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(searched for: doi:10.1007/s11367-015-0929-0)
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, Franz Weinland, Norbert Reintjes
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-021-01978-y

Abstract:
Purpose The increase of shellfish production has raised environmental concerns, i.e., enrichment and redistribution of nutrients and energy consumption. Efforts assessing the environmental burdens arising from the expansion of shellfish production have been made using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Although LCA has been extensively applied and reviewed in aquaculture systems, shellfish production remains scarcely studied. The objective of this review is to identify methodological trends, highlight gaps and limitations, and provide guidelines for future studies. Methods A systematic literature review was applied to scientific studies published up to 2021. A total of 13 documents were shorted by abstract and full text-screening. Literature meeting the inclusion criteria were further analyzed in six different aspects of a LCA (functional unit, system boundaries, data and data quality, allocation, impact assessment methods, interpretation methods). Discussion and guidelines are provided for each reviewed aspect. Results and discussions Shellfish LCAs differ considerably from other aquaculture studies mainly because shellfish avoids the allocation of impacts derived from the production of fishmeal. Co-products are present when the shellfish is processed, e.g., in canned products. Furthermore, shellfish studies do not take into account the positive credits from the removal of nutrients from the ecosystems and from the valorization of the shellfish waste (shell and organic remains). Limited information was found for countries outside Europe and species different from mussels. Despite the variability on goals and scopes of the studies, methodological trends were found. The local impacts of the shellfish with the farming area and the impacts on biodiversity have not been included into the studies. Conclusions and recommendations Effort should be made in providing the data associated with the fore-background system within the studies in order to improve transparency and to allow the reproduction of the results. Information regarding the natural condition of the cultivation area should be provided as the shellfish production depends mainly on non-anthropogenic conditions. Application of biodiversity assessment methodologies should be encouraged, despite their limitations.
Published: 7 July 2021
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9071183

Abstract:
Recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) are good candidates for the sustainable development of the aquaculture sector. A current limitation of RAS is the production and accumulation of nitrogenous waste, which could affect fish health. We investigated the potential of the anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) process to treat marine wastewater from a cold-water RAS. We show that the marine anammox bacteria Candidatus Scalindua is a promising candidate. However, its activity was affected by unknown compounds in the RAS wastewater and/or the sub-optimum content of essential trace elements (TEs). Anammox activity dropped to 2% and 13% in NH4+ and NO2 removal, respectively, when NO3-rich RAS wastewater was used as a medium in the absence of TE supplementation. A TE supplementation was added to the RAS wastewater in a subsequent phase, and a recovery in anammox activity was shown (25% and 24% in NH4+ and NO2 removal, respectively). Future studies need to identify the unknown factor and determine the specific needs regarding TE for optimal RAS wastewater treatment by Candidatus Scalindua.
, Ariane Albers, , Ligia Tiruta-Barna, , Annie Levasseur, , Anthony Benoist, Pierre Collet
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 743; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140700

Abstract:
In life cycle assessment (LCA), temporal considerations are usually lost during the life cycle inventory calculation, resulting in an aggregated “snapshot” of potential impacts. Disregarding such temporal considerations has previously been underlined as an important source of uncertainty, but a growing number of approaches have been developed to tackle this issue. Nevertheless, their adoption by LCA practitioners is still uncommon, which raises concerns about the representativeness of current LCA results. Furthermore, a lack of consistency can be observed in the used terms for discussions on temporal considerations. The purpose of this review is thus to search for common ground and to identify the current implementation challenges while also proposing development pathways. This paper introduces a glossary of the most frequently used terms related to temporal considerations in LCA to build a common understanding of key concepts and to facilitate discussions. A review is also performed on current solutions for temporal considerations in different LCA phases (goal and scope definition, life cycle inventory analysis and life cycle impact assessment), analysing each temporal consideration for its relevant conceptual developments in LCA and its level of operationalisation. We then present a potential stepwise approach and development pathways to address the current challenges of implementation for dynamic LCA (DLCA). Three key focal areas for integrating temporal considerations within the LCA framework are discussed: i) define the temporal scope over which temporal distributions of emissions are occurring, ii) use calendar-specific information to model systems and associated impacts, and iii) select the appropriate level of temporal resolution to describe the variations of flows and characterisation factors. Addressing more temporal considerations within a DLCA framework is expected to reduce uncertainties and increase the representativeness of results, but possible trade-offs between additional data collection efforts and the increased value of results from DLCAs should be kept in mind.
Published: 13 March 2020
by MDPI
Sustainability, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/su12062268

Abstract:
This study presents results from a life cycle assessment (LCA) conducted following the CML-IA method on caged aquaculture of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) species at Como River, Kenyir Lake, Terengganu, Malaysia. In this study, the greenhouse gas (GHG) estimation, calculated based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 2006 Guidelines, showed that 245.27 C eq (1.69 Kg) of nitrate oxide (N2O) was emitted from the lake. The determination of LCA was conducted using several inputs, namely N2O, compositions of fish feed, materials used to build fish cages (infrastructure), main materials used during operation and several databases, namely Agri-footprint, Ecoinvent 3, European Reference Life-Cycle Database (ELCD), and Industry Data 2.0. The results show that feed formulation is the major contributor to potential environmental impact in aquaculture farming, at 55%, followed by infrastructure at 33% and operation at 12%. The feed formulation consisting of 53% broken rice contributed to marine ecotoxicity (MET), while those consisting of 44% fish meal and 33% soybean meal contributed to abiotic depletion (ABD) and global warming (GW), respectively. It is recommended that the percentage of ingredients used in feed formulation in fish farming are further studied to reduce its impacts to the environment.
Published: 30 April 2019
by MDPI
Sustainability, Volume 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/su11092517

Abstract:
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector worldwide, mostly driven by a steadily increasing protein demand. In response to growing ecological concerns, life cycle assessment (LCA) emerged as a key environmental tool to measure the impacts of various production systems, including aquaculture. In this review, we focused on farmed salmonids to perform an in-depth analysis, investigating methodologies and comparing results of LCA studies of this finfish family in relation to species and production technologies. Identifying the environmental strengths and weaknesses of salmonid production technologies is central to ensure that industrial actors and policymakers make informed choices to take the production of this important marine livestock to a more sustainable path. Three critical aspects of salmonid LCAs were studied based on 24 articles and reports: (1) Methodological application, (2) construction of inventories, and (3) comparison of production technologies across studies. Our first assessment provides an overview and compares important methodological choices. The second analysis maps the main foreground and background data sources, as well as the state of process inclusion and exclusion. In the third section, a first attempt to compare life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) data across production technologies was conducted using a single factor statistical protocol. Overall, findings suggested a lack of methodological completeness and reporting in the literature and demonstrated that inventories suffered from incomplete description and partial disclosure. Our attempt to compare LCA results across studies was challenging due to confounding factors and poor data availability, but useful as a first step in highlighting the importance of production technology for salmonids. In groups where the data was robust enough for statistical comparison, both differences and mean equalities were identified, allowing ranking of technology clusters based on their average scores. We statistically demonstrated that sea-based systems outperform land-based technology in terms of energy demand and that sea-based systems have a generally higher FCR than land-based ones. Cross-study analytics also strongly suggest that open systems generate on average more eutrophying emissions than closed designs. We further discuss how to overcome bottlenecks currently hampering such LCA meta-analysis. Arguments are made in favor of further developing cross-study LCA analysis, particularly by increasing the number of salmonid LCA available (to improve sample sizes) and by reforming in-depth LCA practices to enable full reproducibility and greater access to inventory data.
Whanderson Santos Rodrigues, Juliana Rosa Carrijo Mauad, Everton Vogel, ,
Published: 15 October 2018
Aquaculture, Volume 500, pp 228-236; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.10.024

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 22 August 2018
Reviews in Aquaculture, Volume 11, pp 1061-1079; https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12280

Abstract:
The aquaculture sector is anticipated to be a keystone in food production systems in the coming decades. However, it is associated with potentially important environmental damages caused by its contribution to eutrophication or climate change, for example. To comprehensively quantify those impacts, life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been conducted on several seafood farming systems for the past 15 years. But, what major findings and common trends can we draw from this pool of studies? What can we learn to provide recommendations to decision and policymakers in the aquaculture sector? To address these questions, we performed a critical review of 65 LCA studies of aquaculture systems from the open literature. We conducted quantitative analyses to explore which impacts can be identified as dominating and to compare different types of aquaculture systems. Our results evidenced that the feed production is a key driver for climate change, acidification, cumulative energy use and net primary production use, while the farming process is a key driver for eutrophication. We also found that different aquaculture systems and technology components may exert considerably different environmental impacts. Based on identified patterns and comparisons, we therefore provided specific recommendations to aquaculture stakeholders for future policy and system development. Overall, the analysis of existing studies demonstrates that important insights can be gained by applying LCA to aquaculture systems, and, to move towards an environmentally sustainable aquaculture sector, we recommend its systematic use in the design of new aquaculture systems or policies, and/or in the evaluation and optimization of existing ones.
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