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, Aliza A. Le, Gary Lynch
Journal of Neuroscience Research; https://doi.org/10.1002/jnr.24844

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Victoria E. Bernaud, Ryoko Hiroi, Mallori L. Poisson, Arthur J. Castaneda, Ziv Z. Kirshner, Robert B. Gibbs,
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2021.610078

Abstract:
Rodent aging research often utilizes spatial mazes, such as the water radial-arm-maze (WRAM), to evaluate cognition. The WRAM can simultaneously measure spatial working and reference memory, wherein these two memory types are often represented as orthogonal. There is evidence, however, that these two memory forms yield interference at a high working memory load. The current study systematically evaluated whether the presence of a reference memory component impacts handling of an increasing working memory load. Young and aged female rats were tested to assess whether aging impacts this relationship. Cholinergic projections from the basal forebrain to the hippocampus and cortex can affect cognitive outcomes, and are negatively impacted by aging. To evaluate whether age-related changes in working and reference memory profiles are associated with cholinergic functioning, we assessed choline acetyltransferase activity in these behaviorally-tested rats. Results showed that young rats outperformed aged rats on a task testing solely working memory. The addition of a reference memory component deteriorated the ability to handle an increasing working memory load, such that young rats performed similar to their aged counterparts. Aged rats also had challenges when reference memory was present, but in a different context. Specifically, aged rats had difficulty remembering which reference memory arms they had entered within a session, compared to young rats. Further, aged rats that excelled in reference memory also excelled in working memory when working memory demand was high, a relationship not seen in young rats. Relationships between cholinergic activity and maze performance differed by age in direction and brain region, reflecting the complex role that the cholinergic system plays in memory and attentional processes across the female lifespan. Overall, the addition of a reference memory requirement detrimentally impacted the ability to handle working memory information across young and aged timepoints, especially when the working memory challenge was high; these age-related deficits manifested differently with the addition of a reference memory component. This interplay between working and reference memory provides insight into the multiple domains necessary to solve complex cognitive tasks, potentially improving the understanding of complexities of age- and disease- related memory failures and optimizing their respective treatments.
Caitlin A. Orsini, Shelby L. Blaes, Caesar M. Hernandez, Sara M. Betzhold, Hassan Perera, Alexa-Rae Wheeler, Tyler W. Ten Eyck, Tyler S. Garman, Jennifer L. Bizon,
Published: 12 September 2020
Neuropsychopharmacology, Volume 46, pp 603-613; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-00827-0

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Published: 20 March 2020
Frontiers in Neuroscience, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.00216

Abstract:
Engagement in sexual behavior can impact neurosteroidogenesis, in particular production of the prohormone testosterone (T) and likely its subsequent metabolism to 5α-androstane-3α-17β-Diol (3α-Diol) or aromatization to estradiol (E2). Androgens and their metabolites vary across the lifespan and impact many behaviors, including cognition, anxiety, and sexual behavior. Thus, we hypothesized that mating may alter cognitive performance via androstane neurosteroids in an age- and experience-dependent manner. We first investigated if exposure to mating during memory consolidation could enhance performance in the novel object recognition task (NOR). Male rats were trained in NOR and then immediately exposed to mating-relevant or control stimuli. Following a 4 h inter-trial interval (ITI), male rats were tested for object memory. Male rats that were exposed to a receptive female during the ITI had better performance in NOR. We then investigated if these effects were due to novelty associated with mating. Male rats were exposed to mating-relevant stimuli and identified as sexually responsive (SR) or sexually non-responsive (SNR) based on a median split of engagement in mating with the stimulus female. We found that a brief history (10 min session daily for five consecutive days) of sexual history substantially influenced performance in the NOR task, such that SR males had better performance in the NOR task, but only when presented with the opportunity to mate during the ITI. As T levels substantially decrease with age in male rodents, we investigated whether the effects of long-term sexual experience (10 months) influenced neurosteroids and NOR performance in mid-aged (12 months old) males. Mid-aged SR males maintain neural T; however, they have decreased neural E2 and decreased cognitive performance at 12 months compared to mid-aged SNR rats. In sexually experienced rats, those with better cognitive performance had greater levels of T metabolites (e.g., 3α-Diol in mated SR males, E2 in mid-aged SNR rats). While naïve males that were mated during the ITI had better cognitive performance, T metabolites were decreased compared to controls. These findings suggest that T metabolites, but not the prohormone, may influence learning dependent on sexual proclivity, experience, and proximate opportunity to mate.
Nathaniel Bohm-Levine, Alexander R. Goldberg, Monica Mariani, Maya Frankfurt,
Published: 1 February 2020
Hormones and Behavior, Volume 118; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2019.104590

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Published: 17 January 2019
Hormones and Behavior, Volume 111, pp 96-104; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2019.01.002

Abstract:
Although 17β-estradiol (E2) is known to regulate hippocampal function, the specific contributions of hippocampally-synthesized E2 remain unclear. Infusion of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole into the dorsal hippocampus (DH) of ovariectomized mice disrupts object recognition and object placement memory consolidation, suggesting that DH-synthesized E2 is essential for memory. However, the role of DH-synthesized E2 in memory among male rodents is unknown. Here, we examined effects of aromatase inhibition on memory consolidation in male mice. Intact and gonadectomized mice were infused with vehicle or letrozole into the DH immediately post-training in object placement and object recognition tasks. Letrozole blocked memory in both tasks among gonadectomized males only, suggesting that circulating androgens, or a rise in hippocampal androgens due to aromatase inhibition, may support memory consolidation in intact males. To test this hypothesis, intact males were infused with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide into the DH after object training. A dose-dependent impairment was observed in both tasks, indicating that blocking androgen signaling can impair memory consolidation. To test if hippocampal androgen receptor activation protected intact males from the impairing effects of letrozole, a non-impairing dose of flutamide was co-infused with letrozole. Co-administration of both drugs blocked object placement and object recognition memory consolidation, demonstrating that letrozole impairs memory in intact males only if androgen receptors are blocked. Together, these data suggest that DH-synthesized E2 and androgen receptor activation may work in concert to mediate memory consolidation in intact males, such that androgen receptor activation protects against memory impairments caused by aromatase inhibition.
, David Fernández-Quezada, Diana Moran-Torres, Sonia Luquin, Yaveth Ruvalcaba-Delgadillo, Joaquín García-Estrada
Published: 1 January 2019
Noise and Health, Volume 21, pp 25-34; https://doi.org/10.4103/nah.NAH_23_19

Abstract:
Noise is one of the main sources of discomfort in modern societies. It affects physiology, behavior, and cognition of exposed subjects. Although the effects of noise on cognition are well known, gender role in noise-cognition relationship remains controversial. We analyzed the effects of noise on the ability of male and female rats to execute the Radial Arm Water Maze (RAWM) paradigm. Male and female Wistar rats were exposed to noise for 3 weeks, and the cognitive effects were assessed at the end of the exposure. RAWM execution included a three-day training phase and a reversal-learning phase conducted on the fourth day. Escape latency, reference memory errors, and working memory errors were quantified and compared between exposed and non-exposed subjects. We found that male rats were in general more affected by noise. Execution during the three-day learning phase evidenced that male exposed rats employed significantly more time to acquire the task than the non-exposed. On the other hand, the exposed females solved the paradigm in latencies similar to control rats. Both, males and females diminished their capacity to execute on the fourth day when re-learning abilities were tested. We conclude that male rats might be less tolerable to noise compared to female ones and that spatial learning may be a cognitive function comparably more vulnerable to noise.
, Jacqueline M. Haertel, ,
Published: 11 September 2018
Abstract:
Little is known about how 17β-estradiol (E2) mediates memory formation in males. In ovariectomized (OVX) mice, bilateral dorsal hippocampal (DH) infusion of E2 enhances memory consolidation in object recognition (OR) and object placement (OP) tasks in a manner dependent on activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt signaling. Here, bilateral DH E2 infusion enhanced memory consolidation in both tasks among OVX female, gonadally-intact male, and castrated male mice, suggesting comparable facilitation of memory consolidation in both sexes, independent of testicular hormones in males. Contrary to previous reports in OVX mice, E2 did not increase DH ERK or Akt phosphorylation in males, nor did the ERK inhibitor U0126 [1,4-diamino-2,3-dicyano-1,4-bis (o-aminophenylmercapto) butadiene] prevent E2 from enhancing memory consolidation among intact and castrated males. These data suggest that ERK activation is not necessary for E2 to enhance memory consolidation in males, and compared with previous reports in females, reveal novel sex differences in the cell-signaling pathways through which E2 facilitates memory consolidation. To explore the mechanisms underlying E2-induced memory enhancements in males, phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) in the DH was assessed. E2 increased phospho-CREB levels in both sexes, yet U0126 did not block these increases in castrated or intact males, indicating that E2 regulates CREB phosphorylation in males via an ERK-independent mechanism. Collectively, these findings suggest that the beneficial effects of hippocampal E2 on memory consolidation in males and females are mediated by different molecular mechanisms, which has important implications for the development of treatments to reduce memory dysfunction in men and women. Visual Abstract
, Jaekyoon Kim,
Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 23, pp 65-74; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cobeha.2018.03.011

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Jennifer Tuscher, , Jaekyoon Kim, Lisa R. Taxier
Published: 1 April 2018
Physiology & Behavior, Volume 187, pp 57-66; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2017.07.028

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Bailin H. Alexander, Heather M. Barnes, Emma Trimmer, Andrew M. Davidson, Benard O. Ogola, ,
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2018.00083

Abstract:
Periodic oscillations of gonadal hormone levels during the estrous cycle exert effects on the female brain, impacting cognition and behavior. While previous research suggests that changes in hormone levels across the cycle affect dendritic spine dynamics in the hippocampus, little is known about the effects on cortical dendritic spines and previous studies showed contradictory results. In this in vivo imaging study, we investigated the impact of the estrous cycle on the density and dynamics of dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex of mice. We also examined if the induction of synaptic plasticity during proestrus, estrus, and metestrus/diestrus had differential effects on the degree of remodeling of synapses in this brain area. We used chronic two-photon excitation (2PE) microscopy during steady-state conditions and after evoking synaptic plasticity by whisker stimulation at the different stages of the cycle. We imaged apical dendritic tufts of layer 5 pyramidal neurons of naturally cycling virgin young female mice. Spine density, turnover rate (TOR), survival fraction, morphology, and volume of mushroom spines remained unaltered across the estrous cycle, and the values of these parameters were comparable with those of young male mice. However, while whisker stimulation of female mice during proestrus and estrus resulted in increases in the TOR of spines (74.2 ± 14.9% and 75.1 ± 12.7% vs. baseline, respectively), sensory-evoked plasticity was significantly lower during metestrus/diestrus (32.3 ± 12.8%). In males, whisker stimulation produced 46.5 ± 20% increase in TOR compared with baseline—not significantly different from female mice at any stage of the cycle. These results indicate that, while steady-state density and dynamics of dendritic spines of layer 5 pyramidal neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex of female mice are constant during the estrous cycle, the susceptibility of these neurons to sensory-evoked structural plasticity may be dependent on the stage of the cycle. Since dendritic spines are more plastic during proestrus and estrus than during metestrus/diestrus, certain stages of the cycle could be more suitable for forms of memory requiring de novo formation and elimination of spines and other stages for forms of memory where retention and/or repurposing of already existing synaptic connections is more pertinent.
, Valerie C. Braddick, Christopher G. Batson, , ,
Published: 1 March 2018
Psychoneuroendocrinology, Volume 89, pp 120-130; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.12.025

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Current Neuropharmacology, Volume 15, pp 1043-1055; https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159X15666170313122555

Abstract:
Many prostate cancer (PCa) patients are on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) as part of their cancer treatments but ADT may lead to cognitive impairments. ADT depletes men of both androgen and estrogen. Whether estradiol supplementation can improve cognitive impairments in patients on ADT is understudied. To summarize data on the effects of estradiol treatment on cognitive function of androgen-deprived genetic male populations (PCa patients and male-to-female transsexuals) and castrated male animals. Publications were identified by a literature search on PubMed and Google Scholar. While some studies showed that estradiol improves cognitive function (most notably, spatial ability) for castrated rats, what remains uninvestigated are: 1) whether estradiol can improve cognition after long-term androgen deprivation, 2) how estradiol affects memory retention, and 3) how early vs. delayed estradiol treatment after castration influences cognition. For androgen-deprived genetic males, estradiol treatment may improve some cognitive functions (e.g., verbal and visual memory), but the findings are not consistent due to large variability in the study design between studies. Future studies are required to determine the best estradiol treatment protocol to maximize cognitive benefits for androgen-deprived genetic males. Tests that assess comparable cognitive domains in human and rodents are needed. What particularly under-investigated is how the effects of estradiol on cognitive ability intersect with other parameters; sleep, depression and physical fatigue. Such studies have clinical implications to improve the quality of life for both PCa patients on ADT as well as for male-to-female transsexuals.
Rajendra K. Shukla, Yogesh K. Dhuriya, , Richa Gupta, Pranay Srivastava, , Ajay Kumar, Chandra M. Pandey, M. Haris Siddiqui,
Published: 1 May 2017
NeuroToxicology, Volume 60, pp 187-196; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2016.07.002

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
George T. Taylor, Francesca M. Manzella, Jacob Huffman, Omar H. Cabrera,
Published: 1 April 2017
Hormones and Behavior, Volume 90, pp 84-89; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2017.02.011

Published: 8 December 2016
Frontiers in Neuroscience, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2016.00517

Abstract:
Decreased serotonin (5-HT) function is associated with numerous cognitive and affective disorders. Women are more vulnerable to these disorders and have a lower rate of 5-HT synthesis than men. Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) are a major source of 5-HT in the forebrain and play a critical role in regulation of stress-related disorders. In particular, polymorphisms of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TpH2, the brain-specific, rate-limiting enzyme for 5-HT biosynthesis) are implicated in cognitive and affective disorders. Administration of 17β-estradiol (E2), the most potent naturally circulating estrogen in women and rats, can have beneficial effects on cognitive, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors. Moreover, E2 increases TpH2 mRNA in specific subdivisions of the DRN. Although conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) are a commonly prescribed estrogen component of hormone therapy in menopausal women, there is a marked gap in knowledge regarding how CEE affects these behaviors and the brain 5-HT system. Therefore, we compared the effects of E2 and CEE treatments on TpH2 mRNA and on behavior. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized, administered either vehicle, E2, or CEE, and tested on a battery of cognitive, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors. The brains of these animals were subsequently analyzed for TpH2 mRNA. E2 increased TpH2 mRNA in the caudal and mid DRN, corroborating previous findings. However, CEE increased TpH2 mRNA in the caudal and rostral, but not the mid DRN, suggesting that distinct estrogens can have subregion-specific effects on TpH2 gene expression. We also found differential correlations between the level of TpH2 mRNA in specific DRN subregions and behavior, depending on the type of behavior. These distinct associations imply that cognition, anxiety-like, and depressive-like behaviors are modulated by unique serotonergic neurocircuitry, opening the possibility of novel avenues of targeted treatment for different types of cognitive and affective disorders.
Rajendra K. Shukla, Richa Gupta, Pranay Srivastava, Yogesh K. Dhuriya, Anshuman Singh, , Ajay Kumar, M. Haris Siddiqui, Devendra Parmar, Aditya B. Pant, et al.
Published: 1 February 2016
Neurochemistry International, Volume 93, pp 51-63; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2015.12.012

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, Seyed Hassan Hejazian, Sareh Karimi, Seyed Mojtaba Mousavi, Mohammad Soukhtanloo
Published: 1 January 2016
Advanced Biomedical Research, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.186981

Abstract:
Background: Regarding the anti-oxidative effects on the central nervous system, the possible protection against brain tissues oxidative damage as a possible mechanism for improving effects of low doses of estradiol on scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments was investigated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.Materials and Methods: The OVX rats treated by (1) vehicle, (2) scopolamine, and (3–4) scopolamine plus estradiol (20 or 20 or 60 μg/kg). Estradiol was administered (20 or 60 μg/kg, intraperitoneally) daily for 6 weeks after ovariectomy. The rats were examined for learning and memory using passive avoidance test. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg) was injected 30 min after training in the test. The brains were then removed to determine malondialdehyde (MDA) and thiol contents.Results: Scopolamine shortened the time latency to enter the dark compartment in (P < 0.01). Compared to scopolamine, pretreatment by both doses of estradiol prolonged the latency to enter the dark compartment (P < 0.01). The brain tissues MDA concentration as an index of lipid peroxidation was decreased (P < 0.05). Pretreatment by estradiol lowered the concentration of MDA, while it increased thiol content compared to scopolamine (P < 0.05 andP < 0.01).Conclusions: These results allow us to suggest a protection against brain tissues oxidative damage as a possible mechanism for improving effects of low doses of estradiol on scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in OVX rats.
Veronica L. Burnham,
Published: 1 November 2015
Hormones and Behavior, Volume 76, pp 48-56; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.05.010

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Jaekyoon Kim, Jennifer Tuscher, Ashley M. Fortress
Published: 18 August 2015
Learning & Memory, Volume 22, pp 472-493; https://doi.org/10.1101/lm.037267.114

Abstract:
Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17β-estradiol (E2), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes the effects of E2 on hippocampal spinogenesis, neurogenesis, physiology, and memory, with particular attention paid to the effects of E2 in male rodents. The estrogen receptors, cell-signaling pathways, and epigenetic processes necessary for E2 to enhance memory in female rodents are also discussed in detail. Finally, practical considerations for working with female rodents are described for those investigators thinking of adding females to their experimental designs.
Jeffrey A. Blair, Sabina Bhatta, Henry McGee,
Published: 12 July 2015
Hormones and Behavior, Volume 76, pp 57-62; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.06.020

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Sarah E. Mennenga, Leslie C. Baxter, Itamar S. Grunfeld, Gene A. Brewer, Leona S. Aiken, Elizabeth B. Engler-Chiurazzi, Bryan W. Camp, Jazmin I. Acosta, B. Blair Braden, Keley R. Schaefer, et al.
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00294

Abstract:
We constructed an 11-arm, walk-through, human radial-arm maze (HRAM) as a translational instrument to compare existing methodology in the areas of rodent and human learning and memory research. The HRAM, utilized here, serves as an intermediary test between the classic rat radial-arm maze (RAM) and standard human neuropsychological and cognitive tests. We show that the HRAM is a useful instrument to examine working memory ability, explore the relationships between rodent and human memory and cognition models, and evaluate factors that contribute to human navigational ability. One-hundred-and-fifty-seven participants were tested on the HRAM, and scores were compared to performance on a standard cognitive battery focused on episodic memory, working memory capacity, and visuospatial ability. We found that errors on the HRAM increased as working memory demand became elevated, similar to the pattern typically seen in rodents, and that for this task, performance appears similar to Miller’s classic description of human working memory capacity of 7±2 items. Regression analysis revealed that measures of working memory capacity and visuospatial ability accounted for a large proportion of variance in HRAM scores, while measures of episodic memory and general intelligence did not serve as significant predictors of HRAM performance. We present the HRAM as a novel instrument for measuring navigational behavior in humans, as is traditionally done in basic science studies evaluating rodent learning and memory, thus providing a useful tool to help connect and translate between human and rodent models of cognitive functioning.
Published: 7 September 2014
Hormones and Behavior, Volume 66, pp 602-618; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2014.08.011

Abstract:
A historical perspective on estradiol's enhancement of cognitive function is presented, and research, primarily in animals, but also in humans, is reviewed. Data regarding the mechanisms underlying the enhancements are discussed. Newer studies showing rapid effects of estradiol on consolidation of memory through membrane interactions and activation of inter-cellular signaling pathways are reviewed as well as studies focused on traditional genomic mechanisms. Recent demonstrations of intra-neuronal estradiol synthesis and possible actions as a neurosteroid to promote memory are discussed. This information is applied to the critical issue of the current lack of effective hormonal (or other) treatments for cognitive decline associated with menopause and aging. Finally, the critical period hypothesis for estradiol effects is discussed along with novel strategies for hormone/drug development. Overall, the historical record documents that estradiol positively impacts some aspects of cognitive function, but effective therapeutic interventions using this hormone have yet to be realized.
, Elin M. Grissom, Nicole M. Moody, Gary P. Dohanich,
Published: 1 April 2014
Behavioural Brain Research, Volume 262, pp 68-73; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2014.01.006

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 8 June 2013
Retrovirology, Volume 10, pp 61-16; https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-4690-10-61

Abstract:
Background HIV-1 Clade C (Subtype C; HIV-1C) is responsible for greater than 50% of infections worldwide. Unlike clade B HIV-1 (Subtype B; HIV-1B), which is known to cause HIV associated dementia (HAD) in approximately 15% to 30% of the infected individuals, HIV-1C has been linked with lower prevalence of HAD (0 to 6%) in India and Ethiopia. However, recent studies report a higher prevalence of HAD in South Africa, Zambia and Botswana, where HIV-1C infections predominate. Therefore, we examined whether Southern African HIV-1C is genetically distinct and investigated its neurovirulence. HIV-1 Tat protein is a viral determinant of neurocognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we focused our study on the variations seen in tat gene and its contribution to HIV associated neuropathogenesis. Results A phylogenetic analysis of tat sequences of Southern African (South Africa and Zambia) HIV isolates with those from the geographically distant Southeast Asian (India and Bangladesh) isolates revealed that Southern African tat sequences are distinct from Southeast Asian isolates. The proportion of HIV − 1C variants with an intact dicysteine motif in Tat protein (C30C31) was significantly higher in the Southern African countries compared to Southeast Asia and broadly paralleled the high incidence of HAD in these countries. Neuropathogenic potential of a Southern African HIV-1C isolate (from Zambia; HIV-1C1084i), a HIV-1C isolate (HIV-1IndieC1) from Southeast Asia and a HIV-1B isolate (HIV-1ADA) from the US were tested using in vitro assays to measure neurovirulence and a SCID mouse HIV encephalitis model to measure cognitive deficits. In vitro assays revealed that the Southern African isolate, HIV-1C1084i exhibited increased monocyte chemotaxis and greater neurotoxicity compared to Southeast Asian HIV-1C. In neurocognitive tests, SCID mice injected with MDM infected with Southern African HIV-1C1084i showed greater cognitive dysfunction similar to HIV-1B but much higher than those exposed to Southeast Asian HIV − 1C. Conclusions We report here, for the first time, that HIV-1C from Southern African countries is genetically distinct from Southeast Asian HIV-1C and that it exhibits a high frequency of variants with dicysteine motif in a key neurotoxic HIV protein, Tat. Our results indicate that Tat dicysteine motif determines neurovirulence. If confirmed in population studies, it may be possible to predict neurocognitive outcomes of individuals infected with HIV-1C by genotyping Tat.
Chao Sun, NengGan Zheng, Xinlu Zhang, Weidong Chen,
Published: 18 January 2013
Journal of Bionic Engineering, Volume 10, pp 46-56; https://doi.org/10.1016/s1672-6529(13)60198-5

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Daniel W. Bayless, Jeff S. Darling, Willy J. Stout,
Published: 1 November 2012
Behavioural Brain Research, Volume 235, pp 48-54; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2012.07.028

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Lulu Y. Chen, Julie C. Lauterborn, Danielle A. Simmons, Christine M. Gall, Gary Lynch
Published: 30 April 2012
Neurobiology of Aging, Volume 33, pp 708-719; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2010.06.008

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Sarah E.A. McConnell, Juliet Alla, Elizabeth Wheat, Russell D. Romeo, Bruce McEwen, Janice E. Thornton
Published: 1 April 2012
Hormones and Behavior, Volume 61, pp 479-486; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2012.01.003

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Wayne R. Hawley, Elin M. Grissom, Harriet E. Barratt, Taylor Conrad, Gary P. Dohanich
Published: 1 February 2012
Physiology & Behavior, Volume 105, pp 1014-1020; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2011.11.021

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Victoria N. Luine
Published: 14 October 2011
The Handbook of Stress pp 525-544; https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118083222.ch26

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Matthew G. Quinlan, Andrew Duncan, Catherine Loiselle, Nicole Graffe, Wayne G. Brake
Published: 31 December 2010
Brain and Cognition, Volume 74, pp 244-248; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2010.08.003

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