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(searched for: pmid:1211937)
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C D Lyons, S Katz, R Bartha
Published: 1 September 1984
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 48, pp 491-6

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Richard H. Sugatt, Dean P. O'grady, Sujit Banerjee, Philip H. Howard, W. E. Gledhill
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 47, pp 601-606

Abstract:
An acclimated shake flask CO2 evolution test was used to study the biodegradability of 14 commercial phthalate esters that are commonly used as plasticizers. Both CO2 evolution (ultimate biodegradation) and loss of parent phthalate esters (primary biodegradation) were measured. With only a few exceptions, primary biodegradation was 90% or higher, and ultimate biodegradation was in excess of 55% of theoretical results in 28 days. The results showed that all of the commercial phthalate esters were susceptible to biodegradation by mixed populations of microorganisms from natural sources. The results also provide considerable insight into the utility and reproducibility of a standard biodegradation test that is being recommended for widespread screening of chemicals.
R. J. Larson, A. G. Payne
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 41, pp 621-7

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J P Luther, H Lipke
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 40, pp 145-155

Abstract:
A strain of Aspergillus fumigatus from composted coffee and garden wastes utilized natural deproteinized insect, banana, hair, octopus, and synthetic tyrosine and dopa melanins as sole sources of carbon. With a sucrose supplement, degradation was essentially complete after 50 days in Czapek medium pH 6.5 at 30 degrees C. The catabolic rate differed for each substrate pigment, as did the molecular weight distribution of products accumulating in the medium. After incubation with L-[U-14C]melanin, over 50% was recovered in a dark fungal pigment, the remainder appearing as cell protein, chitin, lipid, CO2, and polar metabolites. When grown on melanin, the normally pale mycelia darkened with the production of a fungal allomelanin, with infrared spectrum and alkali fusion products differing from those of the substrate pigment. Isotope distribution in amino acids for A. fumigatus grown on labeled melanin supplemented with sucrose suggested separate pools for synthesis of cell proteins and melanoproteins. Deposition of allomelanin increased resistance of conidia, sterigma, and conidiophores to lytic carbohydrases as judged by scanning electron microscopy.
Robert J. Larson
Published: 1 December 1979
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 38, pp 1153-1161

Abstract:
A method is described to estimate the biodegradation potential of soluble, insoluble, and unknown organic chemicals. The method consists of two stages: (i) generation of a microbial inoculum in a bench scale semicontinuous activated sludge system during which microorganisms are acclimated to test material and the removal of dissolved organic carbon is monitored and (ii) biodegradability testing (CO2 evolution) in a defined minimal medium containing the test material as the sole carbon and energy source and a dilute bacterial inoculum obtained from the supernatant of homogenized activated sludge generated in the semicontinuous activated sludge system. Removal and biodegradation are measured using nonspecific methods, at initial concentrations of 5 to 10 mg of dissolved organic carbon per liter. Biodegradability data are accurately described by a nonlinear computer model which allows the rate and extent of biodegradation for different compounds to be compared and statistically examined. The evaluation of data generated in the combined removability-biodegradability system allows the biodegradation potential of a variety of xenobiotic organic chemicals to be estimated.
M Slifkin, G R Pouchet
Published: 1 January 1977
Journal of Clinical Microbiology, Volume 5, pp 15-9

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V W Saeger, R G Kalley, O Hicks, E S Tucker, J P Mieure
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 31, pp 746-749

Abstract:
The biodegradability of three aliphatic adipic acid diesters and a 1,3-butylene glycol adipic acid polyester was determined in acclimated, activated sludge systems. Rapid primary biodegradation from 67 to 99+% was observed at 3- and 13-mg/liter feed levels for di-n-hexyl adipate, di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, and di(heptyl, nonyl) adipate in 24 h. When acclimated, activated sludge microorganisms were employed as the seed for two carbon dioxide evolution procedures, greater than 75% of the theoretical carbon dioxide was evolved for the three diesters and the polyester in a 35-day test period. The essentially complete biodegradation observed in these studies suggests that these esters would not persist when exposed to similar mixed microbial populations in the environment.
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