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(searched for: doi:10.1016/j.smallrumres.2003.11.002)
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Tropical Animal Health and Production, Volume 52, pp 3707-3712; doi:10.1007/s11250-020-02407-2

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Anirban Nandy,
Published: 1 September 2020
Benchmarking: An International Journal, Volume 28, pp 229-248; doi:10.1108/bij-01-2020-0012

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Fatma Al-Jazmi, Mohammad Al-Abri, Mohammad Al Kalaldeh, Jamal Al- Sabahi, Waleed Al-Marzooqi
Tropical Animal Health and Production, Volume 52, pp 1115-1124; doi:10.1007/s11250-019-02108-5

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Nasser Ali Al-Araimi, Raed Mahmoud Al-Atiyat, Agusto Luzuriaga-Neira, Osman Mahgoub Gaafar, Isam T. Kadim, Waleed Al-Marzooqi, Hamza A. Babiker, Mohammed N. Al-Kindi, Aliya S. Al-Ansari, Ali H. Al-Lawati, et al.
Published: 1 September 2019
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 178, pp 1-6; doi:10.1016/j.smallrumres.2019.07.005

, Al Ghalya Al Toobi, Waleed Al-Marzooqi, Osman Mahgoub, Maryne Jay, Yannick Corde, Hadi Al Lawati, Shekar Bose, Abeer Al Hamrashdi, Kaadhia Al Kharousi, et al.
Published: 23 May 2018
by Wiley
Veterinary Medicine and Science, Volume 4, pp 190-205; doi:10.1002/vms3.103

Abstract:
Brucellosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases and has significant public health and economic importance worldwide. Few studies and reports have been performed to estimate the true prevalence of animal brucellosis in the Sultanate of Oman; however, no incidence of the disease was previously reported in Al Jabal Al Akhdar. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of brucellosis in goats in eight villages in Al Jebal Al Akhdar, Sultanate of Oman, namely: Al Aqaieb, Al Helailat, Al Ghilayil, Hail Al Hedap, Da'an Al Hamra, Shnoot, Al Qasha'e and Al Sarah, Al Jabal Al Akhdar in the Sultanate of Oman. In this study we used different diagnostic serological tests, namely, RBT, I‐ELISA and CFT to study the prevalence of Brucella infection in goats in Al Jabal Al Akhdar. Statistical analysis using Kappa statistics was used to compare the performance of the serological tests. Biochemical tests and species‐specific Multiplex PCR were used to identify the brucella species involved in the infection. A structured questionnaire and Chi‐square (x2) statistical analysis was used to identify related brucellosis risk factors. This study is the first to reveal brucellosis infection in goats in eight villages in Al Jebal Al Akhdar, Sultanate of Oman, namely: Al Aqaieb, Al Helailat, Al Ghilayil, Hail Al Hedap, Da'an Al Hamra, Shnoot, Al Qasha'e and Al Sarah, with an overall seroprevalence of 11.1%. The study also compared the performance of three different serological tests, namely, RBT, I‐ELISA and CFT. Statistical analysis using Kappa statistics showed that the degree of agreement was best seen between RBT and CFT (96%), followed by RBT, I‐ ELISA (91.4%) and CFT and I‐ ELISA (89.2%). Biochemical tests and species‐specific Multiplex PCR showed the typical profile for B. melitensis. A structured questionnaire and Chi‐square (x2) statistical analysis indicated that the presence of abortion is the major risk factor for the prevalence of brucellosis, whereas age and sex were not significant factors in the tested animals. Besides, poor knowledge about brucellosis, consumption of unpasteurized milk or milk products, free trade of animals and the introduction of new animal breeds to herds were all contributing risk factors to the prevalence of brucellosis. The prevalence of human brucellosis obtained verbally from pastoralists gave an insight that brucellosis could pose a public health hazard, especially in those high‐risk groups, mainly the pastoralists in the study area. Because of their constant and increasing interaction with their animals, pastoralists could be at a high risk of occupational infection.
Noor Alkamali, Najwa Alhadhrami, Chaham Alalouch
Published: 1 June 2017
Energy Procedia, Volume 115, pp 480-486; doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.05.044

Published: 14 April 2016
Agriculture, Volume 6; doi:10.3390/agriculture6020016

Abstract:
Goats are important contributors to both food and financial security of the resource poor, particularly in marginal environments such as those in the Mediterranean region. To fully understand the feasibility and potential consequences of any intensification or husbandry changes that could contribute to higher outputs, it is important to have a thorough prior understanding of the functional dynamics of these systems. Here the current performance of ten goat holdings in the northern region of Morocco, classified as either commercial milk producers, commercial cheese producers or non-commercial dairy producers, was recorded, based on the Food and Agricultural Organisation and International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (FAO-CIHEAM) technical and economic indicators, to assess whether intensification of dairy production was financially viable. Fecundity and prolificacy rates were comparatively lower than those achieved by many European Mediterranean herds. Both kid and doe mortality were higher on commercial dairy holdings, where dairy sales provided an additional, rather than alternative, source of income to goat sales. Despite this, due to significantly higher expenditure on supplementary feed, gross margin per doe did not differ significantly between holding types. With the exception of indigenous Greek herds, all European Mediterranean herds outperform those of northern Morocco. The study suggests that a low level of supplementary feeding is constraining goat dairy production in northern Morocco, and that the current high cost and limited availability of additional supplementary feed restricts the financial viability of intensification. Alternative feeding strategies within a participatory approach that might ameliorate these problems, and value chain constraints, are discussed.
, Jeffrey Gillespie, Kenneth McMillin
Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Volume 48, pp 52-72; doi:10.1017/aae.2016.1

Abstract:
Meat goat enterprise efficiency was estimated using an input distance function (IDF) by applying stochastic production frontier techniques for the southeastern U.S. region. We found increasing returns to scale and scope economies for southeastern U.S. meat goat enterprises. Mean technical efficiency was 0.81. Our results suggest southeastern U.S. meat goat enterprises can be scale efficient if their size of operation is >~60 goats or >40 breeding does. Cost and IDF analyses show input expenses decreased substantially with increasing scale of operations in southeastern U.S. meat goat production. Empirical Monte Carlo simulation techniques show consistency of small-sample properties for the IDF.
, Martin Francis Price, Timothy O’Higgins, Mushtaque Ahmed, Asma Abahussain
Regional Environmental Change, Volume 16, pp 1345-1361; doi:10.1007/s10113-015-0864-4

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B. Qushim, , K. Paudel, K. McMillin
Published: 3 September 2015
Applied Economics, Volume 48, pp 1-13; doi:10.1080/00036846.2015.1083531

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 9 December 2014
Agriculture, Volume 4, pp 288-307; doi:10.3390/agriculture4040288

Abstract:
Sheep and goat production systems in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) operate under scarce natural resource constraints. A cross-sectional survey that covered 661 mixed farms, including major sheep and goat production, was conducted in the three regions of Abu Dhabi Emirate (Al-Ain, Western Region and Abu Dhabi city) during 2012. A Cobb-Douglas, double-logarithmic stochastic frontier production function and maximum likelihood estimation were applied to estimate important economic derivatives and the associated risk of small ruminant production in this arid area. The highest impact of an input on the output level was found to be labor for raising sheep and alfalfa grass for raising goats. Both labor and alfalfa variables were found to be overutilized for sheep and goat production, respectively. Overall, the results indicate that average technical efficiency is 0.62 for raising sheep and only 0.34 for raising goats in the study area. Technical efficiency analysis included measuring the frequency of farms at each level of estimated technical efficiency in the range between zero and one. Zero for the technical efficiency coefficient indicates a lack of technical efficiency in resource use. The results of this study indicated that only 1% of the sheep farms show a technical efficiency coefficient of 0.25 or less; the same can be said for 41% of goat producers. However, these technical efficiencies were found to be more than 0.75 for 12% and 5% of the sheep and goat farms, respectively. Overall, goat farming in the UAE was found to be less efficient than sheep production. The results also indicated that flock size and type of breed were the most influential factors relative to other factors, and both show a positive relationship with technical efficiency. Other than flock size, factors, such as owners’ years of experience and management practices, were found to be more influential on goat farming system efficiency relative to sheep farming.
, Raghavan Kunniyoor Cheemani, Naicy Thomas
Tropical Animal Health and Production, Volume 45, pp 1663-1668; doi:10.1007/s11250-013-0411-6

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Uta Dickhoefer, Maher Nagieb, Aline Dos Santos Neutzling, Andreas Buerkert, Eva Schlecht
Published: 1 July 2012
Agricultural Systems, Volume 110, pp 131-141; doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2012.03.015

, U. Dickhöfer, M. Predotova, A. Buerkert
Published: 30 November 2011
Journal of Arid Environments, Volume 75, pp 1136-1146; doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.05.010

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U. Dickhoefer, O. Mahgoub, E. Schlecht
Published: 1 January 2011
Animal, Volume 5, pp 471-482; doi:10.1017/s1751731110001783

Abstract:
Intensive livestock grazing can largely deplete the natural fodder resources in semi-arid, subtropical highlands and together with the low nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation limit the growth and production of grazing animals. To evaluate the contribution of homestead feeding of grazing goats to rangeland conservation and animal nutrition, two researcher-managed on-farm trials were conducted in a mountain oasis of Northern Oman. Goats' feed intake on pasture in response to four rations containing different levels of locally available green fodder and concentrate feeds was determined in six male goats each (35 ± 10.2 kg body weight (BW)). Total feed intake was estimated using titanium dioxide as external fecal marker as well as the diet organic matter (OM) digestibility derived from fecal crude protein concentration. The nutritional quality of selected fodder plants on pasture was analyzed to determine the animals' nutrient and energy intake during grazing. The pasture vegetation accounted for 0.46 to 0.65 of the goats' total OM intake (87 to 107 g/kg0.75 BW), underlining the importance of this fodder resource for the husbandry system. However, metabolizable energy (7.2 MJ/kg OM) and phosphorus concentrations (1.4 g/kg OM) in the consumed pasture plants were low. Homestead feeding of nutrient and energy-rich by-products of the national fishery and date palm cultivation to grazing goats increased their daily OM intake (R2 = 0.36; P = 0.005) and covered their requirements for growth and production. While the OM intake on pasture was highest in animals fed a concentrate-based diet (P = 0.003), the daily intake of 21 g OM/kg0.75 BW of cultivated green fodder reduced the animals' feed intake on pasture (R2 = 0.44; P = 0.001). Adjusting homestead supplementation with locally available feedstuffs to the requirements of individual goats and to the nutritional quality of the pasture vegetation improves animal performance and eases the grazing pressure exerted on the natural vegetation. This management strategy therefore appears to be a valuable alternative to intensive livestock feeding in zero-grazing systems and may contribute to sustainable livestock production in ecologically fragile, semi-arid mountain regions.
International Transactions in Operational Research, Volume 18, pp 53-69; doi:10.1111/j.1475-3995.2010.00789.x

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, U. Dickhoefer, E. Gumpertsberger, A. Buerkert
Published: 31 March 2009
Journal of Arid Environments, Volume 73, pp 355-363; doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2008.10.013

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A. Buerkert, E. Schlecht
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, Volume 65, pp 85-92; doi:10.1016/j.compag.2008.07.010

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, Artur José Cabral, Paulo Marcelo De Souza, Alberto Magno Fernandes, Douglas Sampaio Henrique, Gabriela Soares Carvalho Pamplona Corte Real
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Volume 38, pp 203-213; doi:10.1590/s1516-35982009000100025

Abstract:
Two dairy goat systems conducted according to the household model were evaluated in terms of income generation. An enterprise budget analysis was performed using data collected from August, 2004, to July, 2005. Farms named A and B were smallholdings and raised Saanem goats intensively. Herd indexes, incomes, taxes, fuel, energy, concentrates, opportunity costs and interest in capital were computed. Net present value and internal rate of return were estimated to appreciate the business appeal in terms of income generation. Herd indexes were mostly affected by management decisions interfering on the amounts and time-trends related to milk production. Seasonal variation was reduced at unit B due to heat induction, a decision not shared by farmer A. The daily body weight gain of doelings after weaning (89 and 76 g/d for A and B) was low if compared to current recommendations. Average records of lactation (441 and 606 L/doe) and fertility (86.95% and 85.71%) were amongst the literature range. Daily tasks related to unit B consumed 5 hours and 55 minutes for an average milk production of 40.9 L/d, whereas 8 hours and 16 minutes on average were daily spent at unit A in order to produce 32.2 L/d. Unit B presented a total production cost (R$ 0.79548/L) lower than unit A (R$ 1.50239/L), but operated profitably. Unit A presented a positive gross margin (R$ 0.284/L), but operated unprofitably. The income generated on B was equivalent to a monthly salary of R$ 732.96 (US$ 278.52), a competitive income compared to the Brazilian minimum wage of R$ 300.00 (US$ 114.00) paid monthly. These results corroborate the hypothesis that the dairy goat husbandry fits adequately to the household production model and generates income competitively.
Darwish Abdulrahman Yousef
Education, Business and Society: Contemporary Middle Eastern Issues, Volume 1, pp 255-266; doi:10.1108/17537980810929975

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Edizio Santos Junior, , Douglas Sampaio Henrique, Alberto Magno Fernandes
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, Volume 37, pp 773-781; doi:10.1590/s1516-35982008000400025

Abstract:
A survey was done based on 19 goat shepherds at counties of Centre-highlands, Northern and North-western regions of the Rio de Janeiro State and at the county of Pedra Dourada, Zona da Mata region, State of Minas Gerais. We aimed to characterise the primary sector of the goat milk production chain settled at those regions. Therefore, questionnaires were applied in order to depict profiles of the shepherds, their families, the role of the wife in the activity, the resources available, dependence on income generated by the activity, and how producers administrate their business. Farms were distributed in five strata according to the following daily milk production averages and standard deviations: 8.8 ± 0.9, 15.7 ± 3.9, 22.6 ± 2.7, 34.4 ± 3.4, and 183.8 ± 54.2 L/d. Approximately 42% of the interviewed producers conducted their activities according to a household production model and the income earned was exclusively from the dairy goat husbandry. Sons and daughters performed an important role in the business (27.80%), but most of them (62.73%) worked out at non farm activities. The percentage of wives that worked directly in the activity (@47%) indicated that it could contribute to gender equity in the rural environment. Most of the production systems (63.16%) presented positive gross margins. We have noticed, however, that shepherds perceived only the business gross margin and that the most accurate registries taken were those related to revenues. In general, producers of the higher strata were favoured by their larger production scale, but asymptotic behaviours for costs and amounts invested in animals, equipments and buildings were observed. These characteristics should be considered when policies related to the dairy goat primary sector have to be planned.
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