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(searched for: doi:10.1002/nvsm.1501)
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Public Performance & Management Review, Volume 43, pp 1209-1235; https://doi.org/10.1080/15309576.2020.1752267

Abstract:
When nonprofit organizations deliver services on behalf of the government, the government agency has the opportunity to select the optimal number of providers to maximize performance. Should more providers deliver services across smaller areas to increase local tailoring or should contracts be consolidated so fewer providers deliver services across larger areas to take advantage of economies of scale? This paper examines a series of contract consolidations aimed at improving the performance and reducing the costs of the Combined Federal Campaign (CFC), the Office of Personnel Management’s workplace giving program for federal employees, which is administered by contracts with nonprofit intermediaries. Using a difference-in-differences analysis based on waves of contract consolidations over time, I find that larger service areas typically had lower giving and costs on a per employee basis. The consolidation process itself tended to decrease average giving further but had no additional effect on costs. Combined, these effects yield no change in costs per dollar raised for larger or consolidated service areas; the benefits of contract consolidation were more modest than CFC administrators had hoped.
Kathryn Dilworth, Laura Sloop Henzl
Published: 1 January 2017
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, , Brittany L. Kienker
Published: 13 January 2015
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 45, pp 87-111; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764014565468

Abstract:
The phenomenon of workplace giving is underexamined in the scholarly literature; philanthropic gifts by employees to their nonprofit employers have received less attention within national and transnational contexts. This study considered the association between university staff propensity toward “internal workplace giving” and donor characteristics, drawing on literature about organizational commitment and identification as a beginning for advancing theoretical understanding of employee–employer relationships and giving at both the micro-level and meso-level. The sample of 17,038 employees covered 3 years at Indiana University, an American, public, multicampus institution. Despite its specific national and cultural context, the study raises relevant issues about workplace giving. Relational and personal characteristics were found to be significant predictors for determining who donates; using these characteristics to predict giving levels, however, was less successful. The study anticipates a growing need for related research and provides direction for further methodological and theoretical approaches.
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