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(searched for: doi:10.5171/2014.402780)
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Sandra Milena Cano Ibarra, Gloria Lastre Amell, María Alejandra Oróstegui Santander
Published: 13 March 2019
Revista Med, Volume 26, pp 64-71; doi:10.18359/rmed.3984

Abstract:
Introducción: la diabetes mellitus tipo 1 es una enfermedad crónica que, una vez diagnósticada, genera cambios en el estilo de vida del paciente. Para lograr un tratamiento óptimo y evitar complicaciones posteriores, como lipohipertrofia por el aumento en el uso de la insulina, es de vital importancia que se brinde a los pacientes y el personal médico una adecuada educación, para que adquieran conocimientos y habilidades en la aplicación de la inyección de insulina. La lipohipertrofia se presenta por acumulación de grasa subcutánea en el sitio donde se inyecta constantemente la insulina. Objetivo: describir la lipohipertrofia en pacientes con diabetes mellitus, los conocimientos y educación que debe adquirir con respecto al tema. Metodología: se realizó una revisión de literatura en las bases de datos SciELO, Ovid, Medline, PubMed, ScienceDirect y Elsevier, que permitió identificar 71 artículos, de los cuales 50 cumplían con los criterios y pertinencia de la búsqueda. Resultados: se seleccionó la información más completa y pertinente de las bases de datos, respecto a la lipohipertrofia, conocimiento, educación y tratamiento con insulina en la diabetes Mellitus. Conclusión: esta revisión permitió determinar que la lipohipertrofia, una complicación secundaria del tratamiento con insulina en la diabetes Mellitus; se origina en factores tales como la técnica de aplicación y rotación inadecuadas de los puntos de inyección, el escaso conocimiento de los pacientes acerca del tratamiento y la falta de educación del personal sanitario con respecto al uso de las técnicas de aplicación de la insulina.
Anjana Barola, Pramil Tiwari, , Sandeep Grover, Devi Dayal
Published: 30 October 2018
Frontiers in Endocrinology, Volume 9; doi:10.3389/fendo.2018.00638

Abstract:
Lipohypertrophy has been suggested as an outcome of lipogenic action of insulin and/or injection-related tissue trauma. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated the predictors of lipohypertrophy in 372 type 1 diabetes patients (mean age 17.1 years) receiving subcutaneous insulin with pen and/or syringes for ≥3 months. On examining injection sites with inspection and palpation technique, 62.1% patients demonstrated lipohypertrophy. Univariate analysis showed that gender, BMI, HbA1c, injection device, rotation, injection area, needle length, insulin regimen, and total daily dose of insulin were associated with lipohypertrophy (p < 0.05). Notably, the mean needle reuse was comparable in patients with or without lipohypertrophy (8.1 vs. 7.2, p = 0.534). In multivariate logistic regression, gender, HbA1c, TDD, injection devices, and needle length lost its significance. Further, injections over smaller area (≤8.5 × 5.5 cm) and non-rotation of sites were found to be strongest independent predictor of lipohypertrophy (p < 0.0005 for both) with increased odds of 23.2 (95% CI 9.1–59.2) and 6.3 (95% CI 3.4–11.9) times, respectively. Being underweight was also a significant independent predictor (odds ratio [OR] 13.0 [95% CI 2.2–75.2], p = 0.004). Compared to rapid plus long-acting analogs, regular insulin plus long-acting analogs and conventional premixed insulin users had 3.2 (95% CI 1.5–6.8, p = 0.003) and 4.6 (95% CI 1.4–15.7, p = 0.014) fold higher risk of lipohypertrophy (mean injection frequency 4.01 vs. 4.01 vs. 2.09, respectively). Sub-group analysis showed that lipohypertrophy was 79% less likely in patients with multiple daily injections (≥4) than twice-daily regimen (OR 0.21, p < 0.0005). Moreover, lipohypertrophy was reduced to half with bolus doses of rapid-acting insulin analogs than regular insulin (p = 0.003), even though mean injection frequency was comparable (4.01 vs. 3.93, p = 0.229). This difference was statistically insignificant for basal doses with NPH or long-acting analogs (p = 0.069). Therefore, injection area, rotation, BMI, and insulin regimen are the best predictors of lipohypertrophy and together could correctly identify lipohypertrophy status in 84.4% patients with excellent discrimination capability (AUC = 0.906, p < 0.0005). In conclusion, findings of our study suggest that delivering rapidly absorbed insulin analogs over large injection area along with greater split of total daily doses reduce insulin-induced lipogenesis and outplay tissue trauma added through frequent injections and needle reuse.
, AMD-OSDI Italian Injection Technique Study Group, , , ,
SpringerPlus, Volume 5, pp 1-7; doi:10.1186/s40064-016-1978-y

Abstract:
Lipohypertrophy (LH) is a major complication of subcutaneous insulin treatment brought about by multiple overlapping injections and/or needle reuse. It is responsible for unacceptable glucose oscillations due to a high rate of hypoglycaemic episodes and rebound glucose spikes. Skin ultrasound scans (USS), the gold standard for its detection, is too expensive for screening purposes. To define a structured method allowing health professionals (HPs) to identify LH lesions as inexpensively and correctly as possible. Out of 129 insulin-treated people with diabetes identified by USS as having LH lesions, only 40 agreed to participate in the study (24 females, age 54 ± 15 years, daily insulin dosage 57 ± 12 IU). Each was blindly examined by four well trained and four non-trained HPs according to a standard method involving repeated well codified maneuvers. A specific training allowed inexperienced HPs to acquire high diagnostic accuracy in identifying LH lesions independent of site, size, shape, and even BMI. This kind of training also allowed to reach a 97 % consistency rate among HPs as compared to USS, while the lack of training was associated with a wide variability and inconsistency of identification results. Diabetes teams should follow systematically the simple procedure reported in this paper for the diagnosis of LH and try to get it further implemented and progressively refined in large scale studies. This would have a major impact on patient education in terms of (1) correct injection technique and (2) ability to identify lesions early enough to prevent poor metabolic outcome.
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