Refine Search

New Search

Results: 88

(searched for: doi:10.1155/2014/706291)
Save to Scifeed
Page of 2
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
F.G. Silva, L.M.M. Zanin, C.F. Shimizu, D.D. Lopes, J.C. Ribeiro, A.T. Ishikawa, E.N. Itano, O. Kawamura, E.Y. Hirooka
Published: 2 September 2022
World Mycotoxin Journal, Volume 15, pp 417-428; https://doi.org/10.3920/wmj2021.2728

Abstract:
An indirect competitive immunoassay (ic-ELISA) was developed using monoclonal antibody produced by hybridoma AF4, which showed high specificity and reactivity with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxicol, but low cross-reactivity to other analogs. This low cost reliable method was applied for AFB1 monitoring in the poultry chain of a high agribusiness potential region (northern Paraná state, Brazil). Maize, laying hens feed and egg samples were collected from two poultry farms (with production above 200,000 eggs/day) and evaluated by intralaboratory validated ic-ELISA. The sensitivity of such a validated assay, detecting picogram levels of aflatoxins, demonstrated to be proper for surveying daily ingested cumulative toxins and estimating risks. Additionally, more than 61.00% of positive egg samples ranged between the limit of quantification (LOQ – 0.035 ng/g) and 1.00 ng/g, values commonly not covered by commercial kits. Positive data (>LOQ) occurred in 22 maize (56.40%), 34 feed (85.00%) and 192 (48.00%) egg samples. Mean contamination in maize was 1.51±0.94 ng/g (range 0.11-3.91 ng/g), 1.26±0.96 ng/g in feed (0.10-3.58 ng/g), and 1.01±0.77 ng/g in egg (0.05-3.85 ng/g). No statistical difference was observed between farms (P>0.05) for any of the matrices analysed. However, the difference between median values in maize (0.98 ng/g – Farm A; 1.76 ng/g – Farm B) indicated a higher contamination trend in farm B, possibly due to inadequate local storage. Although there is no limit stipulated for AFB1 contamination in eggs, the levels detected in samples were low and do not represent an immediate risk to animal production or human consumption. Nevertheless, the high frequency of positive maize and feed samples in this field of agribusiness should be highlighted. Sensitive aflatoxin monitoring procedures must be strategically carried out from raw materials to animal derived products, aiming harmless production, which also assures human health.
, Abu M. Dadzie, Beatrice Ifie, Maxwell D. Asante, Ruth N. A. Prempeh, Linda A. Abrokwah, Zipporah Appiah Kubi, Esther A. Marfo
Published: 25 August 2022
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12892-022-00170-4

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Roshani Mohan Raj Juliet∗, Miyapadavu Anshida, , Dharnappa Sannejal Akhila,
Journal of Health and Allied Sciences NU; https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-1748804

Abstract:
Background and Objective Aflatoxins are a group of naturally occurring mycotoxin which are toxic secondary metabolites produced by certain filamentous fungi like Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The main objective of this study was to screen the occurrence of aflatoxin in ready to eat nuts available locally and analyzing for its nutritive value and to evaluate the efficiency of conventional (thin-layer chromatography [TLC]) and sensitive kit-based (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA]) method by detection of the aflatoxin in the sample. Methods A total of 50 samples including peanuts (10), cashew nuts (10), almonds (10), pistachio (10), and walnuts (10) were collected from different stores in Mangalore city. Each sample was divided into three fractions, as for microbiological analysis, proximate analysis, and detection of aflatoxin by following standard method (AOAC2000). Results The present study evidenced the contamination of aflatoxin in all of the five types of ready-to-eat nuts examined and the concentration was within the acceptable limits. But, among the samples analyzed, G10 (groundnut) showed a maximum concentration of 16 µg/L aflatoxin detected by ELISA method. It was also observed that the proximate analysis mainly moisture content did not affect aflatoxin accumulation. Conclusion Our study shows that aflatoxin contamination of food products has become a serious threat. Although several methods for detection and quantification of toxins have been developed, due to their low concentration of toxicity in food commodities, an analytical method for detection and quantification of aflatoxin have to be specific, sensitive, and simple to carry out and among TLC and ELISA, ELISA came out as a suitable for rapid and sensitive detection.
, Theophilus Annan, , Adjoa A. Boakye, Clement O. Tettey, , , Precious Agbemeseli
Published: 24 June 2022
Journal of Food Quality, Volume 2022, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/5770836

Abstract:
Aflatoxins have gained so much reputation among all mycotoxins due to their notoriety in causing countless adverse health effects on humans as well as animals. It continues to be a major concern in food safety globally. In this study, total and constitutive aflatoxins levels as well as the carcinogenic risks posed by 110 food and feed samples (55 cereals, 20 nuts and oils, 18 animal feed, and 18 fruits and vegetables) collected from the Ho Central market in the Volta region, Ghana, were assessed. Using high-performance liquid chromatography connected to a fluorescent detector (HPLC-FLD), levels of total aflatoxins (AFtotal) and aflatoxins constituents, namely, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2, were analyzed. By using the model prescribed by Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), the risks posed by the food and feed samples were determined. The degrees of toxicity were in the ranges of 0.78234.73μg/kg, 0.4721.6μg/kg, 1.0113.75μg/kg, and 0.665.51μg/kg, respectively, for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2. Out of the samples analyzed for AFtotal, about 51 (46.4) exceeded the limits of GSA and were in the range 10.63±1.20236.28±4.2μg/kg. While for EFSA, 71 (64.54) exceeded and ranged between 4.72±0.28 and 236.28±4.2μg/kg. Furthermore, estimated daily intake (EDI) of 27.10283.70ng/kg·bw/day, margin of exposure (MOE) of 1.40914.76, average potency of 00.00396ng aflatoxins/kg·bw/day, and cancer risks with a range of 0.1071.122 cases/100,000 person/yr were observed. Taken together, it could be concluded that consuming cereals pose adverse effects on human health regardless of the age of the consumer.
Published: 27 April 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Toxins
Abstract:
Aflatoxin, a type of mycotoxin, is mostly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. It is responsible for the loss of billions of dollars to the world economy, by contaminating different crops such as cotton, groundnut, maize, and chilies, and causing immense effects on the health of humans and animals. More than eighteen different types of aflatoxins have been reported to date, and among them, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 are the most prevalent and lethal. Early detection of fungal infection plays a key role in the control of aflatoxin contamination. Therefore, different methods, including culture, chromatographic techniques, and molecular assays, are used to determine aflatoxin contamination in crops and food products. Many countries have set a maximum limit of aflatoxin contamination (2–20 ppb) in their food and agriculture commodities for human or animal consumption, and the use of different methods to combat this menace is essential. Fungal infection mostly takes place during the pre- and post-harvest stage of crops, and most of the methods to control aflatoxin are employed for the latter phase. Studies have shown that if correct measures are adopted during the crop development phase, aflatoxin contamination can be reduced by a significant level. Currently, the use of bio-pesticides is the intervention employed in many countries, whereby atoxigenic strains competitively reduce the burden of toxigenic strains in the field, thereby helping to mitigate this problem. This updated review on aflatoxins sheds light on the sources of contamination, and the on occurrence, impact, detection techniques, and management strategies, with a special emphasis on bio-pesticides to control aflatoxins.
Published: 20 April 2022
by MDPI
Journal: Toxins
Abstract:
Contamination of food chains by toxigenic fungi and aflatoxins is a global problem that causes damage to human health, as well as to crop and livestock production. The objective is to evaluate Aspergillus flavus and total aflatoxins (AFs) occurrence in totally mixed rations (TMRs) for dairy cows and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk for human consumption. Ninety-nine dairy production units located in Aguascalientes, Mexico, were randomly selected, and samples were collected from TMRs, raw milk, and milk marketed in the city in two consecutive agricultural cycles. AFs were quantified in TMRs and milk by indirect enzyme immunoassay and HPLC; aflatoxigenic and molecular (PCR) capacity of monosporic A. flavus isolates in the feed was characterized. All feed, raw, and pasteurized milk samples showed aflatoxin contamination (26.0 ± 0.4 µg/kg, 32.0 ± 1.0, and 31.3 ± 0.7 ng/L, respectively), and a significant proportion (90.4, 11.3, and 10.3%) exceeded the locally applied maximum permissible limits for feed and milk (20.0 µg/kg and 50 ng/L). Aflatoxin contamination in both TMRs and milk indicated a seasonal influence, with a higher concentration in the autumn–winter cycle when conditions of higher humidity prevail. The results obtained suggest the existence of contamination by aflatoxigenic A. flavus and aflatoxins in the diet formulated for feeding dairy cows and, consequently, in the dairy food chain of this region of the Mexican Highland Plateau.
R. Kumari, H. Jaiswal, T. Chowdhury,
Published: 7 April 2022
World Mycotoxin Journal, Volume 15, pp 143-157; https://doi.org/10.3920/wmj2021.2687

Abstract:
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a most potent carcinogenic secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus flavus. As a food safety concern, development of a rapid, cost effective, sensitive and easy to use method for the detection of aflatoxin is of prime requirement. In this study, AFB1 was conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA), and AFB1-BSA conjugate was purified by HPLC. Purification was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The polyclonal antibody was raised against AFB1-BSA conjugate in rabbit and purified by protein A sepharose and BSA sepharose affinity columns. Iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesised by co-precipitation method and their surface was functionalised with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES). Size of APTES conjugated MNPs was determined by electron microscopy, and characterised by several biophysical techniques. The purified anti-AFB1 antibody was conjugated with surface functionalised MNPs and the conjugation was confirmed by determining the sizes of free and antibody conjugated MNPs by field emission scanning electron microscope where increase of particle sizes from 10-20 to 40-50 nm was observed due to antibody conjugation. Anti-AFB1 antibody conjugated MNPs were used for capturing AFB1 from the aflatoxin spiked wheat grains with a recovery percentage of more than 80% and used effectively five times. The captured AFB1 was then quantified by a sensitive colorimetric assay where colourless AFB1 was first converted into coumaric acid by NaOH. Subsequently, coumaric acid reacted with 2,6-dibromoquinone-4-chloroimide (DBQC) to a green-coloured indophenol product which was quantified spectrophotometrically. AFB1 contamination as low as 2 μg/kg in wheat grains was detected by the developed technique suggesting its potential application for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of aflatoxins present in feed and food materials.
Dragana Bartolić, Dragosav Mutavdžić, Jens Michael Carstensen, Slavica Stanković, Milica Nikolić, Saša Krstović, Ksenija Radotić
Published: 22 March 2022
Scientific Reports, Volume 12, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-08352-4

Abstract:
Cereal seeds safety may be compromised by the presence of toxic contaminants, such as aflatoxins. Besides being carcinogenic, they have other adverse health effects on humans and animals. In this preliminary study, we used two non-invasive optical techniques, optical fiber fluorescence spectroscopy and multispectral imaging (MSI), for discrimination of maize seeds naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from the uncontaminated seeds. The AFB1-contaminated seeds exhibited a red shift of the emission maximum position compared to the control samples. Using linear discrimination analysis to analyse fluorescence data, classification accuracy of 100% was obtained to discriminate uncontaminated and AFB1-contaminated seeds. The MSI analysis combined with a normalized canonical discriminant analysis, provided spectral and spatial patterns of the analysed seeds. The AFB1-contaminated seeds showed a 7.9 to 9.6-fold increase in the seed reflectance in the VIS region, and 10.4 and 12.2-fold increase in the NIR spectral region, compared with the uncontaminated seeds. Thus the MSI method classified successfully contaminated from uncontaminated seeds with high accuracy. The results may have an impact on development of spectroscopic non-invasive methods for detection of AFs presence in seeds, providing valuable information for the assessment of seed adulteration in the field of food forensics and food safety.
Yong-Kyoung Kim, Insuck Baek, Kyung-Min Lee, Jianwei Qin, , Byeung Kon Shin, Diane E. Chan, Timothy J. Herrman, Soon-Kil Cho, Moon S. Kim
Published: 1 February 2022
Journal: Food Control
, Artem O. Donskikh, Dmitriy A. Minakov, Alexander A. Sirota
Published: 19 January 2022
Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, Volume 39, pp 990-1000; https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2021.2017001

Abstract:
The study presents an approach to the analysis and classification of peanuts performed in order to detect kernels with fungi diseases, i.e. kernels prone to contamination with mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus (Aspergillus parasiticus). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of luminescent spectroscopy with a violet laser (405 nm wavelength) as the excitation source of the fluorescence when applied for real-time detection of mould in peanuts performed by means of multispectral processing based on machine learning methods. We suggest a laboratory unit used to form, register, and process the luminescence spectra of peanuts in visible and near-infrared wavelength ranges in the real-time mode. The study demonstrated that contaminated peanuts have increased luminous intensity and show a redshift in the fluorescence peaks of the contaminated samples as compared to the pure ones. The difference in the fluorescence spectra of pure and contaminated kernels is compatible with the results obtained when traditional UV-light sources are used (365 nm). To classify peanuts by their spectral characteristics, neural network algorithms were used combined with dimensionality reduction methods. The paper presents the probabilities of incorrect recognition of the peanuts’ type depending on the number of relevant secondary features determined when reducing the dimensionality of the initial data. When 10 spectral components were used, the error ratios were 0.7% or 0.3% depending on the method of reducing the dimensionality of the initial data. Graphical Abstract
Anders Løchte Jørgensen, , Victor Petrunin, Jakob Kjelstrup-Hansen, Bjarke Jørgensen
Published: 10 January 2022
Journal: Optics express
Optics express, Volume 30; https://doi.org/10.1364/oe.441798

Abstract:
Determination of the surface temperature of different materials based on thermographic imaging is a difficult task as the thermal emission spectrum is both temperature and emissivity dependent. Without prior knowledge of the emissivity of the object under investigation, it makes up a temperature-emissivity underdetermined system. This work demonstrates the possibility of recognizing specific materials from hyperspectral thermal images (HSTI) in the wavelength range from 8–14 µm. The hyperspectral images were acquired using a microbolometer sensor array in combination with a scanning 1st order Fabry-Pérot interferometer acting as a bandpass filter. A logistic regression model was used to successfully differentiate between polyimide tape, sapphire, borosilicate glass, fused silica, and alumina ceramic at temperatures as low as 34.0 ± 0.05 °C. Each material was recognized with true positive rates above 94% calculated from individual pixel spectra. The surface temperature of the samples was subsequently predicted using pre-fitted partial least squares (PLS) models, which predicted all surface temperature values with a common root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.10 °C and thereby outperforming conventional thermography. This approach paves the way for a practical solution to the underdetermined temperature-emissivity system.
Sezen Sevdin, Edanur Çelik, A. Nur Çömçe, Nazlı BATAR, Asena Ayça Özdemir
European Journal of Science and Technology pp 1162-1167; https://doi.org/10.31590/ejosat.1045487

Abstract:
Aflatoksinler, kuru gıda ürünlerinden, özellikle baharatlardan izole edilebilen kirleticilerden biridir. Kırmızı biber tüm dünyada en çok tüketilen baharatlardan biri olduğu için bu araştırma, sistematik bir derleme ve meta-analiz yardımıyla farklı kırmızı biber baharatlarında aflatoksin B1 (AFB1) prevalansını ve konsantrasyonunu tahmin etmeyi amaçlamıştır. Bu nedenle Ocak 2000 ile 6 Aralık 2020 arasında yayınlanan makaleler, iyi bilinen dört veri tabanından sistematik olarak toplanmıştır. Bu kapsamda 981 makale arasından toplam 455 örnek içeren 10 makale belirlenen dahil etme ve hariç tutma kriterlerine göre meta-analize dahil edilmiştir. Analiz sonuçlarına göre tüm çalışmaların AFB1 prevalansı %50.8 olarak belirlenmiştir. En düşük ve en yüksek AFB1 konsantrasyonları sırasıyla Kore (0.14 mg/kg) ve Türkiye'de (31.13 mg/kg) kırmızı biberlerinde olarak gözlemlenmiştir. Bu meta-analiz sonuçlarının, kırmızı biber baharat ürünlerinin tüketimi yoluyla AFB1 maruziyetini azaltmak ve mali kayıpları önlemek için geliştirilecek çözüm eylemlerinin değerlendirilmesinde ve organizasyonunda kullanılabileceği düşünülmektedir. Aflatoxins are one of the pollutants that can be isolated from the dried food products, especially spices. Since red pepper is one of the most consumed spices all over the world, this research aimed to estimate the prevalence and concen-tration of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in different red pepper spices with the help of a systematic review and meta-analysis. Therefore, the articles published between January 2000 and December 6, 2020, were systematically collected from four well-known databases. In this context, 10 articles containing 455 samples in total among 981 articles were included in the meta-analysis according to the determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. According to the analysis results, the AFB1 prevalence of all studies was determined as 50.8%. The lowest and highest AFB1 concentrations were observed in seasoning paprika Korea (0.14 mg/kg) and Turkey (31.13 mg/kg), respectively. The result of this meta-analysis can be used in the evaluation and organization of solution actions to be devel-oped to reduce AFB1 exposure and prevent financial losses through the con-sumption of red pepper spice products.
Published: 11 December 2021
by MDPI
International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Volume 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222413322

Abstract:
According to the World Health Organization, the contamination of crops with aflatoxins poses a significant economic burden, estimated to affect 25% of global food crops. In the event that the contaminated food is processed, aflatoxins enter the general food supply and can cause serious diseases. Aflatoxins are distributed unevenly in food or feedstock, making eradicating them both a scientific and a technological challenge. Cooking, freezing, or pressurizing have little effect on aflatoxins. While chemical methods degrade toxins on the surface of contaminated food, the destruction inside entails a slow process. Physical techniques, such as irradiation with ultraviolet photons, pulses of extensive white radiation, and gaseous plasma, are promising; yet, the exact mechanisms concerning how these techniques degrade aflatoxins require further study. Correlations between the efficiency of such degradation and the processing parameters used by various authors are presented in this review. The lack of appropriate guidance while interpreting the observed results is a huge scientific challenge.
Leticia Loukou Ahou, Jean-Baptiste Adepo Aholia, N'Sa Romaric Alloh Atse, Brou Kouakou
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, Volume 13, pp 45-51; https://doi.org/10.5897/jtehs2021.0495

Published: 25 September 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Toxins
Abstract:
The consumption of pistachios (Pistacia vera L.) has been increasing, given their important benefit to human health. In addition to being an excellent nutritional source, they have been associated with chemical hazards, such as mycotoxins, resulting in fungal contamination and its secondary metabolism. Aflatoxins (AFs) are the most common mycotoxins in pistachio and the most toxic to humans, with hepatotoxic effects. More mycotoxins such as ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisins (FBs), zearalenone (ZEA) and trichothecenes (T2, HT2 and DON) and emerging mycotoxins have been involved in nuts. Because of the low levels of concentration and the complexity of the matrix, the determination techniques must be very sensitive. The present paper carries out an extensive review of the state of the art of the determination of mycotoxins in pistachios, concerning the trends in analytical methodologies for their determination and the levels detected as a result of its contamination. Screening methods based on immunoassays are useful due to their simplicity and rapid response. Liquid chromatography (LC) is the gold standard with new improvements to enhance accuracy, precision and sensitivity and a lower detection limit. The reduction of Aspergillus’ and aflatoxins’ contamination is important to minimize the public health risks. While prevention, mostly in pre-harvest, is the most effective and preferable measure to avoid mycotoxin contamination, there is an increased number of decontamination processes which will also be addressed in this review.
Published: 23 September 2021
by MDPI
Journal: Molecules
Abstract:
Pistachios are one of the types of tree nut fruits with the highest mycotoxin contamination, especially of aflatoxins, worldwide. This study developed a Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method that was followed by Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography combined with Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC–ToF-MS) for the determination of mycotoxins in pistachios. Different approaches to dispersive solid phase extraction as a clean-up method for high lipid matrices were evaluated. For this, classic sorbents such as C18 (octadecyl-modified silica) and PSA (primary secondary amine), and new classes of sorbents, namely EMR-Lipid (enhanced matrix removal-lipid) and Z-Sep (modified silica gel with zirconium oxide), were used. The QuEChERS method, followed by Z-Sep d-SPE clean-up, provided the best analytical performance for aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), toxin T2 (T2) and toxin HT-2 (HT2) in pistachios. The method was validated in terms of linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, interday precision and recovery; it achieved good results according to criteria imposed by Commission Regulation (EC) no. 401/2006. The method was applied to real samples and the results show that pistachios that are available in Portuguese markets are safe from mycotoxins that are of concern to human health.
, , Anna Antonella Spina, Marinella Rodolfi, , Cristian Piras, Domenico Britti,
Published: 21 September 2021
Frontiers in nutrition, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.704976

Abstract:
The growth of filamentous fungi on fodder is recognized as responsible for fungal deterioration and mycotoxin contamination of the plant mass leads to economic losses in the dairy cow production system. Mycotoxin contamination has significant implications for human and animal health and is one of the major concerns in the food and feed chain. This research provides an insight into the variety of viable molds (i.e., filamentous microfungi) that can be isolated from hay produced in South Italy and destined to dairy cows. On different lots of hay (n = 55) collected from 20 dairy farms, a total of 33 different fungal species were identified. The most representative was Cladosporium cladosporioides (n = 46, 84%) followed by Alternaria alternata (n = 25, 45%), and Rhizopus stolonifer (n = 24, 44%). The species most closely related to aflatoxin (AF) contamination, Aspergillus flavus, was often isolated (n = 11, 20%). Regarding AF detection, all the hay samples were found to be scarcely contaminated by AFB1 and showed values from 0.0020 to 0.0077 mg/kg, below the limits established by European Union (EU legislation) (0.02 mg/kg). None of the samples were positive for Aspergillia and tested for AFB1 showed results exceeding established limits. Additionally, hay with moisture between 15.0 and 19.2% or crude ash on dry matter content ranging from 14.0 to 15.5% reported an increased presence of AFB1 (p < 0.05) compared to the other samples. All the analyzed hay samples, besides the presence of molds, can be considered safe for the presence of AFB1. Prevention of mold spoilage is mandatory to reduce the exposure of humans and animals to mycotoxins.
Tao Li, Zhaowei Zhang, Yu Wang, Ying Li, Jiang Zhu, , Yunhuang Yang, Maili Liu
Published: 21 September 2021
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.741875

Abstract:
The molecular mechanisms underlying aflatoxin production have been well-studied in strains of the fungus Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) under artificial conditions. However, aflatoxin biosynthesis has rarely been studied in A. flavus strains isolated from field conditions with different aflatoxin-producing ability. In the present study, tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with tandem-mass spectrometry analysis were used for proteomic quantification in natural isolates of high- and low-aflatoxin-yield A. flavus strains. Additionally, findings obtained using the TMT-labeling method were validated using the high-resolution multiple reaction monitoring (MRM-HR) method. In total, 4,363 proteins were quantified, among which 1,045 proteins were differentially expressed between the high- and low-aflatoxin-yield A. flavus strains. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the up-regulated proteins were significantly enriched in carbon-related metabolism and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, whereas the down-regulated proteins were enriched in oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, GST proteins were found to be significantly down-regulated in high-yield A. flavus strains; this result contradicted previous findings obtained from A. flavus strains grown under artificial conditions. In summary, our study provides novel insights into aflatoxin regulation in A. flavus under field conditions and could facilitate the development of various strategies for the effective control of aflatoxin contamination in food crops.
Published: 14 September 2021
by MDPI
Journal: AgriEngineering
AgriEngineering, Volume 3, pp 703-715; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriengineering3030045

Abstract:
Fungal infection is a pre-harvest and post-harvest crisis for farmers of peanuts. In environments with temperatures around 28 °C to 30 °C or relative humidity of approximately 90%, mold-contaminated peanuts have a considerable likelihood to be infected with Aflatoxins. Aflatoxins are known to be highly carcinogenic, posing danger to humans and livestock. In this work, we proposed a new approach for detection of mold-contaminated peanuts at an early stage. The approach employs the optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technique and an error-correcting output code (ECOC) based Support Vector Machine (SVM) trained on features extracted using a pre-trained Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN). To this end, mold-contaminated and uncontaminated peanuts were scanned to create a data set of OCT images used for training and evaluation of the ECOC-SVM model. Results showed that the proposed approach is capable of detecting mold-contaminated peanuts with respective accuracies of approximately 85% and 96% after incubation periods of 48 and 96 h.
Ajeet Kumar Pandey, , Anil Patyal, Syed Liaquat Ali, Dhirendra Bhonsle, Choodamani Chandrakar, Atul Kumar, Rizwan Khan, Diksha Hattimare
Published: 22 July 2021
Mycotoxin Research, Volume 37, pp 265-273; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12550-021-00437-9

Abstract:
Concerns regarding food safety and ‘One Health’ are increasing globally. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a human carcinogenic toxin, is excreted by lactating animals in their milk after consumption of feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1. The present cross-sectional study aimed to determine the occurrence of AFM1 in cattle and buffalo milk produced in rural and peri-urban areas under different agro-climatic conditions of Chhattisgarh, India, and assesses human health risks. Analyses of 545 milk samples by validated high-performance liquid chromatography revealed high level of AFM1 contamination in 224 (41.1%) samples with mean concentration of 0.137 ± 0.029 μg/L. Statistically significant differences (p< 0.05) were observed in the levels and frequency of AFM1 occurrence among different agro-climatic zones. AFM1 was more frequently detected in milk samples from Northern hills (64%) followed by Bastar plateau (40.7%) and Chhattisgarh plain (27.3%), with mean concentration levels of 0.396 ± 0.099 μg/L, 0.081 ± 0.025 μg/L and 0.013 ± 0.002 μg/L, respectively. Species wise no significant difference was observed in the detection frequency and concentration of AFM1 in milk from cattle and buffalo. AFM1 contamination above maximum permissible limits established by European commission and Food Safety and Standard Authority of India was detected in 21.3% and 4.4% of samples, respectively. The estimated daily intakes for AFM1 were found to be higher than tolerable daily intakes for both adults and children, especially of Northern hills implying a potentially high risk to consumer’s health. This study provides valuable information on the contamination status of milk in one of the fastest developing state of India. It also highlights the importance and need for continuous farmers’ awareness on good animal husbandry practices, routine surveillance of mycotoxins in animal feeds and food commodities to safeguard human health.
, , Esther Garcia-Cela, , Brenda V. Ortiz, Brian Scully
Published: 29 June 2021
Scientific Reports, Volume 11, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92557-6

Abstract:
Aflatoxins (AFs) are produced by fungi in crops and can cause liver cancer. Permitted levels are legislated and batches of grain are rejected based on average concentrations. Corn grown in Southern Georgia (GA), USA, which experiences drought during the mid-silk growth period in June, is particularly susceptible to infection by Aspergillus section Flavi species which produce AFs. Previous studies showed strong association between AFs and June weather. Risk factors were developed: June maximum temperatures > 33 °C and June rainfall < 50 mm, the 30-year normals for the region. Future climate data were estimated for each year (2000–2100) and county in southern GA using the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emissions scenarios. The number of counties with June maximum temperatures > 33 °C and rainfall < 50 mm increased and then plateaued for both emissions scenarios. The percentage of years thresholds were exceeded was greater for RCP 8.5 than RCP 4.5. The spatial distribution of high-risk counties changed over time. Results suggest corn growth distribution should be changed or adaptation strategies employed like planting resistant varieties, irrigating and planting earlier. There were significantly more counties exceeding thresholds in 2010–2040 compared to 2000–2030 suggesting that adaptation strategies should be employed as soon as possible.
Jacklin Mary Anthony, Monika Asthana, Avnish Kumar
Published: 23 June 2021
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Karine Joubrane, Lydia Rabbaa Khabbaz, , Ali Ismail,
Published: 10 June 2021
Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, Volume 14, pp 227-235; https://doi.org/10.1080/19393210.2021.1933203

Abstract:
AFB1 and OTA are produced in food products due to climatic conditions like temperature and humidity. In Lebanon, few studies address AFB1 and OTA contamination in wheat and wheat products. In this study, a total of 312 samples of wheat and wheat products were collected from different sites, including port, silos, mills, and supermarkets were analysed. Wheat and wheat products consumption in Lebanon was quantified using a food frequency questionnaire. Exposure to AFB1 and OTA was calculated and liver and kidney cancer risk were evaluated. Results showed that AFB1 and OTA were, respectively, found in 65.7% and 100% of the samples, with 0.6% and 17.6% exceeding the maximum limit set by the European Commission. AFB1 was shown to be associated with 0.076 additional cancer cases per 100,000 persons per year and OTA weekly exposure was shown to be 53.2 ng/kg bw, which is less than the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of 100 ng/kg bw.
, , Phanice Wangila, , , Papias Nteziyaremye, Mark Peter Odero, Caroline Kiwanuka Nakiguli,
Published: 18 February 2021
Journal of Food Quality, Volume 2021, pp 1-31; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8899839

Abstract:
Aflatoxins are endemic in Kenya. The 2004 outbreak of acute aflatoxicosis in the country was one of the unprecedented epidemics of human aflatoxin poisoning recorded in mycotoxin history. In this study, an elaborate review was performed to synthesize Kenya’s major findings in relation to aflatoxins, their prevalence, detection, quantification, exposure assessment, prevention, and management in various matrices. Data retrieved indicate that the toxins are primarily biosynthesized by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, with the eastern part of the country reportedly more aflatoxin-prone. Aflatoxins have been reported in maize and maize products (Busaa, chan’gaa, githeri, irio, muthokoi, uji, and ugali), peanuts and its products, rice, cassava, sorghum, millet, yams, beers, dried fish, animal feeds, dairy and herbal products, and sometimes in tandem with other mycotoxins. The highest total aflatoxin concentration of 58,000 μg/kg has been reported in maize. At least 500 acute human illnesses and 200 deaths due to aflatoxins have been reported. The causes and prevalence of aflatoxins have been grossly ascribed to poor agronomic practices, low education levels, and inadequate statutory regulation and sensitization. Low diet diversity has aggravated exposure to aflatoxins in Kenya because maize as a dietetic staple is aflatoxin-prone. Detection and surveillance are only barely adequate, though some exposure assessments have been conducted. There is a need to widen diet diversity as a measure of reducing exposure due to consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated foods.
, M.E. Kimanya, I.J. Macha, N. Mlalila
Published: 3 February 2021
World Mycotoxin Journal, Volume 14, pp 27-40; https://doi.org/10.3920/wmj2020.2599

Abstract:
Aflatoxin producing fungi cause contamination of food and feed resulting in health hazards and economic loss. It is imperative to develop workable control measures throughout the food chain to prevent and reduce aflatoxin contamination. This is a critical review of contemporary published papers in the field. It is a review of reports from the original aflatoxin researches conducted on foods, from 2015-2020. Most of the reports show high aflatoxin contaminations in food at levels that exceed a regulatory limit of 20 μg/kg and 4 μg/kg set for foods for human consumption in the USA and European Union, respectively. The highest aflatoxin concentration (3,760 μg/kg) was observed in maize. Some of the strategies being deployed in aflatoxin control include application of biocontrol agents, specifically of Aflasafe™, development of resistant crop varieties, and application of other good agricultural practices. We recommend the adoption of emerging technologies such as combined methods technology (CMT) or hurdle technology, one health concept (OHC), improved regulations, on-line monitoring of aflatoxins, and creative art intervention (CAI) to prevent or restrict the growth of target aflatoxin causative fungi.
Patrick Onen, James Watmon, , Daniel Ocira
French-Ukrainian Journal of Chemistry, Volume 9, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.17721/fujcv9i1p1-8

Abstract:
Persuasive adverts and exaggeration of health benefits from consumption of herbal products as well as the mental picture of ‘natural’ is ‘safe’ has boosted traditional medicine use in Uganda. However, herbal products may be unsafe due to the possibility of their contamination with mycotoxins. In this study, we quantified the levels of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) in Real Koff product, Eddagala ly’e kifuba n’e senyiga, Omusujja, Cough mixture and Fever herbal products sold in Kampala, Uganda using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The associated consumption health risks were assessed using the hazard index method. Only aflatoxin B1 was detected in 60% of the samples, with 40% of these surpassing WHO guidelines of ≤ 5 µg/kg. The hazard indices were all less than 1, implying that Ugandans who heavily rely on the herbal products are exposed to aflatoxins at sublethal doses which may lead to chronic effects in the long run. Studies using a larger sample size should assess whether the current observation is a routine occurrence or a sporadic event.
Published: 12 November 2020
by MDPI
Veterinary sciences, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040176

Abstract:
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a well-known mycotoxin that can be found in the milk of animals that have ingested feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). In Italy, the development of donkey farms is mainly due to growing request of donkey milk, which is considered an incomparable substitute for human mother’s milk for its chemical composition and organoleptic characteristics. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of AFM1 in donkey milk produced in a farm in Northern Italy, also in view of the few data available about the presence of this mycotoxin in this type of milk. Therefore, 63 milk samples were collected and analyzed using a fast and sensitive HPLC and fluorescence detection (FLD) method previously optimized and validated. None of the milk samples collected were found to be contaminated at a level above the limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.0125 ng/mL), while only one sample showed traces of the mycotoxin at a concentration between the limit of detection (LOD) and LOQ (0.0044 ng/mL), well below the legal limit established for infant milk and follow-on milk (0.025 ng/mL). These results are in line with those of the few similar surveys carried out on donkey milk and seem to indicate a low risk of AFM1 contamination for this food.
Published: 5 November 2020
Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A, Volume 37, pp 2149-2164; https://doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2020.1815861

Abstract:
Some secondary metabolites produced by fungi are carcinogenic, hepatotoxic, and/or cause birth defects in humans and animals. We developed and optimised bio-analytical tools for detection of metabolites, aflatoxins and evaluated the effectiveness of the methods in co-infected maize tissues. Isolate KSM012 (atoxigenic) demonstrated no peaks and no blue fluorescence on HPLC and TLC plates respectively confirming non-toxicity. AFB1 and AFB2 were produced by Isolate KSM015 in addition to AFG1 and AFG2, which is an indication of possible SBG morphotype. The limits of quantification and detection ranged from 0.02 to 35.81 µg/mL and 0.01–6.8 µg/mL, respectively. The best mass spectrum with lowest noise was obtained at 100% ACN and sterile water spiked with 0.1% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The positive ion mode with electrospray ionisation application exhibited better fragmentation for mycotoxins. In total 17 metabolites were detected by targeted and formula mass. KDVI maize line exhibited high fungal colonisation in comparison to GAF4 at equal co-infection ratio 50:50. AFB1 and AFG2 were remarkably higher in GAF4 in comparison to sensitive KDV1 (p ˂ 0.05). The detection limits, linearity and sensitivity showed the method developed was suitable for the determination of mycotoxin in comparisons to the guidelines of European Commission 657/EC 2002.
, Omachoko Mark, Victor Ojogbane Onoja, Michael Awotunde, Taiwo Ojo, Precious Christopher, Hussaini Anthony Makun
Published: 30 September 2020
Journal: Food Control
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Oladipo Oladiti Olaniyi, Clement Olusola Ogidi, Bamidele Juliet Akinyele
Published: 21 September 2020
Journal: Toxin Reviews
Abstract:
This research is aimed at bio-detoxifying aflatoxins in artificially contaminated cereals using Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB). LAB isolates showed inhibitory activity against toxigenic A. flavus. The in vitro assay revealed noticeable decrease in the quantity of the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and B2 (AFB2) in contaminated millet and sorghum treated with monoculture and co-culture LAB, respectively. The hematological parameters of the rats fed with contaminated diets treated with LAB were higher than the group fed with commercial diet. The toxic effect of aflatoxins on the livers of albino rats fed was ameliorated by the treatment of contaminated cereals with LAB.
Saima Mushtaq, Yavuz Kürşad Daş, Abdurrahman Aksoy
Erciyes Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Dergisi; https://doi.org/10.32707/ercivet.760828

Abstract:
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) yemlerde ana kirletici olan Aspergillus türleri tarafından üretilen ve bütün türlerde belirli derecelerde zehirli olan bir mikotoksindir. Karaciğer karsinojeni olduğundan, son yıllarda ilgi odağı haline gelmiştir. AB1’in çeşitli yemlerden analizinde enzim bağlı immunosorbent assay (ELİSA), ince tabaka kromatografisi (İTK), yüksek performanslı sıvı kromatografi (HPLC), sıvı kromatografi tandem kütle spektrometrisi (LC- MS/MS) ve elektrokimyasal immünosensör (EKİ) gibi yöntemler kullanılmaktadır. Belirtilen yöntemlerin hepsinde örnek alma ve hazırlama, tespit, doğrulama ve risk değerlendirme aşamaları bulunur. HPLC yüksek doğruluk, kesinlik ve hassasiyetinden dolayı en yaygın kullanılan analiz yöntemidir. Türkiye dahil birçok ülke, 20. yy. sonundan beri, tüketiciyi zararlı etkilerinden korumak için gıda ve yem ile ilgili sektörlerde AFB1 için katı kural ve düzenlemeler yürürlüğe koymuştur. Bu makalede, yem ve yem hammadelerinde, örneklemeden risk değerlendirme aşamasına kadar, AFB1 analizinde kullanılan çeşitli yöntemler ve uluslarası düzenlemeler derlenmiştir.
, Solomon Omwoma, Dora A.O. Orony
Published: 3 June 2020
Abstract:
Cancer incidences and mortality in Kenya are increasing according to recent reports and now number among the top five causes of mortality in the country. The risk factors responsible for this increase in cancer incidences are assumed to be genetic and/or environmental in nature. The environmental factors include exposure to carcinogenic contaminants such aflatoxins (AFs). However, the exact causes of the increase in cancer incidences and prevalence in many developing countries are not fully known. Aflatoxins are known contaminants produced by the common fungi Aspergillus flavus and the closely related Aspergillus parasiticus which grow as moulds in human foods. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is most common in food and is 1000 times more potent when compared with benzo(a)pyrene, the most potent carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Aflatoxins have therefore drawn a lot of interest in research from food safety and human health point of view. In this chapter, the chemistry, synthesis, identification, toxicology and potential human health risks of AFB1 in Kenya are discussed.
Published: 3 June 2020
Abstract:
Aflatoxin contamination in feeds used by Bulawayo peri-urban farmers for dairy cows was assessed. Semi-intensive farming was the most common farming type practised by the farmers where the animal feeds were supplemented with mixed rations, concentrated feed, grass and brewers’ spent grains. Mixed ration was the most commonly used feed supplement. Feed analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed the presence of all four naturally occurring aflatoxins: aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. Total aflatoxin concentration in the feeds ranged from 0 to 250.9 μg/kg. Mixed ration had the highest average total aflatoxin concentration of 29.0 μg/kg, which is above the European Union (EU) standard adopted by Zimbabwe. AFB1, the most potent aflatoxin was the predominant aflatoxin across all feeds with an average concentration of 9.0 μg/kg and highest concentration of 149.6 μg/kg in a mixed ration sample which is also above the EU 5.0 μg/kg for lactating cows. Farm personnel responses to the questionnaire showed that most of them were not aware of aflatoxins. These findings call for stringent measures to be put in place with regard to aflatoxin testing in feeds for the dairy sector as well as educating the farmers on the importance of aflatoxin monitoring feed ingredients and livestock feeds.
Mohammad Bagher Sabeghi, , Mohammad Kazem Koohi, Nasser Karimi
Published: 28 May 2020
Separation Science Plus, Volume 3, pp 355-361; https://doi.org/10.1002/sscp.202000022

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ngozi N. Odu, Best Akwasiam, , Iheanyi O. Okonko
Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences, Volume 12, pp 315-323; https://doi.org/10.1007/s13530-020-00055-5

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Aruna Kasoju, Narlawar Sagar Shrikrishna, Deepshikha Shahdeo, , Amer M. Alanazi,
Published: 24 March 2020
Journal: RSC Advances
RSC Advances, Volume 10, pp 11843-11850; https://doi.org/10.1039/d0ra00062k

Abstract:
Contamination of milk by mycotoxins is a serious problem worldwide.
Published: 29 February 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Microorganisms
Abstract:
Chronic exposure of children in sub-Saharan Africa to aflatoxins has been associated with low birth weight, stunted growth, immune suppression, and liver function damage. Lactobacillus species have been shown to reduce aflatoxin contamination during the process of food fermentation. Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains were isolated from fecal samples obtained from a cohort of rural Ugandan children at the age of 54 to 60 months, typed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and characterized in terms of their ability to bind aflatoxin B1 in vitro. Evidence for chronic exposure of these children to aflatoxin B1 in the study area was obtained by analysis of local foods (maize flour and peanuts), followed by the identification of the breakdown product aflatoxin M1 in their urine samples. Surprisingly, Lactobacillus in the gut microbiota of 140 children from the same cohort at 24 and 36 months showed the highest positive correlation coefficient with stunting among all bacterial genera identified in the stool samples. This correlation was interpreted to be associated with dietary changes from breastfeeding to plant-based solid foods that pose an additional risk for aflatoxin contamination, on one hand, and lead to increased intake of Lactobacillus species on the other.
Published: 26 February 2020
by MDPI
Journal: Applied Sciences
Applied Sciences, Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10051578

Abstract:
Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. These fungal species are the most dangerous and common toxin group causing food contamination. Aflatoxin has high toxicity and can cause cancer to humans and animals. The quantitative detection of aflatoxin in food, therefore, plays a very important role. However, in practice, due to low concentrations, aflatoxin detection analysis methods need to be highly sensitive and simple to apply. In this report, the fluorescence resonance energy transfer method (FRET) adopts the donor–acceptor interaction of aflatoxin B1. The CdSe/ZnS quantum dot detection of aflatoxin B1 will be presented wherein the aflatoxin B1 concentration can be determined from the changes in fluorescence lifetime or fluorescence intensity. A fluorescence lifetime calibration curve versus aflatoxin B1 concentrations was established. Test results of aflatoxin B1 determination in maize in Vietnam by FRET method are consistent with the results of aflatoxin B1 determination by HPLC based on ppm concentration.
Maryam Mousivand, , , Nadia Barbero, Amir Mirzadi-Gohari,
Published: 24 January 2020
Analytica chimica acta, Volume 1105, pp 178-186; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2020.01.045

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Winfred Nassazi, Tom Omute, Aburu Awath, Fortunate Laker, Raymond Kalukusu, Bashir Musau, Brenda Victoria Nakabuye, , George Otim, et al.
Published: 8 January 2020
International Journal of Microbiology, Volume 2020, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/4723612

Abstract:
Uganda is an agrarian country where farming employs more than 60% of the population. Aflatoxins remain a scourge in the country, unprecedentedly reducing the nutritional and economic value of agricultural foods. This review was sought to synthetize the country’s major findings in relation to the mycotoxins’ etiology, epidemiology, detection, quantification, exposure assessment, control, and reduction in different matrices. Electronic results indicate that aflatoxins in Uganda are produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus and have been reported in maize, sorghum, sesame, beans, sunflower, millet, peanuts, and cassava. The causes and proliferation of aflatoxigenic contamination of Ugandan foods have been largely due to poor pre-, peri-, and postharvest activities, poor government legislation, lack of awareness, and low levels of education among farmers, entrepreneurs, and consumers on this plague. Little diet diversity has exacerbated the risk of exposure to aflatoxins in Uganda because most of the staple foods are aflatoxin-prone. On the detection and control, these are still marginal, though some devoted scholars have devised and validated a sensitive portable device for on-site aflatoxin detection in maize and shown that starter cultures used for making some cereal-based beverages have the potential to bind aflatoxins. More efforts should be geared towards awareness creation and vaccination against hepatitis B and hepatitis A to reduce the risk of development of liver cancer among the populace.
, , Karine Joubrane, Lydia Rabbaa Khabbaz, Richard Maroun, Ali Ismail,
Published: 13 December 2019
Journal: Food Control
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, James Ombaka, Christopher Peyton Dick, Christian Strickland, Lili Tang, Kathy Siyu Xue,
Published: 27 November 2019
Food Additives & Contaminants: Part B, Volume 13, pp 45-51; https://doi.org/10.1080/19393210.2019.1690053

Abstract:
The objective of this study is to determine the occurrence and level of aflatoxins (AFs) contamination in freshly harvested maize for human consumption in rural Kenya. Maize kernels and freshly milled maize flour (n = 338) were collected from households in Siaya and Makueni counties. While both counties are representatives of different environmental and climate conditions, Makueni County is the area with reported outbreaks of aflatoxicosis. Samples were analysed for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 using Ultra High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence detection. AFs were detected in 100% of the samples with the range of 2.14–411 µg/kg. The geometric mean of total AFs in all samples from Makueni County is 62.5 μg/kg with 95% CI: 53.7, 71.4 while in Siaya County is 52.8 μg/kg with 95% CI: 44.0, 61.7. This study showed that AFs contamination is prevalent in maize-based foods in the region.
Somayeh Mousavi Nodoushan, , Reza Kachuei, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
Published: 30 October 2019
Analytical Methods, Volume 11, pp 6033-6042; https://doi.org/10.1039/c9ay01673b

Abstract:
An electrochemical aptasensor was developed for the detection of aflatoxin B1 using a nanocomposite of graphene oxide and gold nanowires.
Published: 16 October 2019
by MDPI
Journal: Toxins
Abstract:
Clays are known to have promising adsorbing characteristics, and are used as feed additives to overcome the negative effects of mycotoxicosis in livestock farming. Modification of clay minerals by heat treatment, also called calcination, can alter their adsorption characteristics. Little information, however, is available on the effect of calcination with respect to mycotoxin binding. The purpose of this study was to characterize a Tunisian clay before and after calcination (at 550 °C), and to investigate the effectiveness of the thermal treatment of this clay on its aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), G1 (AFG1), B2 (AFB2), G2 (AFG2), and zearalenone (ZEN) adsorption capacity. Firstly, the purified clay (CP) and calcined clay (CC) were characterized with X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-IR), cation exchange capacity (CEC), specific surface area (SBET), and point of zero charge (pHPZC) measurements. Secondly, an in vitro model that simulated the pH conditions of the monogastric gastrointestinal tract was used to evaluate the binding efficiency of the tested clays when artificially mixed with aflatoxins and zearalenone. The tested clay consisted mainly of smectite and illite. Purified and calcined clay had similar chemical compositions. After heat treatment, however, some changes in the mineralogical and textural properties were observed. The calcination decreased the cation exchange capacity and the specific surface, whereas the pore size was increased. Both purified and calcined clay had a binding efficacy of over 90% for AFB1 under simulated poultry GI tract conditions. Heat treatment of the clay increased the adsorption of AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 related to the increase in pore size of the clay by the calcination process. ZEN adsorption also increased by calcination, albeit to a more stable level at pH 3 rather than at pH 7. In conclusion, calcination of clay minerals enhanced the adsorption of aflatoxins and mostly of AFG1 and AFG2 at neutral pH of the gastrointestinal tract, and thus are associated with protection against the toxic effects of aflatoxins.
Shraddha Rahi, Priyanka Choudhari, Vandana Ghormade
Published: 13 October 2019
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Page of 2
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top