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(searched for: doi:10.5530/ptb.1.2.1)
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Heba F. El-Domiaty, , Mona A. Kora, Nader G. Zaki, Suzan A. Khodir
Published: 12 August 2022
Frontiers in Medicine, Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.904756

Abstract:
Background: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD) through many mechanisms, including activation of the renin–angiotensin system. The deleterious effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) can be counterbalanced by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Diminazene aceturate (DIZE), an anti-trypanosomal drug, can activate ACE2.Objective: This study aimed to investigate the possible reno-protective effects of DIZE in MetS rats with elucidation of related mechanisms.Materials and methods: Thirty adult male Wistar albino rats were divided equally into control, MetS, and MetS + DIZE groups. Body weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and urinary albumin levels were measured. Serum levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, uric acid, lipid profile, urea, and creatinine were measured. Homeostasis Model Assessment Index (HOMA-IR) was estimated. Subsequently, renal levels of ACE2, Ang II, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured with histopathological and immunohistochemical assessment of TLR4 and NF-κB in renal tissues.Results: MetS caused dyslipidemia with significant increases in body weight, SBP, FBG, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, uric acid, urea, creatinine, urinary albumin, and renal levels of Ang II, MDA, and TNF-α, whereas renal ACE2 and GSH were significantly decreased. Renal TLR4 and NF-κB immunoreactivity in MetS rats was upregulated. DIZE supplementation of MetS rats induced significant improvements in renal function parameters; this could be explained by the ability of DIZE to activate renal ACE2 and decrease renal Ang II levels with downregulation of renal TLR4 and NF-κB expression.Conclusion: DIZE exerts a reno-protective effect in MetS, mainly by downregulating renal TLR4 and NF-κB levels.
Heba Fathy El-Domiaty, Eman S. El-Roghy,
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Volume 47, pp 296-308; https://doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2021-0133

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the possible ameliorative effects of co-supplementation with Mg2+ and treadmill exercise on memory deficit in aged rats. Fifty male albino rats (10 young and 40 aged rats) were divided into 5 groups (10 rats/group): young, aged sedentary, aged exercised, aged Mg2+-supplemented, and aged exercised and Mg2+-supplemented. Memory was assessed using the Y-maze and novel object recognition tests. Plasma samples were collected for measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP). Subsequently, brain malondialdehyde and catalase levels were measured. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses of the hippocampi were performed. Our results showed impaired memory in aged sedentary rats, with significantly elevated plasma CRP and brain malondialdehyde levels and decreased brain catalase. The hippocampus of aged sedentary rats showed cellular degeneration, downregulation of synaptophysin (SYP) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and caspase-3. Mg2+ supplementation and/or treadmill exercise significantly improved memory tests in aged rats, which could be explained by the upregulation of hippocampal SYP and PCNA expression and downregulation of GFAP and caspase-3 expression with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. The combined therapy had a better effect than both treatments alone, confirming the role of Mg2+ supplementation with physical exercise in enhancing age-related memory deficit. Novelty: Magnesium supplementation with treadmill exercise improves memory deficit in aged rats. The possible mechanisms are upregulation of the hippocampal synaptophysin and PCNA, downregulation of GFAP and caspase-3, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
Published: 22 February 2022
Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, Volume 12, pp 228-232; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2022.02.004

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, Eman Salah Abdel-Reheim, Walaa Hegazy, Ahmed Allam, Sarah I. Othman, Maha Abdulla Alwaele, Samraa Hussein Abdel-Kawi
Published: 16 February 2022
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Volume 29, pp 46788-46801; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-18903-x

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Pavan Bhausaheb Udvant, , Ghansham Balakrishn Jadhav, Rahul Ramakant Sable, Mourya Krishnakumar Arprit
Biosciences, Biotechnology Research Asia, Volume 18, pp 523-532; https://doi.org/10.13005/bbra/2937

Abstract:
Many allopathic medicines demand to remedy for hypertension but fail to fulfill the purpose, because of side effects and high cost. Herbal medicine does not cause side effects and natural herbs are completely safe. Rational and purpose of this study was to see how effective Uraria picta. Jacq. (U.P) extract was on experimentally induced hypertension in rats. The purpose of this research was to explore if U. Picta could be utilized as a curative or preventative medicine, as well as to investigate U. Picta possible toxicity in these animals. Blood pressure was elevated by Angiotensin II (150 ug/kg, i.p) in rats that is hypertensive condition. Animals were divided into groups as follow Group I (control) - vehicle, Group II Angiotensin II (150µgkg), Group III Angiotensin II extract low dose (100mgkg), Group IV-Angiotensin II extract middle dose (200mgkg), Group V-Angiotensin II extract (400mg/kg), Group VI – (Angiotensin II Telmisartan0.8mg/kg). and dosed as per protocol. Blood pressure was monitored with the noninvasive techniques (NIBP) using Power lab (AD instrument) Australia. Effect of extracts was studied on various oxidative stress markers like SOD, CAT, LOP and NO. as per observation extract of U. picta of high dose (400mg/kg BW p.o) had shown significant alteration in endogenous antioxidant entities i.e., SOD, CAT, LPO and also reduced NO level indicate antioxidant property of U. Picta. Same of above dose also reduced blood pressure and ACE level. So, from the above outcome we can consider that U.Picta extract may be having antioxidant and antihypertensive activity.
Farshid Davoodi, Shayan Taheri, , Asghar Rajabzadeh, , Mohammad Hassan Hablolvarid, Hassan Ahmadvand
Published: 27 July 2021
BMC Veterinary Research, Volume 17, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02951-5

Abstract:
Background Testicular torsion/detorsion triggers tissue ischemia/reperfusion, leading to reactive oxygen species overgeneration and apoptosis. The saliva of leeches is full of anti-inflammatory, anticoagulants, antioxidants, and antimicrobial agents. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the protective mechanism of leech therapy on testicular ischemia/reperfusion damage. Methods 18 adult male rats were randomly divided into three groups: 1-Sham-operated group (SO). 2-Torsion/detorsion (T.D) group: two hours of testicular torsion with two hours of testicular detorsion was performed. 3-Torsion/detorsion + Leech therapy (TDL) group. Sperm parameters (motility, vitality, morphology, and concentration), oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, CAT, GPx, and TAC), histopathological factors (Mean seminiferous tubular diameter, Germinal epithelial cell thickness, Testicular capsule thickness, Johnson’s score, and Cosentino’s score), and immunohistochemical markers for apoptosis detection (Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3) were measured. Results There was a significant difference for all sperm parameters in the T. D group compared to the sham group. Leech therapy significantly increased progressive motility and normal morphology and reduced non-progressive motility. In the TDL group, MDA concentration significantly reduced, and levels of GPx, TAC, and CAT remarkably increased. All evaluated histopathological parameters in the TDL group significantly increased compared to the T. D group except for the testicular capsule thickness. T. D notably increased the expression of Bax and Caspase-3, while the treatment group slowed the rate of apoptosis compared to the control group. Bcl-2 expression in the T. D group was significantly lower than that in the sham group. Leech therapy increased the Bcl-2 expression. Conclusion Leech therapy attenuates damages to testicular tissue following torsion/detorsion due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. Hence, it can be considered as an effective remedy for testicular ischemia/reperfusion. Graphical abstract
Published: 2 July 2020
Journal: Veterinary world
Veterinary world, Volume 13, pp 1251-1261; https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2020.1251-1261

Abstract:
Aim: This study investigated the chemical composition, antioxidant activity, and diuretic effect of Moroccan aqueous extract of fresh bee pollen (AEFBP) in normal rats. Materials and Methods: The chemical composition of the extracted bioactive compounds was assessed using liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ ESI-MSn). 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and the reducing power were used to assess the antioxidant properties of the extract, together with the determination of total phenols and flavonoids. To assess the diuretic effect, 20 normal rats were divided into five groups: The first was a control group administered by distilled water (10 mL/kg body weight), the second group received furosemide (10 mg/kg body weight), the third group received 100 mg/kg body weight of AEFBP, the fourth group received 250 mg/kg body weight of AEFBP, and the fifth group received 500 mg/kg body weight of AEFBP for 30 days. Toward the end of this experiment, urine output was measured, and plasma and urine were sampled to analyze creatinine, potassium, chloride, and sodium levels. Results: N1,N5,N10-tri-p-coumaroylspermidine is a spermidine derivative and was the main compound in this sample, in a total of 19 compounds identified, including flavonoids, glucoside flavonoids, and methylated derivatives. Force feeding with the AEFBP induced a significant increase in urine output and urinary electrolyte levels with a dependent dose-effect without changes in plasma electrolytes, whereas furosemide decreased plasma potassium. Conclusion: Moroccan fresh bee pollen extract contains flavonols and spermidines that induce a potential antioxidant activity related to significant diuretic effect without changes in plasma composition.
, Soham S. Chitlange, Dheeraj Nagore
Published: 1 January 2017
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation, Volume 7, pp 25-32; https://doi.org/10.4103/jphi.jphi_34_16

Abstract:
Background: Diabetes is a chronic, progressive disease associated with several complications leading to significant mortality and morbidity. Limitations and drawbacks of the conventional treatment generate need for safer, effective complimentary therapies to prevent complications, and maintain normoglycemic status.Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study is to to evaluate antidiabetic activity of AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet alone, oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA[s]), and combination of AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet and OHA(s) in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats.Materials and Methods: Totally, ten groups of animals were studied comparatively to evaluate antidiabetic activity of AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet, OHA(s), and combination of AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet and OHA(s). Blood glucose level (BGL), lipid profile, serum creatinine, serum insulin level, and histopathological characteristics of pancreas were studied to evaluate the efficacy of various formulations. Histopathological examination of kidney and heart was carried out to assess the ability of various formulations in preventing complications of diabetes.Results: There was a significant decrease in mean BGL, serum triglycerides, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL, and serum creatinine levels in all formulations groups. Significant increase in mean serum insulin level and high-density lipoprotein level was observed when compared to diabetic control (DC) group. Recovery of pancreatic beta cells and prevention of damage to heart and kidney cells was significant in all the formulation groups as compared to DC group. None of the formulations tested in nondiabetic rat showed hypoglycemia suggesting safety of all the formulations.Conclusion: AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet alone and in combination with OHA(s) can be effectively used in the management of diabetes mellitus. In addition, AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet alone and in combination with OHA(s) help in prevention of diabetic complications. As an adjuvant to OHA(s), AHPL/AYTAB/0513 tablet can be more effective.
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