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(searched for: doi:10.1007/s40806-016-0048-6)
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Fatemeh Sadat Mirfazeli, Meng-Chuan Lai, Amirhossein Memari, Armin Rajab, Milad Shafizadeh, Sahar Zarei, Seyed Vahid Shariat, Maryam Haghighi Fashi, Ebrahim Barzegary, Abdol-Hossein Vahabie
Published: 21 October 2021
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99653-7

Abstract:
Mate preference in short-term relationships and long-term ones may depend on many physical, psychological, and socio-cultural factors. In this study, 178 students (81 females) in sports and 153 engineering students (64 females) answered the systemizing quotient (SQ) and empathizing quotient (EQ) questionnaires and had their digit ratio measured. They rated their preferred mate on 12 black-line drawing body figures varying in body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) for short-term and long-term relationships. Men relative to women preferred lower WHR and BMI for mate selection for both short-term and long-term relationships. BMI and WHR preference in men is independent of each other, but has a negative correlation in women. For men, digit ratio was inversely associated with BMI (p = 0.039, B = − 0.154) preference in a short-term relationship, and EQ was inversely associated with WHR preference in a long-term relationship (p = 0.045, B = − 0.164). Furthermore, men and women in sports, compared to engineering students, preferred higher (p = 0.009, B = 0.201) and lower BMI (p = 0.034, B = − 0.182) for short-term relationships, respectively. Women were more consistent in their preferences for short-term and long-term relationships relative to men. Both biological factors and social/experiential factors contribute to mate preferences in men while in women, mostly social/experiential factors contribute to them.
, , Athina Gavriilidou
Published: 4 October 2021
Evolutionary Psychology, Volume 19; https://doi.org/10.1177/14747049211045271

Abstract:
An important aspect of human mating is to appeal to prospective mates. Accordingly, the current research attempted to identify the strategies that people use in order to become more attractive as prospective intimate partners. More specifically, using open-ended questionnaires in a sample of 326 Greek-speaking participants, we identified 87 acts that people performed in order to become more attractive as mates. By using quantitative research methods in a sample of 2,197 Greek-speaking participants, we classified these acts into 16 different strategies. We found that, enhancing one's looks and becoming more pleasant, were among the most preferred strategies. Women were more likely than men to adopt strategies that involved looks, while men were more likely than women to adopt strategies that involved resource acquisition capacity. Moreover, age effects were found for most strategies. The identified strategies were classified into two broader domains, one aiming to develop and demonstrate fitness-increasing qualities, and the other to deceive about fitness-impairing traits.
, , Patrícia Nunes da Fonsêca, Marina Pereira Gonçalves, Walberto Silva dos Santos, Renan Pereira Monteiro, Leogildo Alves Freires
Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 184; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.111181

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Volume 48, pp 396-411; https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672211007229

Abstract:
Evolutionary psychologists propose that men’s conspicuous consumption facilitates mate attraction because it predicts resource investment in offspring. This article elaborates on the ultimate functions of men’s luxury displays based on Life History Theory. Three studies provide evidence for phenotypic mimicry, in which consumer product features mimicking male secondary sex characteristics indicate investment in mating competition, at the expense of paternal investment. Men owning shirts with larger luxury brand logos were rated higher on mating effort, lower on parental investment, higher on interest in brief sexual affairs, lower on interest in long-term committed romantic relationships, higher in attractiveness to women for brief sexual affairs, lower in attractiveness to women for long-term committed relationships, and higher in developmental environment unpredictability compared with men owning shirts displaying a smaller logo. Participants recognized the strategic use of luxury display properties across social contexts but did not consistently associate product properties with owners’ physiological characteristics.
, Francine Matorres, , Lucy Tompkins,
Published: 13 April 2021
Archives of Sexual Behavior, Volume 50, pp 3785-3797; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-020-01901-w

Abstract:
Cross-cultural research has repeatedly demonstrated sex differences in the importance of partner characteristics when choosing a mate. Men typically report higher preferences for younger, more physically attractive women, while women typically place more importance on a partner’s status and wealth. As the assessment of such partner characteristics often relies on visual cues, this raises the question whether visual experience is necessary for sex-specific mate preferences to develop. To shed more light onto the emergence of sex differences in mate choice, the current study assessed how preferences for attractiveness, resources, and personality factors differ between sighted and blind individuals using an online questionnaire. We further investigate the role of social factors and sensory cue selection in these sex differences. Our sample consisted of 94 sighted and blind participants with different ages of blindness onset: 19 blind/28 sighted males and 19 blind/28 sighted females. Results replicated well-documented findings in the sighted, with men placing more importance on physical attractiveness and women placing more importance on status and resources. However, while physical attractiveness was less important to blind men, blind women considered physical attractiveness as important as sighted women. The importance of a high status and likeable personality was not influenced by sightedness. Blind individuals considered auditory cues more important than visual cues, while sighted males showed the opposite pattern. Further, relationship status and indirect, social influences were related to preferences. Overall, our findings shed light on the availability of visual information for the emergence of sex differences in mate preference.
, Margarida Pinho, John Wearden, Pedro Barbas Albuquerque
Published: 6 April 2021
Frontiers in Psychology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.641729

Abstract:
What happens when we unexpectedly see an attractive potential partner? Previous studies in laboratory settings suggest that the visualization of attractive and unattractive photographs influences the perception of time. The major aim of this research is to study time perception and attraction in a realistic social scenario, by investigating if changes in subjective time measured during a speed dating are associated with attraction. The duration of the dates was variable and participants had to estimate the time that passed. Among other measures, participants also rated the potential partners in terms of their physical attractiveness before and after the dates and reported if they would like to exchange contact with them. Results showed that, in a real speed dating situation, when there is a perception of the partner as being physically more attractive, women tend to overestimate the duration of that meeting, whereas men tend to underestimate its duration. Such changes may reflect evolutionary adaptations which make the human cognitive system more responsive in situations related to reproductive fitness.
Published: 21 November 2020
Journal of Environmental Psychology, Volume 73; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2020.101530

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, Bridget Stallings, Gabrielle C. Wy, Charleen R. Case, Jon K. Maner
Published: 13 November 2020
Evolutionary Psychological Science, Volume 7, pp 124-133; https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-020-00270-w

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Adam C. Davis,
Published: 6 October 2020
Archives of Sexual Behavior, Volume 51, pp 3-37; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-020-01745-4

Abstract:
Researchers have highlighted numerous sociocultural factors that have been shown to underpin human appearance enhancement practices, including the influence of peers, family, the media, and sexual objectification. Fewer scholars have approached appearance enhancement from an evolutionary perspective or considered how sociocultural factors interact with evolved psychology to produce appearance enhancement behavior. Following others, we argue that evidence from the field of evolutionary psychology can complement existing sociocultural models by yielding unique insight into the historical and cross-cultural ubiquity of competition over aspects of physical appearance to embody what is desired by potential mates. An evolutionary lens can help to make sense of reliable sex and individual differences that impact appearance enhancement, as well as the context-dependent nature of putative adaptations that function to increase physical attractiveness. In the current review, appearance enhancement is described as a self-promotion strategy used to enhance reproductive success by rendering oneself more attractive than rivals to mates, thereby increasing one’s mate value. The varied ways in which humans enhance their appearance are described, as well as the divergent tactics used by women and men to augment their appearance, which correspond to the preferences of opposite-sex mates in a heterosexual context. Evolutionarily relevant individual differences and contextual factors that vary predictably with appearance enhancement behavior are also discussed. The complementarity of sociocultural and evolutionary perspectives is emphasized and recommended avenues for future interdisciplinary research are provided for scholars interested in studying appearance enhancement behavior.
Mehmet Mehmetoglu, Ilmari Määttänen
Published: 1 October 2020
Evolutionary Psychology, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.1177/1474704920979623

Abstract:
Previous research has provided evidence that females are generally the more selective sex in humans. Moreover, both sexes have been found to be more selective in long-term mating compared to short-term mating. In this study, we have examined the effects of sex, mating strategy (preferred relationship length) and their interaction on mate preferences (i.e., mate selection criteria) in an egalitarian Nordic society, namely Norway. The study sample consisted of 1,000 individuals, 417 of whom were male and 583 female respondents. According to our findings, men were more selective in physical appearance, whereas women were more selective in all the other mate preferences (e.g., understanding, dominant, kind, intellectual etc.). The respondents that were seeking short-term relationships had higher preference for physical appearance, humorousness and sociability. On the other hand, the respondents that were seeking long-term relationships were more selective in most of the other mate preferences (i.e., understanding, kind, cultivated, domestic, reliable, and similar). Interestingly, no interaction effect was found between sex and mating strategy in that differences between long-term and short-term seekers in mate preferences did not change depending on sex. This suggests that men and women value the same traits in short-term relationships.
Sarah Adeyinka-Skold
Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race, Volume 17, pp 233-269; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1742058x20000107

Abstract:
Despite the increased use of dating technology for finding and forming romantic relationships, location remains relevant for relationship formation. While current research on relationship formation attends to the ratio of marriageable men to women, marital attitudes, and gendered racial exclusion, this research does not always consider a nuanced look at how location can also constrain opportunities to make short- or long-term romantic connections. Drawing on interviews with 111 Asian, White, Black, and Latina heterosexual college-educated women between the ages of twenty-five and thirty-three, I find that regardless of race/ethnicity, women observe that some places provide limited opportunities to meet men and that the mismatch between their dating norms, beliefs, and/or expectations for relationships and the location where they reside make their search more difficult. Women of color additionally note that some locations provide fewer opportunities for same-race and/or interracial dating than others. I also find that women of color are more likely to employ strategies to address their locational barriers than White women. Therefore, I argue that not only does location continue to matter for forming romantic connections in the digital age, but that location and race also intersect to create unique locational barriers for women of color. This intersection, consequently, demonstrates that the opportunities for relationship formation remain stratified despite the rise of dating technology.
, , Roberta Pace, Anna Paterno
Published: 24 August 2020
Genus, Volume 76, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.1186/s41118-020-00087-2

Abstract:
Researchers have devoted much attention both to the analysis of the first sexual experience and to how the couple was established, but little is still known about age differences of partners at their first sexual relationship. The availability of two highly comparable waves of a survey on the sexual behavior of college students in Italy (SELFY—Sexual and Emotional LiFe of Youth) carried out in 2000 and 2017 allowed us to study the predictors of age differences between partners at first sex, filling the existing gap on recent research. Results of multivariate analyses show important gender differences on mate selection: women tend to choose an older partner for having their first sexual experience and are less likely as men to be involved in age discordant first sex relationships with a younger partner. Age gaps between partners also influence age at sexual debut, which tends to occur earlier in a relationship with an older partner and later if having first sex with a younger partner. Another important predictor of the age gap is the type of relationship that linked the respondent to its partner at first sex. Our estimations indicate a lower likelihood of having had an older first sex partner for students who had their first sexual experience with the own boy/girl-friend or with a friend compared to those who have had it with a stranger. Finally, we have found a higher likelihood of first sex relationships among same-age partners relative to older partners through SELFY waves and small changes on variables influencing such relationships.
Allison W. Cooperman,
Multivariate Behavioral Research, Volume 57, pp 20-39; https://doi.org/10.1080/00273171.2020.1795611

Abstract:
Much research examining the biological and social-cultural underpinnings of human mate preferences has focused on univariate or bivariate analyses of demographic variables and personality constructs. In this paper, we argue that a multivariate approach more effectively highlights the multifaceted structure and correlates of human mate preferences. To support this claim, we applied several multivariate techniques to data from a large adult sample to (1) examine the major dimensions underlying individual differences in mate preferences, and (2) elucidate how these preferences relate to individual differences in personality. An exploratory factor analysis of an omnibus mate preference questionnaire yielded a 14-factor solution with dimensions mirroring trends in evolutionary psychology and the Big Five personality framework. An inter-battery factor analysis of these dimensions paired with higher-order personality factors provided strong support for the “likes attract” model of partner preferences. Bootstrap confidence intervals for all factor loadings highlighted the robustness of our results.
Flora Oswald, Shelby Hughes, Amanda Champion,
Psychology and Sexuality pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1080/19419899.2020.1769164

Abstract:
Contemporary culture has afforded a new sexualized identity to fatherhood. Fathers are often labeled as nurturing, dominant, and domesticated; attributes demonstrably appealing to females. Colloquially, the sexy dad has come to be referred to as “DILF” (i.e., Dad I’d Like to Fuck), a concept popularized in the media since its debut online in 2011. DILFs are increasingly searched for by women on pornography websites, evidence of an increasing sexual interest in or awareness of the DILF phenomenon. Although sometimes conceptualized as a passing colloquialism, the DILF is reflective of shifts in popular culture pertaining to media, gendered parenting, notions of masculinity, and women’s sexual expression. This unique cultural intersection merits empirically driven investigation. This study explored whether women find DILFs more attractive than otherwise equally attractive men without children. Female participants were randomly assigned to one of two possible male profile conditions of the same attractive man (with children versus without children). Overall, results revealed that women rated the male target with children as possessing more positive attributes relative to the male target without children. Follow-up analyses revealed more positive emotional attributes ascribed to the DILF target condition, whereas more positive social attributes were ascribed to the non-DILF target condition. Results are discussed in reference to the changing landscape of masculinity and fatherhood.
Feray Adıgüzel, Carmela Donato
Published: 16 October 2019
Journal of Consumer Marketing, Volume 37, pp 110-123; https://doi.org/10.1108/jcm-07-2018-2787

Abstract:
Purpose This paper aims to examine and compare the simultaneous effect of financially successful appeals and attractiveness for male spokespersons, as well as explain why and when this effect happens based on the viewer’s gender. Design/methodology/approach Two studies were designed by manipulating the success (vs absent) and attractiveness (vs average looking) of a male spokesperson and compared his marketing effectiveness in terms of purchase intention and advertising attitude. Additionally, the influence of gender through the mediating effect of negative/positive affect was compared. Findings Participants indicated lower purchase intention and advertising attitude in light of the success appeal in both studies; however, this effect was influenced by attractiveness in case of high involvement product. Additionally, success had a greater effect on ad effectiveness than attractiveness. Only for males, negative affect mediated the relationship between ad effectiveness and exposure to a successful spokesperson. Practical implications Practitioners should be aware of the negative influence of a financially successful spokesperson overall, especially if he is also very attractive and the product is a high involvement one targeting males. On the contrary, attractiveness of a successful spokesperson might cancel out negative effects for those products targeting females. Originality/value This study differs from previous studies by considering the simultaneous effect of successful and/or attractive male spokespersons on adult sample instead of college students and examine the effects for high and low involvement product.
Mohammad Atari, Nabiha Chaudhary, Laith Al-Shawaf
Social Psychological and Personality Science, Volume 11, pp 533-545; https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550619866187

Abstract:
Cross-cultural research on long-term mate preferences in Muslim-majority countries is scarce. The research described here aims to examine the KASER (kindness/dependability, attractiveness/sexuality, status/resources, education/intelligence, and religiosity/chastity) model of mate preferences in Iran, Pakistan, and Turkey ( N = 1,089). We examined structural validity, measurement invariance between men and women, sex differences, cultural differences, and Big Five personality correlates of these dimensions of mate preferences. Findings supported preregistered hypotheses regarding sex differences in mate preferences. Multilevel models suggested that the magnitude of sex differences was invariant across cultures. Personality correlates of mate preferences varied across cultures, but agreeableness consistently predicted the preference for kind and dependable partners across cultures. In sum, sex differences in mate preferences within and across three Muslim-majority countries described here replicate previous findings, but evidence for personality correlates of mate preferences is mixed, variable across cultures, and in need of further examination in non-Western samples.
, Krzysztof Kasparek
Published: 2 October 2019
The Journal of Sex Research, Volume 57, pp 610-623; https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2019.1669523

Abstract:
Although exhibitionism is thought to be one of the most common sexual offenses, relatively little is known about its victims. The present study aimed to explore the correlates of encountering an exhibitionist, the course of exhibitionist acts, and their impact on the victim. An online survey was completed by 1,075 women, 58.7% of whom had encountered an exhibitionist. Previous victimization had the strongest impact on the probability of encountering an exhibitionist; victims’ habits had no impact. The most frequent type of place where the incidents occurred was green spaces. Most exhibitionists touched their genitals and a third of them talked to the victim. The perpetrators usually did not chase their victims, but those who did were more aggressive. The emotions most frequently reported by the victims as accompanying the incident were surprise, disgust and fear. Taking action to avoid further incidents was reported by 29.0% of the respondents. Few incidents were reported to the authorities (7.0%). The results suggest that the impact of encountering an exhibitionist is in some ways similar to other types of sexual victimization.
, Piers Fleming
Published: 24 April 2019
Current Psychology, Volume 38, pp 982-990; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00266-1

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Rhett Diessner, Rico Pohling, Shawnee Stacy, Angelika Güsewell
Review of General Psychology, Volume 22, pp 377-397; https://doi.org/10.1037/gpr0000166

Abstract:
This review of the trait of appreciation of beauty (AoB) draws from the literature in personality psychology, philosophy, religion, neuroscience, neuro-aesthetics, evolutionary psychology, and the psychology of morality. We demonstrate that AoB can be mapped onto a definition of appreciation that includes perceptual, cognitive, emotional, trait, virtue, and valuing elements. A classic component of defining beauty, unity-in-diversity, is described based on the works of a variety of major philosophers. We next describe that there are at least four channels of appreciation of beauty: natural beauty, artistic beauty, moral beauty, and beautiful ideas. Examining the neuro-aesthetics research indicates that many networks of the brain are involved in mental acts of appreciating beauty, but the medial orbital front cortex (mOFC) is implicated across all four channels of beauty. We then explain how the trait of AoB is a member of three different families of traits: traits of love, traits of transcendence, and traits of inquiry. Next we briefly explain why Kant may have been more correct than Hegel concerning beauty and the good soul. We then present evidence that women may appreciate beauty somewhat more than men. Data from many cultures and nations consistently indicate this. After that we claim AoB leads to individual and collective flourishing. We examine and summarize studies that indicate appreciation of natural beauty leads to a wide variety of positive outcomes; we focus on the importance of open-mindedness that accompanies engagement with artistic beauty; and we summarize studies regarding the moral emotion of elevation and appreciation of moral beauty. Suggested future directions for research are embedded in each subsection of the paper.
, Kristine Marsh, Omir Dib, Danielle Plush, Mark Doszpot, Ewing Fung, Kathleen Crimmins, Michael Drapski, Katrina Di Pietro
Published: 10 November 2018
Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 139, pp 53-59; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.11.009

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Shawn N. Geniole, Elliott T. MacDonell,
Published: 1 September 2017
Evolution and Human Behavior, Volume 38, pp 572-582; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.12.004

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 1 April 2017
Evolutionary Psychology, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.1177/1474704917702459

Abstract:
Previous research suggests that assessment of mate preferences has received relatively little psychometric attention from researchers, particularly in non-Western cultures. The current research was designed to (1) extend previous findings on long-term mate preferences by using a qualitative strategy, (2) develop a psychometrically sound scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences in men, and (3) develop a sex-neutral scale for assessment of long-term mate preferences. Six dimensions of mate preferences emerged for men: F = family/domesticity, A = attractiveness/sexuality, K = kindness/dependability, E = education/intelligence, R = religiosity/chastity, and S = status/resources. These male-specific dimensions of mate preferences showed satisfactory concurrent and convergent validity as well as high internal consistency coefficients. We mixed the female- and male-specific measures of mate preferences and arrived at 20 characteristics without culture- or sex-specific content. We further hypothesized that the 20-item scale of mate preferences would have a five-factor structure (i.e., kindness/dependability, attractiveness/sexuality, status/resources, education/intelligence, religiosity/chastity [KASER]) in men and women and that this model would replicate sex differences cited in the evolutionary psychological literature. Measurement invariance was evidenced across sexes and sex differences accorded with those in the literature. Therefore, the five-factor model of long-term mate preferences (i.e., KASER model) as measured by the Iranian Mate Preferences Scale-20 may be used to evaluate long-term mate preferences in men and women in Iran. Limitations are noted and future directions are discussed in the light of evolutionary perspective on human mating psychology.
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