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(searched for: doi:10.1080/21670811.2016.1169197)
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Published: 21 November 2022
Communication Research and Practice pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/22041451.2022.2137239

Abstract:
There is increasing scholarship marking a geographic turn in journalism studies. It focuses on examining the digital and physical terrain that audiences, sources and newsmakers traverse, and emphasises the spaces and places of news and knowledge production. This paper complements the trend by exploring how journalism scholars have adopted the idea of ‘mapping’ in this contemporary research. We present a four-part typology of mapping within the journalism field: cartographic, network, spatial cognitive and metaphorical. The paper argues for the importance of journalism scholars being able to more strongly align and justify the use of mapping in their work, and explores the complexities and opportunities that maps may present to enrich their research.
Published: 22 September 2022
by MDPI
Journalism and Media, Volume 3, pp 594-614; https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia3040040

Abstract:
This study explores aspects of journalistic quality in complex digital stories. Based on a tailored overview of the potentials of online journalism and digital long form stories for journalistic quality, all available award-winning stories of the subcategory Interactive of the World Press Photo’s Digital Storytelling Contest from 2011 to 2021 (n = 31) are examined according to their structure and journalistic quality criteria using Grounded Theory. The findings add to the long and ongoing research history in journalism and communication studies on the question of what journalistic quality entails and can be used as a basis for further analyses focusing on the technological and structural nature of digital stories and high-quality journalism. The analysis revealed a differentiation between linear stories and chapter stories with linear elements. While a multimedia nature, continuous text and video content prevailed in both forms, they differed in terms of their complexity as well as certain expressions of quality criteria. Gamification and immersion emerged as new yet debatable aspects of journalistic quality in digital stories.
Published: 10 May 2022
Digital Journalism pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2022.2069585

Abstract:
Each emerging form of communication demands a new or at least adapted form of literacy. What remains constant is the user’s ability to critically analyse messages in whichever form they take. Multimodal longform journalism requires compound literacies to access, read, process, and make meaning. This article examines how meaning is made when readers navigate a complex, multimodal longform story which requires them to toggle between text, image, video, graphic and hyperlink. It describes the novel approach of autoethnographic textual analysis and delivers a ‘report on experience’ of immersion in five complex multimodal longform stories, followed by discussion of the literacies required to create and consume multimodal longform, and the implications for scholarship.
, Jennah Sontag
Published: 14 March 2022
Journalism Practice pp 1-25; https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2022.2049011

Abstract:
People rely on the media to serve as purveyors of health information and keep them apprised of current knowledge and advancements in medicine, pharmaceuticals, healthcare, and lifestyle management. A digital news package is an immersive feature story housed on the internet and this study examined how the combination of media elements (e.g., photographs, graphics, video, etc.) contained within digital news packages are capable of supporting the presentation of engaging and insightful coverage of health-related topics. Specifically, we investigated what aspects of immersive feature stories should be captured or encapsulated by static and animated graphics, and how these items should be arranged relative to the stories that they accompany. Our findings revealed that effective visual storytelling is facilitated by parity between the written components and visual components of digital news packages.
Convergence: the International Journal of Research Into New Media Technologies, Volume 28, pp 905-924; https://doi.org/10.1177/13548565211059426

Abstract:
Interactive documentary (i-docs), an innovative hybrid form at the intersection of film, journalism, and digital games, has matured beyond its first wave of experimentation, gaining distinction among the most highly evolved immersive media of the twenty-first century. The latest generation of i-docs is currently winning accolades at both major film festivals and game design summits. This study charts the evolutionary trajectory of North America’s most recent and influential wave of i-docs in works mostly appearing since 2015. It culturally situates i-docs as immersive media that extend experimentation with narrative journalism into the realm of fine art and social activism. Building on the foundation of activist, highly empathic news experiences established in the early 2010s, the most recent advances in i-docs range from live action VR to animated digital games. Such works include the Canadian National Film Board’s 2018 AR (augmented reality) experience East of the Rockies, Occupied’s 2019 Cannes entry The Holy City VR, Roger Ross Williams’ 2019 Tribeca debut Traveling While Black, and iNK Stories Verité VR Series’ 2017 Blindfold and Hero, winner of the prestigious Storyscapes Award at Tribeca in 2018. The vanguard of i-docs has expanded collaboration between film, news, and digital game industries to provide new forms of citizen engagement through advocacy journalism aimed at social and political change. Through the use of John Pavlik’s (2019) critical framework for understanding immersive journalism, this article examines the texts, producers, and industrial contexts of the most recent and influential North American i-docs, as one branch of the form defined by Gaudenzi, Aston, and Rose. Principles of transparency, social responsibility, and a commitment to veracity in i-docs epitomize the esthetic and political potential of digital journalism as an empathic alternative to traditional news coverage.
Lea Püchel, Christian-Mathias Wellbrock
Published: 30 December 2021
Abstract:
Our daily dealings with media products are shaped by the use of generic designations such as journalistic presentation modes, for example, news, commentary, and Instagram-story. Yet, scholarship has examined presentation modes only selectively and lacks empirical investigations in this domain. Based on literature and a quantitative content analysis of jury protocols of the German online journalism award “Grimme Online Award,” this article explores how presentation modes are constructed and further develops a framework for a categorization of presentation modes with eight dimensions: Content and Function, Author, Sources, Periodicity, Material Substrate, Structure, Media, and Interactive-Engagement Elements. This study is the first to empirically assess journalistic presentation mode dimensions and manifestations.
, Eggo Müller, Piet Bakker
Published: 31 August 2021
Digital Journalism pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2021.1960178

Abstract:
Over the past decade, journalists have created in-depth interactive narratives to provide an alternative to the relentless 24-hour news cycle. Combining different media forms, such as text, audio, video, and data visualisation with the interactive possibilities of digital media, these narratives involve users in the narrative in new ways. In journalism studies, the convergence of different media forms in this manner has gained significant attention. However, interactivity as part of this form has been left underappreciated. In this study, we scrutinise how navigational structure, expressed as navigational cues, shapes user agency in their individual explorations of the narrative. By approaching interactive narratives as story spaces with unique interactive architectures, in this article, we reconstruct the architecture of five Dutch interactive narratives using the walkthrough method. We find that the extensiveness of the interactive architectures can be described on a continuum between closed and open navigational structures that predetermine and thus shape users’ trajectories in diverse ways.
El Profesional de la información, Volume 30; https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.jul.01

Abstract:
Interaction and visualization together yield an interesting, fruitful, and promising combination for producing content in digital news media. In an era in which the press no longer exclusively provides the news, interaction and visualization combined in innovative products for the public are powerful value propositions for the media. Together, they are capable of winning readers’ loyalty and engagement, both of which are crucial for the media’s sustainability. In this work, we present a review of the literature and formulate the theoretical bases for this binomial pairing and its main components, which, we argue, should be available to citizens, the interests of whom journalism must defend if it aspires to be viable.
Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodístico, Volume 27, pp 685-696; https://doi.org/10.5209/esmp.70222

Abstract:
El periodismo digital ha vivido transformaciones constantes en sus primeros 25 años de historia, en los que la forma de contar historias ha cambiado conforme las diferentes especies del ecosistema aparecieron y se interrelacionaron. Superada una fase de significativa experimentación en los formatos narrativos adaptados al medio digital, es necesario evaluar los aspectos que permanecen y su evolución en la producción de los cibermedios. A partir del análisis de contenido en una selección de diez cibermedios y entrevistas con profesionales, se identifican los formatos y las características que se han desplegado con un desarrollo narrativo. Los resultados indican que existe una experimentación significativa que ha llevado determinados rasgos y formas de expresión de la disrupción a la consolidación, en función al grado de adopción e innovación, aunque todavía es extraordinaria la presencia de los proyectos multimedia e interactivos complejos en la oferta informativa cotidiana.
Published: 20 February 2021
by MDPI
Journalism and Media, Volume 2, pp 51-61; https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2010004

Abstract:
In the past 20 years the world of journalism has been swept by a wave of structural, institutional and technological changes that have shaped the journalism that we experience today. Following conceptualization of hybrid media, the term ‘hybrid journalism’ has been used to define what journalism has become. Many scholars have subjected this label to scrutiny; they consider hybridity to be a vague term that requires a more precise conceptualization. In this paper, we propose that what to date has been called ’hybrid journalism’ has moved from the periphery to the center of the field. Adopting a communicative ecology perspective, we highlight that the changes due to technologies, which too often are regarded as merely disrupting the journalistic field, have now become established and are accepted as core components of the work of journalists today. This reconstruction work is mainly discursive and is explained by considering journalism as a discursive institution. We then explain the implications of studying journalism with acknowledgement that hybrid forms of journalism that are central in the field are hybrid.
Renée van der Nat, Piet Bakker, Eggo Müller
Tijdschrift voor Communicatiewetenschappen, Volume 49, pp 100-126; https://doi.org/10.5117/tvc2021.2.002.nat

Abstract:
Snow Fall in the polder. Interactive multimedia productions in Dutch journalism Interactive multimedia productions are a recent journalistic format. The format has been studied in the Anglo-Saxon context as digital longform and interactive documentary. Research has consequently focused on English language productions. This article presents an overview of these types of productions created in the Netherlands and also proposes an analytical apparatus and conceptualization that does justice to the main properties of this new genre; multimediality and interactivity. The results show that this journalistic form is mainly produced by established national newsrooms. Furthermore, the potential of digital media is used sparsely. Despite the use of complex narrative structures like multi-linear and non-linear stories, familiar media forms are used. Interactive features are mostly utilized to provide additional information to users.
Svetlana Bylkova, Denis Shalkov
Published: 4 December 2020
E3S Web of Conferences, Volume 210; https://doi.org/10.1051/e3sconf/202021018010

Abstract:
The purpose of the work: 1) to identify the didactic and educational potential of TV and Internet interviews in the structure of media education; 2) to evaluate the genre-stylistic and language parameters of a modern interview. Methodology. The educational potential of media interviews is revealed with the help of methodological tools of linguistic, social, psychological and pedagogical disciplines. Results. The article proves the need to use TV and Internet interviews as parts of the educational process, since this type of communication allows the consumer of information and media content to receive it literally "firsthand". It is emphasized that the use of interviews in the learning process can become a powerful pedagogical tool. Conclusions/recommendations. When processing the data obtained during the experiment, it turned out that the results of monitoring the social and communicative development of students in two focus groups are characterized by qualitative differences, which are statistically significant. The communicative descriptors of students of the 2nd focus group that worked with the media content of model native speakers were formed at a higher level, in contrast to the participants of the 2nd group, who were offered interviews with popular bloggers. JEL Code: I 00, I 20, I 21.
Published: 25 September 2020
Abstract:
Over the last two decades, digital journalism and interactive documentaries have produced works in which interactivity, multimedia, and participation articulate the access and consumption of information. These are basically multimedia and dynamic texts that delve into two-way communication and hypertext, and motivate active reading. These are informational pieces typical of the digital ecosystem that often mutate via social networks and present significant transformations in their temporal evolution. Reading, analyzing, and understanding these texts requires specific tools and methodologies that consider: (a) the dynamism of such pieces, as well as their temporal modification, (b) their multimodal dimension, and (c) their transmedia development. This article proposes a methodological reflection on the ways of reading interactive documentary audiovisual texts and proposes strategies and tools for their understanding and analysis based on detailed reading (close reading), and decoupage. This research focuses on an analysis of the temporal evolution of these journalistic pieces. The need to observe and analyze the temporal dimension of journalistic texts in the digital ecosystem has allowed the development of specific methodologies (Widholm, 2016; Karlsson; Sjøvaag, 2016; Buhl; Günther; Quandt, 2018) focused on the immediacy and mutability of journalistic news, its permanence in networks, and its temporal evolution. However, these tools do not consider the study of large-scale journalistic stories, typical of interactive documentaries, which require a specific multimodal approach (Hiippala, 2017; Van-Krieken, 2018, Freixa et al., 2014; Freixa, 2015). A detailed reading reveals how the interactive documentary considers the dimension, both temporal and of content and form, of the traditional documentary text, by becoming part of a transmedia framework as part of a dialogue with the public. Resumen Desde hace dos décadas, el periodismo digital y el documental interactivo produce obras en las que la interactividad, la multimedialidad y la participación articulan el acceso y consumo de la información. Básicamente se trata de textos multimediales y dinámicos, que ahondan en la comunicación bidireccional y el hipertexto, y que proponen lecturas activas. Se trata de piezas informacionales propias del ecosistema digital que, a menudo, mutan en las redes sociales y presentan significativas transformaciones en su evolución temporal. La lectura, el análisis y la comprensión de estos textos precisa de herramientas y metodologías específicas que contemplen: a) el dinamismo de las piezas, así como su modificación temporal; b) su dimensión multimodal y c) su desarrollo transmedia. En este artículo se propone una reflexión metodológica sobre las formas de lectura de los textos audiovisuales interactivos documentales, y se proponen estrategias y herramientas para su comprensión y análisis basadas en la lectura detallada (close reading), y el découpage. La investigación focaliza su interés en el análisis de la evolución temporal de estas piezas periodísticas. La necesidad de observar y analizar la dimensión temporal de los textos periodísticos en el ecosistema digital ha permitido el desarrollo de metodologías específicas (Widholm, 2016; Karlsson; Sjøvaag, 2016; Buhl; Günther; Quandt, 2018) focalizadas en la inmediatez y mutabilidad de la noticia periodística, su permanencia en red y evolución temporal. Estas herramientas, sin embargo, no contemplan el estudio de los relatos periodísticos de gran dimensión, propios del documental interactivo, que precisan de una aproximación multimodal específica (Hiippala, 2017; Van-Krieken, 2018, Freixa et al., 2014; Freixa, 2015). La lectura detallada permite observar cómo el documental interactivo cuestiona la dimensión, tanto temporal como de contenido y forma, del texto documental tradicional, al pasar a formar parte de un entramado transmedia en diálogo con el público.
Tuomo Hiippala
Published: 16 April 2020
Abstract:
This chapter discusses the multimodality of data visualizations, that is, how they combine multiple modes of expression, such as written language, photographs, diagrammatic elements, and illustrations, in various printed and digital media. Because the medium in which a data visualization is presented determines the modes of expression available, the chapter shows how different media can be pulled apart for multimodal analysis. The proposed approach is illustrated by analysing static information graphics, non-interactive, and interactive dynamic data visualizations.
Published: 25 March 2020
Journalism Studies, Volume 21, pp 1305-1322; https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670x.2020.1745666

Abstract:
In the context of changing values, practices and working arrangements, the worlds of journalism and art converge. Evaluating these professions in conflux and beyond their (supposed) opposing ideologies and discourses, remains both controversial and complex. Through a critical hermeneutic analysis, this paper highlights key areas of tension regarding the confluence of journalism and arts. It is argued that journalism is and always has been inextricably interwoven with the arts, a shared existence not limited to Western democracies. The article proposes a continuum as a theoretical model for mapping and exploring the coexistence of artistic and journalistic approaches of news and news work. This “arts and journalism” continuum offers a potentially fruitful dimension of studying news work as a form of artistic practice in a variety of contexts. In conclusion, a consideration of “Artistic Journalism” is proposed as a way for the profession to articulate its creative foundation with its goal to pursue the truth, including the intrinsic and affective motivations of its practitioners.
, Alexander Godulla
Published: 18 March 2020
Journalism Practice, Volume 15, pp 566-582; https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2020.1742771

Abstract:
Digital longform stories, understood as complex journalistic projects rich in text and multimedia elements, represent a unique feature within the field of professional online journalism and are seen as a counter-development to the current trend of quick, bite-size news. On the assumption that the production of such stories differs from daily news production routines, the production processes of this innovative format are analysed. Based on a qualitative content analysis of guided interviews with U.S. and German producers of award-winning digital stories, including The New York Times, The Washington Post, CNN, and the FAZ, in-depth insights into digital storytelling production are derived. These insights include the different required phases of a longform production, the strategic and narrative objectives the journalists pursue as well as problems they encounter. The results serve as an orientation for how to produce successful digital stories, and thereby function as a bridge between theory and practice.
Manuel Menke
Published: 29 April 2019
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 16 August 2018
Digital Journalism, Volume 7, pp 273-293; https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2018.1488598

Abstract:
The success of digital longforms in terms of readership and viral spread promotes an optimistic perspective on innovative web journalism with regard to the attention, engagement, and subsequent knowledge acquisition of citizens when consuming news. Since empirical evidence for such effects is scant, this experimental study focuses on visual aesthetics as a signature element of novel news formats that are designed to attract attention in a highly competitive media landscape. Specifically, it draws on the theoretical framework of user engagement and shows that the presence of visual aesthetics contributes to meaningful learning from the news by initiating positive attitudes towards the interface, which in turn leads to deeper involvement with the content. However, when the presence of visual aesthetics fails to affect interface evaluation, the opposite effect occurs. Surprisingly, these effects are not found to be contingent upon individual differences such as issue involvement or issue-specific prior knowledge. Overall, our results suggest that for news organizations, it is worth investing financial and personal resources in innovative news formats in order to support knowledge gain, although they need to be carefully designed as the first encounter with the interface decides about the subsequent engagement with and processing of the news.
Published: 16 May 2018
by MDPI
Journal: Information
Information, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/info9050123

Abstract:
News stories aim to create an immersive reading experience by virtually transporting the audience to the described scenes. In print journalism, this experience is facilitated by text-linguistic narrative techniques, such as detailed scene reconstructions, a chronological event structure, point-of-view writing, and speech and thought reports. The present study examines how these techniques are translated into journalistic multimedia stories and explores how the distinctive features of text, image, video, audio, and graphic animations are exploited to immerse the audience in otherwise distant news events. To that end, a case study of the New York Times multimedia story Snow Fall is carried out. Results show that scenes are vividly reconstructed through a combination of text, image, video, and graphic animation. The story’s event structure is expressed in text and picture, while combinations of text, video, and audio are used to represent the events from the viewpoints of news actors. Although text is still central to all narrative techniques, it is complemented with other media formats to create various multimedia combinations, each intensifying the experience of immersion.
, Cornelia Wolf
Published: 22 February 2018
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Alexander Godulla, Cornelia Wolf
Published: 1 January 2018
Abstract:
The National Geographic Society (NGS) has always sought to incorporate new ways of media production into its working routine, thus defining standards of journalism both in technical and narrative terms. As a logical result, the NGS also relies on cross media strategies, focusing on transmedia storytelling in order to connect its audience. The “Future of Food” project is one of the largest transmedia projects in journalism. The chapter first outlines the concept of transmedia storytelling and discusses 10 qualities in the context of journalism. Secondly, the authors systematically discuss the case study “Future of Food” by applying the transmedia qualities to the project. This provides insights into the modes and combinations of story elements and allows to draw attention to challenges and opportunities for researchers, producers, and users.
Published: 14 July 2017
Digital Journalism, Volume 5, pp 986-1005; https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2017.1351882

Abstract:
Based on research carried out over two years amongst groups of students from the United Kingdom, France, United States and Russia, this article explores how churnalism is not only having an impact on what people read but also on how they read it, with far-reaching consequences for what has traditionally been perceived as the news genre. Drawing on genre as a social action, we explore the ways in which churnalism is changing news consumption. New news genres are appearing in response to new social interactions that users repeatedly act out predominantly online. As users, we produce and consume texts which we refer to as “news” in multiple situations which can be sorted into patterns. Our comparative analysis offers surprising insights into how these patterns form new news genres, characteristic of social media (many-to-many) instead of mass media (one-to-many). Genres should be studied not only through textual analysis but also through the prism of social reality and recurrent social actions, particularly now that users, rather than journalists, are taking a dominant role in identifying what constitutes news genres. Our perception of what defines news is determined by the changing ways in which we consume news.
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