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(searched for: doi:10.4103/0973-8398.160317)
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Published: 23 May 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Separations
Abstract:
The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) approach is established for the simultaneous determination of fenchone (FCO) and trans-anethole (TOH) in the essential oils and methanolic extracts of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) fruits obtained from India (IND), Pakistan (PAK), and Saudi Arabia (SA). The simultaneous determination of FCO and TOH was performed via Agilent 190914S HP–5MS fused-silica capillary column (30 m × 250 µm ID, 0.25 µm film thickness). The proposed GC-MS approach was linear in the range of 0.10–50 µg/g for FCO and TOH. FCO’s detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) limits were calculated to be 0.04 and 0.12 µg/g, respectively. The LOD and LOQ values for TOH, on the other hand, were calculated to be 0.05 and 0.15 µg/g, respectively. In addition, the proposed GC-MS approach was accurate and precise for the simultaneous determination of FCO and TOH. The amount of FCO in essential oils of F. vulgare was computed as 0.021, 0.034, and 0.029 mg/g in the samples obtained from IND, PAK, and SA, respectively. The amount of TOH in the essential oils of F. vulgare was computed as 7.40, 14.8, and 10.2 mg/g in the samples obtained from IND, PAK, and SA, respectively. However, the amount of FCO in the methanolic extract of F. vulgare was estimated as 0.031, 0.021, and 0.057 mg/g in the samples obtained from IND, PAK, and SA, respectively. On the other hand, the amount of TOH in the methanolic extract of F. vulgare was estimated as 0.440, 0.498, and 1.74 mg/g in the samples obtained from IND, PAK, and SA, respectively. These findings suggested that the proposed GC-MS approach might be used to simultaneously determine the FCO and TOH in a variety of essential oils and plant extracts.
Published: 29 September 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Separations
Abstract:
Due to the lack of ecofriendly/green reversed-phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography (RP-HPTLC) methods for trans-anethole (TAL) and its simplicity over routine analytical techniques, there was a necessity to establish a suitable HPTLC methodology for the quantitative analysis of TAL. Therefore, the first objective of this research was to develop an accurate, rapid and green RP-HPTLC densitometry methodology for the quantitative analysis of TAL in essential oil, traditional and ultrasound-assisted extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill and commercial formulations. The second objective was to compare the traditional method of extraction of TAL with its ultrasound-assisted method of extraction. The chromatogram of TAL from essential oil and traditional and ultrasound-assisted extracts of fennel and commercial formulations was verified by recoding its single spectra at Rf = 0.31 ± 0.01 in comparison to standard TAL. The proposed analytical methodology has been found to be superior in terms of linearity, accuracy and precision compared to most of the reported analytical methods for TAL analysis. The amount of TAL in the essential oil of fennel was recorded as 8.82 mg per g of oil. The content of TAL in traditional extracts of fennel, formulation 1 (dietary supplement 1) and formulation 2 (dietary supplement 2), was recorded as 6.44, 4.88 and 4.48 mg per g, respectively. The amount of TAL in ultrasound-assisted extracts of fennel, formulation 1 and formulation 2, was recorded as 8.34, 6.46 and 5.81 mg per g, respectively. The ultrasound method of extraction of TAL was found to be better than the traditional method of extraction. The results of validation studies and phytochemical analysis showed that the proposed methodology could be efficiently utilized for the quantification of TAL in the wide range of products having TAL as a component.
, Wei Qiuyu, Caleb Kesse Firempong, Yusif Mohammed Mukhtar, Qiuxuan Yang, Emmanuel Omari-Siaw, Zhen Lijun, Ximing Xu, Jiangnan Yu
Published: 5 June 2019
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Volume 71, pp 1324-1338; https://doi.org/10.1111/jphp.13112

Abstract:
Objectives Cuminaldehyde self-emulsified nanoemulsion (CuA-SEN) was prepared and optimised to improve its oral bioavailability and antihepatotoxicity. Methods Cuminaldehyde self-emulsified nanoemulsion was developed through the self-nanoemulsification method using Box–Behnken Design (BBD) tool while appropriate physicochemical indices were evaluated. The optimised CuA-SEN was characterised via droplet size (DS), morphology, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential (ZP), entrapment efficiency, in-vitro release, and pharmacokinetic studies while its antihepatotoxicity was evaluated. Key findings Cuminaldehyde self-emulsified nanoemulsion with acceptable characteristics (mean DS-48.83 ± 1.06 nm; PDI-0.232 ± 0.140; ZP-29.92 ± 1.66 mV; EE-91.51 ± 0.44%; and drug-loading capacity (DL)-9.77 ± 0.75%) was formulated. In-vitro drug release of CuA-SEN significantly increased with an oral relative bioavailability of 171.02%. Oral administration of CuA-SEN to CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity mice markedly increased the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione and catalase in serum. Also, CuA-SEN reduced the levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in both serum and liver tissues while aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and malonaldehyde levels were significantly decreased. Conclusions These findings showed that the improved bioavailability of cuminaldehyde via SEN provided an effective approach for enhancing antioxidation, anti-inflammation and antihepatotoxicity of the drug.
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