Refine Search

New Search

Results: 13

(searched for: doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(15)00123-3)
Save to Scifeed
Page of 1
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
, , Tanja Hirvonen, Kathleen Martin, Mikaela Cibich
JBI Evidence Synthesis, Volume 18, pp 1100-1107; https://doi.org/10.11124/jbisrir-d-19-00040

Abstract:
The objective of this review is to investigate the effectiveness and appropriateness of culturally adapted approaches for treating alcohol use disorders in Indigenous peoples in Canada, New Zealand, Australia and the USA. Poor and disadvantaged people, particularly those who are Indigenous, suffer more health effects due to alcohol misuse and are therefore subject to more law enforcement actions. Analyses have identified strategies for improving health services for Indigenous people; chief among these is culturally safe care specifically tailored to the context. Alcohol addiction is a chronic relapsing condition that usually requires ongoing treatment, so it is vital that treatment therapies are appropriate, meaningful and effective. Many evidence-based therapies for substance abuse have not been specifically designed for or tested in Indigenous and First Nations communities. This absence of cultural considerations may be a contributor to the failure of these programs to engage with clients and successfully influence their behavior. This review will consider qualitative and quantitative studies of any methodology, published in any language after 1998. Studies including adult and/or adolescent participants in inpatient or outpatient alcohol treatment programs described as being adapted to meet cultural needs will be considered. This review will use the convergent segregated approach to mixed methods reviews. A range of databases will be searched, including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase and PsycINFO. Two reviewers will critically appraise and extract data from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Qualitative research findings will, where possible, be pooled using JBI SUMARI with the meta-aggregation approach and quantitative studies will, where possible be pooled in statistical meta-analysis using JBI SUMARI. The JBI convergent segregated approach to mixed methods reviews will be followed.
Published: 7 April 2020
Annals of General Psychiatry, Volume 19, pp 25-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12991-020-00276-5

Abstract:
Background Mental disorders are common amongst patients in primary care. There are no published studies on the prevalence of mental disorders in primary care patients in Latvia. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the current prevalence of mental disorders in the nationwide Latvian primary care population and to study possible associated factors and comorbidity of mental disorders. Methods A cross-sectional study within the framework of the National Research Program BIOMEDICINE 2014–2017 was performed at 24 primary care settings across Latvia. Adult patients seen over a 1-week time period at each facility were invited to participate in the study. Sociodemographic variables (age, sex, education, employment and marital status, place of residence, and ethnicity) were assessed onsite. A Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview assessment was conducted over the telephone within 2 weeks after the visit to the general practitioner (GP). Results Overall, 1485 individuals completed the interview. The current prevalence of any mental disorder was 37.2% and was significantly greater in women. Mood disorders (18.4%), suicidality (18.6%) and anxiety disorders (15.8%) were the most frequent diagnostic categories. The current prevalence of any mood disorder was associated with being 50–64 years of age, female sex, economically inactive status, divorced or widowed marital status and urban place of residence, whilst any current anxiety disorder was associated with female sex, lower education, and single marital status; however, being of Russian ethnicity and residing in a small city were protective factors. Suicidality was associated with female sex, lower education, unemployment or economically inactive status, being divorced or widowed and residing in a small city. The comorbidity rates between mental disorders varied from 2.9 to 53.3%. Conclusions High prevalence rates of mental disorders, comorbidity and certain associated socio-demographic factors were found in primary care settings in Latvia. This highlights the importance of screening for depression and anxiety disorders and suicidal risk assessment by GPs. The results are fundamentally important for integrative medicine, monitoring and promotion of mental healthcare at the primary care level, as well as for healthcare policy and development of strategic plans in Latvia.
Published: 13 December 2019
by MDPI
Abstract:
Alcohol use is a major risk factor for burden of mortality and morbidity. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are important disease outcomes caused by alcohol use. We will describe the global mortality and burden of disease in disability-adjusted life years for ALD and AUDs, based on data from the comparative risk assessment of the World Health Organization for 2016. AUDs have a limited impact on mortality in this assessment, since alcohol poisonings are almost the only disease category directly attributable to AUDs; most other alcohol-related deaths are indirect, and the cause which directly led to the death, such as liver cirrhosis, is the one recorded on the death certificate. Burden of disease for AUDs is thus mainly due to disability resulting from alcohol use. In contrast to AUDs, ALD is one of the major lethal outcomes of alcohol use, and burden of disease is mainly due to (premature) years of life lost. Many of the negative outcomes attributable to both AUDs and ALD are due to their interactions with other factors, most notably economic wealth. To avoid alcohol-attributable morbidity and mortality, measures should be taken to reduce the AUDs and ALD burden globally, especially among the poor.
Andre F Carvalho, Markus Heilig, Augusto Perez, Charlotte Probst,
Published: 1 August 2019
The Lancet, Volume 394, pp 781-792; https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(19)31775-1

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 22 January 2019
Addiction Research & Theory, Volume 27, pp 489-497; https://doi.org/10.1080/16066359.2018.1547817

Abstract:
Background: General population surveys using self-reported measures show alcohol use disorder (AUD) to be most prevalent in young adulthood, but this may be due to misinterpretations of AUD criteria among inexperienced drinkers. The present study investigated changes in prevalence of criteria during emerging adulthood. Methods: 4924 young Swiss men were followed across three waves (age at wave 1 (w1): 20; w2: 21; w3: 25 years). We measured AUD according to the 11 DSM-5 criteria and estimated Item Response Theory models for each wave and differential item functioning across waves, related to the cohort growing older. Results: Endorsement of several AUD criteria varied considerably as a function of age in a period of only five years: Five criteria showed differential item functioning between waves 1 and 3 (i.e. between the age of 20 and 25), including the three most frequently endorsed criteria. Prevalence of tolerance (w1, 57.8%; w3, 29.6%) decreased in relation to the AUD score (Mantel–Haenszel OR = 0.26), whereas the use of alcohol larger/longer than intended (w1, 73.7%; w3, 84.8%; OR = 1.93) and hazardous use (w1, 62.7%; w3, 68.4%; OR = 1.31) increased, resulting in an unchanged mean AUD score and prevalence, but changing combinations of criteria to qualify AUD. Conclusions: Considerable differential item functioning over five years among several of the most endorsed AUD criteria suggests shifts in the interpretation of DSM-5 criteria during emerging adulthood. Self-reported measures of DSM-5 AUD criteria may require reformulation to account for young people’s different perceptions and to yield comparable diagnoses over time and across age groups.
Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research, Volume 18, pp 43-49; https://doi.org/10.1080/14737167.2018.1392241

Abstract:
Introduction: Alcohol use is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity burden, and alcohol use disorders contribute markedly to this burden. Effective interventions for alcohol use disorders improve health, and are potentially cost-effective or even cost saving. Areas covered: We searched the literature for the cost-effectiveness of alcohol interventions. We included behavioral, pharmacological and combined interventions, and research from both a health care provider and a societal perspective. Overall, many economic research studies pointed towards existing cost-beneficial therapies from the perspective of a health care provider; i.e. the costs for interventions were smaller than the savings in services delivery in the years thereafter. Even if this was not the case, the interventions proved to be cost-effective with a threshold below $20,000 per quality-adjusted life year. Expert Commentary: While most of the economic research to date shows promising results, such research is relatively scarce and not always rigorous. More, and more rigorous economic research is needed to fully understand the potential impact of alcohol interventions. However, even with this research, something needs to be done to reduce stigmatization of alcohol use disorders in order to fully reap the benefits of alcohol interventions.
Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, Volume 34, pp 330-341; https://doi.org/10.1177/1455072517704795

Abstract:
Aims: To examine the cultural impact on the diagnosis of alcohol-use disorders using European countries as examples. Design: Narrative review. Results: There are strong cultural norms guiding heavy drinking occasions and loss of control. These norms not only indicate what drinking behaviour is acceptable, but also whether certain behaviours can be reported or not. As modern diagnostic systems are based on lists of mostly behavioural criteria, where alcohol-use disorders are defined by a positive answer on at least one, two or three of these criteria, culture will inevitably co-determine how many people will get a diagnosis. This explains the multifold differences in incidence and prevalence of alcohol-use disorders, even between countries where the average drinking levels are similar. Thus, the incidence and prevalence of alcohol-use disorders as assessed by surveys or rigorous application of standardised instruments must be judged as measuring social norms as well as the intended mental disorder. Conclusions: Current practice to measure alcohol-use disorders based on a list of culture-specific diagnostic criteria results in incomparability in the incidence, prevalence or disease burden between countries. For epidemiological purposes, a more grounded definition of diagnostic criteria seems necessary, which could probably be given by using heavy drinking over time.
Published: 1 June 2017
Alcohol, Volume 61, pp 9-15; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2017.01.011

Abstract:
Alcohol has a direct toxic impact on the heart, and while there is an ICD code for alcoholic cardiomyopathy, the burden of alcohol-attributable cardiomyopathy is not clear. For the usual estimation of this burden via population-attributable fractions, one would need to determine the risk relationships, i.e., average risk associated with different dimensions of alcohol exposure. The most important among these risk relationships is the dose-response relationship with different levels of average alcohol consumption. To establish risk relationships, we systematically searched for all studies on dose-response relationships, directly and indirectly, via reviews. The results did not permit computation of pooled estimates through meta-analyses. There were clear indications that heavy drinking (≥80 g per day) over several years was linked to high risk of cardiomyopathy, with greater lifetime exposure of alcohol linked to higher risks. Some studies indicated potential effects of patterns of drinking as well. As such, the global quantification of alcohol-attributable cardiomyopathy will have to rely on other methods than those used conventionally.
, , Eileen Kaner, Antoni Gual, Bernd Schulte, Augusto Pérez Gómez, Hein de Vries, Guillermina Natera Rey,
Published: 23 March 2017
F1000Research, Volume 6, pp 311-311; https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.11173.1

Abstract:
Background: While primary health care (PHC)-based prevention and management of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is clinically effective and cost-effective, it remains poorly implemented in routine practice. Systematic reviews and multi-country studies have demonstrated the ability of training and support programmes to increase PHC-based screening and brief advice activity to reduce heavy drinking. However, gains have been only modest and short term at best. WHO studies have concluded that a more effective uptake could be achieved by embedding PHC activity within broader community and municipal support. Protocol: A quasi-experimental study will compare PHC-based prevention and management of AUD, operationalized by heavy drinking, in three intervention cities from Colombia, Mexico and Peru with three comparator cities from the same countries. In the implementation cities, primary health care units (PHCUs) will receive training embedded within ongoing supportive municipal action over an 18-month implementation period. In the comparator cities, practice as usual will continue at both municipal and PHCU levels. The primary outcome will be the proportion of consulting adult patients intervened with (screened and advice given to screen positives). The study is powered to detect a doubling of the outcome measure from an estimated 2.5/1,000 patients at baseline. Formal evaluation points will be at baseline, mid-point and end-point of the 18-month implementation period. We will present the ratio (plus 95% confidence interval) of the proportion of patients receiving intervention in the implementation cities with the proportions in the comparator cities. Full process evaluation will be undertaken, coupled with an analysis of potential contextual, financial and political-economy influencing factors. Discussion: This multi-country study will test the extent to which embedding PHC-based prevention and management of alcohol use disorder with supportive municipal action leads to improved scale-up of more patients with heavy drinking receiving appropriate advice and treatment.
Jürgen Rehm
International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, Volume 25, pp 79-85; https://doi.org/10.1002/mpr.1508

Abstract:
Alcohol is a major risk factor for global burden of disease, and alcohol use disorders make up a considerable portion of this burden. Up to now, prevalence of alcohol use disorders has been estimated based on general population surveys with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) as the gold standard for assessment. However, three major problems have been identified with the current conceptualization of alcohol use disorders and its measurement via CIDI: cultural specificity of key criteria measured such as loss of control; lack of convergence of diagnoses identified by CIDI with clinically relevant diagnoses in primary health care; and impact of stigma on measurement. As a solution, it is proposed to measure alcohol use disorders via heavy drinking over time, with thresholds taken from the European Medicines Agency (60 and more grams on average per day of pure alcohol for men, and 40+ grams for women). Current data on level of drinking (per capita consumption) assessed via taxation and other means allow for a measure of less bias. If these thresholds are considered too low and there is more emphasis on need for specialized treatment, then thresholds for very heavy drinking can be taken as alternatively (100+, and 60+ grams per day pure alcohol for men and women, respectively). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Page of 1
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top