogen (N) outputs (expressed as a proportion of N intake) than those offered fresh grass (P < 0·05). Corresponding values for animals offered restricted fermented silage were intermediate between those offered grass and extensively fermented silage. Animals offered fresh grass and restricted fermented silage also had higher methane energy losses (P < 0·05), than those offered extensively fermented silage. The ensiling of grass had little effect on metabolizable energy (ME) intake or on the efficiency of utilization of ME for lactation (k1). Animals offered extensively fermented silage had higher proportions of propionate and lower proportions of acetate than those offered fresh grass or restricted fermented silage (P < 0·001). Ensiling resulted in an increase in the soluble (a) fraction and a reduction in the potentially degradable (b) fraction of N.