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(searched for: doi:10.3183/npprj-2014-29-01-p105-118)
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, Poowadon Muenraya, Suthon Srivaro, Ananya Nawakitrangsan, Korntep Promsornpason
Published: 17 November 2021
RSC Advances, Volume 11, pp 37354-37365; https://doi.org/10.1039/d1ra07761a

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the drug release behavior from bacterial cellulose (BC).
M. M. Lazarenko, S. G. Nedilko, S. A. Alekseev, S. Yu. Tkachov, D. O. Shevtsov, V. P. Scherbatskyi, , K. S. Yablochkova, M. V. Ushcats, V. I. Kovalchuk, et al.
Published: 4 October 2021
Springer Proceedings in Physics pp 51-73; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-74800-5_4

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Yasir Faraz Abbasi, Parthasarathi Panda, Sanjay Arora, Buddhadev Layek, Hriday Bera
Tailor-Made and Functionalized Biopolymer Systems pp 1-31; https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-821437-4.00015-3

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Thu Thi Anh Do, Santiago Grijalvo, , María José Garcia-Celma, Carlos Rodríguez-Abreu
Published: 24 June 2021
Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 270; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118366

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Journal of Materials Chemistry B, Volume 9, pp 6163-6175; https://doi.org/10.1039/d1tb00624j

Abstract:
Dual crosslinked PEG-CNFs inks, designed via a two-step strategy based on ionic interaction and subsequent visible light photoreaction, can be used for 3D printing of bioscaffolds with tailored viscoelastic and mechanical properties.
, Fei Xu, Samaneh Toufanian, Katelyn J.W. Chan, Somiraa Said, Taylor C. Stimpson, Eduardo González-Martínez, , Emily D. Cranston,
Published: 2 May 2021
Acta Biomaterialia, Volume 128, pp 250-261; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2021.04.044

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Lizheng Sha, Chao Ma, Huifang Zhao, Supeng Qiu, Zhongyu Yan, Daliang Guo
Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal; https://doi.org/10.1515/npprj-2021-0010

Abstract:
Superhydrophobic surfaces have high potential in self-cleaning and oil-water separation applications. We developed a three-step method for the preparation of superhydrophobic filter paper. It involved citric acid (CA) pretreatment to activate cellulose fibers, coating with cellulose nanofibrils/functionalized silica (CNFs/m-SiO2) slurry to increase surface roughness, and grafting of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane (HDTMS) to enhance water resistance. The water contact angle (WCA) and siding angle (SA) of the prepared filter paper reached 151.5° and 7.5°, respectively. The results showed that, compared to the coated filter paper without the added CNFs, the coated paper with CNFs had higher retention of m-SiO2, thus roughness required for superhydrophobic surface was achieved. Further test under frequent abrasion and acid or alkali conditions showed that CA pretreatment improved the durability of superhydrophobic filter paper due to chemical crosslinking between the modified substrate and m-SiO2. Besides, the prepared superhydrophobic filter paper had outstanding self-cleaning property and high oil-water separation efficiency for various oil-water mixtures. Therefore, it is expected to be used for the treatment of oily wastewater.
Published: 24 March 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
Indomethacin (IM) is a small molecule active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) that exhibits polymorphism with the γ-form being the most thermodynamically stable form of the drug. The α-form is metastable, but it exhibits higher solubility, making it a more attractive form for drug delivery. As with other metastable polymorphs, α-IM undergoes interconversion to the stable form when subjected to certain stimuli, such as solvent, heat, pH, or exposure to seed crystals of the stable form. In this study, IM was crystallized into cellulose nanocrystal aerogel scaffolds as a mixture of the two polymorphic forms, α-IM and γ-IM. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Raman spectroscopy were used to quantitatively determine the amount of each form. Our investigation found that the metastable α-IM could be stabilized within the aerogel without phase transformation, even in the presence of external stimuli, including heat and γ-IM seed crystals. Because interconversion is often a concern during production of metastable forms of APIs, this approach has important implications in being able to produce and stabilize metastable drug forms. While IM was used as a model drug in this study, this approach could be expanded to additional drugs and provide access to other metastable API forms.
Yu-Ju Lin, Zijin Qin, Chad M. Paton, Douglas M. Fox,
Published: 24 March 2021
Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 263; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.117984

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, Kebede Wondu, Jemal Dilebo
Published: 9 February 2021
Abstract:
Cellulose fibers (C40 and C80) were extracted from khat (Catha edulis) waste (KW) with chlorine-free process using 40% formic acid/40% acetic acid (C40), and 80% formic acid/80% acetic acid (C80) at the pretreatment stage, followed by further delignification and bleaching stages. Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs40 and CNCs80) were then isolated from C40 and C80 with sulfuric acid hydrolysis, respectively. Thus, the current study aims to isolate cellulose fibers and CNCs from KW as alternative source. The KW, cellulose fibers, and CNCs were investigated for yield, chemical composition, functionality, crystallinity, morphology, and thermal stability. CNCs were also evaluated for colloidal stability, particle size, and their influence on in vitro diclofenac sodium release from gel formulations preliminarily. The FTIR spectra analysis showed the removal of most hemicellulose and lignin from the cellulose fibers. The XRD results indicated that chemical pretreatments and acid hydrolysis significantly increased the crystallinity of cellulose fibers and CNCs. The cellulose fibers and CNCs exhibited Cellulose Iβ crystalline lattice. TEM analysis revealed formation of needle-shaped nanoscale rods (length: 101.55–162.96 nm; aspect ratio: 12.84–22.73). The hydrodynamic size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential of the CNCS ranged from 222.8–362.8 nm; 0.297–0.461, and -45.7 to -75.3 mV, respectively. CNCs40 exhibited superior properties to CNCs80 in terms of aspect ratio, and colloidal and thermal stability. Gel formulations containing high proportion of CNCs sustained diclofenac sodium release (< 50%/cm2) over 12 h. This study suggests that cellulose fibers and nanocrystals can be successfully obtained from abundant and unexploited source, KW for value-added industrial applications.
Sanchita Mandal, Bappaditya Chatterjee, Buddhadev Layek
Biopolymer-Based Nanomaterials in Drug Delivery and Biomedical Applications pp 57-86; https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-12-820874-8.00003-8

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, Vinay Kumar, Alexey Khakalo, Panu Lahtinen, Katariina Solin, Jaakko Pere, Martti Toivakka
Published: 21 January 2021
Cellulose, Volume 28, pp 2087-2104; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-021-03688-y

Abstract:
High-consistency processing of fibrillated cellulose materials is attractive for commercial applications due to potential for lowered production costs, energy savings and easier logistics. The current work investigated structure–property relationships of fibrillated cellulose suspensions produced at 20% consistency using VTT HefCel (High-consistency enzymatic fibrillation of cellulose) technology. Morphological examination of the fibrillated materials revealed that enzymatic action on the cellulose substrates was not a direct function of enzyme dosage but rather was dependent on the raw material composition. Furthermore, shear viscosity of the HefCel suspensions was found to decrease with increasing enzyme dosage while the water retention increased. The shear viscosity followed power law relationship with the power law index varying in the range 0.11–0.73. The shear-thinning behavior decreased with increasing consistency. Moreover, suspension viscosity ( $$\upmu$$ μ ) was found to be highly dependent on the consistency ( $$\mathrm{c})$$ c ) as $$\upmu \sim {\mathrm{c}}^{\mathrm{m}}$$ μ ∼ c m , with $$\mathrm{m}$$ m ranging from 2.75 to 4.31 for different samples. Yield stress (τy) of the HefCel suspensions was measured at 7 and 10% consistencies. The performance of the fibrillated cellulose grades in a typical application was demonstrated by casting films, which were characterized for their mechanical properties. Graphic abstract
, Irna Zukeyt Garduño-Jaimes, Enrique Vigueras-Santiago, Julián Cruz-Olivares, Nelly González-Rivas, Osman Gencel
Materials Horizons: From Nature to Nanomaterials pp 135-150; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-15-9643-8_5

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Muhammad Hanif Sainorudin, Nur Athirah Abdullah, Mohd Saiful Asmal Rani, , Munirah Mahizan, Nursyazwani Shadan, , Zahira Yaakob, ,
Published: 1 January 2021
Nanotechnology Reviews, Volume 10, pp 793-806; https://doi.org/10.1515/ntrev-2021-0053

Abstract:
The present study focused on the preparation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) from pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) leaves using chemical treatments followed by acid hydrolysis. Pineapple leaves could be used in medical applications such as drug delivery carriers. Advanced spectroscopy techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to analyze the physical, chemical, and morphological features of the isolated MCC and NCC; the results indicated the needle-shaped form of nanostructures with good purity and high crystallinity index of 75.00 and 76.38%, respectively. In addition, inhibition of the treated MRC-5 cells with all the samples revealed that the percentage of cell viability was less than 30%, which is an interesting finding given their role in the cytotoxicity effect of MCC and NCC. It appears that MCC and NCC derived from pineapple leaves have lower toxicity. As a result, the developed MCC and NCC can be used in pharmaceutical applications as a novel drug delivery system. Molecular docking was performed to understand the non-bonding interaction of cellulose with human acid-beta-glucosidase (β-Glc) (PDB: 1OGS). The docking result shows that cellulose unit docked within the active pocket of the enzyme by forming hydrogen bonds against ASN19, THR21, and VAL17 with distances of 2.18, 1.93, and 2.92 Å, respectively, with binding energy (−5.0 kcal/mol) resulting in close interaction of cellulose unit with the receptor.
Published: 21 November 2020
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225270

Abstract:
Hydrogels, three-dimensional (3D) polymer networks, present unique properties, like biocompatibility, biodegradability, tunable mechanical properties, sensitivity to various stimuli, the capacity to encapsulate different therapeutic agents, and the ability of controlled release of the drugs. All these characteristics make hydrogels important candidates for diverse biomedical applications, one of them being drug delivery. The recent achievements of hydrogels as safe transport systems, with desired therapeutic effects and with minimum side effects, brought outstanding improvements in this area. Moreover, results from the utilization of hydrogels as target therapy strategies obtained in clinical trials are very encouraging for future applications. In this regard, the review summarizes the general concepts related to the types of hydrogel delivery systems, their properties, the main release mechanisms, and the administration pathways at different levels (oral, dermal, ocular, nasal, gastrointestinal tract, vaginal, and cancer therapy). After a general presentation, the review is focused on recent advances in the design, preparation and applications of innovative cellulose-based hydrogels in controlled drug delivery.
Wing Ching Bianca Lai, Xi Chen, Marco Kai Yuen Ho, Jiang Xia,
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 589; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.119833

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 20 August 2020
by MDPI
Abstract:
Although dissolving microneedles have garnered considerable attention as transdermal delivery tools, insufficient drug loading remains a challenge owing to their small dimension. Herein, we report a one-step process of synthesizing semi-dissolving microneedle (SDMN) patches that enable effective transdermal drug delivery without loading drugs themselves by introducing TEMPO-oxidized bacterial cellulose nanofibers (TOBCNs), which are well dispersed, while retaining their unique properties in the aqueous phase. The SDMN patch fabricated by the micro-molding of a TOBCN/hydrophilic biopolymer mixture had a two-layer structure comprising a water-soluble needle layer and a TOBCN-containing insoluble backing layer. Moreover, the SDMN patch, which had a hole in the backing layer where TOBCNs are distributed uniformly, could offer novel advantages for the delivery of large quantities of active ingredients. In vitro permeation analysis confirmed that TOBCNs with high water absorption capacity could serve as drug reservoirs. Upon SDMN insertion and the application of drug aqueous solution through the drug inlet hole, the TOBCNs rapidly absorbed the solution and supplied it to the needle layer. Simultaneously, the needle layer dissolved in body fluids and the drug solution to form micro-channels, which enabled the delivery of larger quantities of drugs to the skin compared to that enabled by solution application alone.
Rafael Pires-Oliveira, Marta Simão Kfouri, , Poliana Cardoso-Gustavson
Published: 7 July 2020
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 16 June 2020
by MDPI
Processes, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8060698

Abstract:
Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) are attractive for use in polymer composites, biomedical applications, and barrier packaging. In all of these applications they are mixed with other components and compatibility is a major design consideration, as CNCs naturally have a high density of surface hydroxyl groups and primarily disperse well in polar media. Numerous surface modification approaches have been used to address these issues, but challenges remain due to the variability in the commercially available CNC materials. CNCs can be produced from biomass using several extraction methods, most notably acid hydrolysis and biomass extraction, also known as the American Value Added Pulping process. The production method of the CNC material has an impact on both physical and surface properties of CNCs, including size, shape, crystal structure, and zeta potential. In addition, post-treatments can be used to purify the CNC material and further alter these properties. This work studies the properties of CNCs from three different commercial suppliers and after conducting three different post-treatments: dialysis, Soxhlet extraction, and acetone washing to understand the effect of the commercial source and purification on CNC surface properties and modification via 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO) mediated oxidation. We show that there is significant variation in CNC physical and surface properties between different commercial suppliers before and after purification. Importantly, we show that for CNCs produced through acid hydrolysis, acetone washing or Soxhlet extraction in ethanol decreases the achievable degree of TEMPO modification, but makes it more consistent between the different commercial suppliers. This has important implications for improving reproducibility in CNC research as well as aiding the expanding fields of applications.
Shixiong Yi, Sheng Sun, , Yushan Zou, Fangyin Dai,
Published: 18 April 2020
Cellulose, Volume 27, pp 5285-5296; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-020-03168-9

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Akshay Kumar, Hippolyte Durand, Elisa Zeno, Cyril Balsollier, Bastien Watbled, Cecile Sillard, , Isabelle Baussanne, , , et al.
Chemical Science, Volume 11, pp 3868-3877; https://doi.org/10.1039/c9sc06312a

Abstract:
DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR unravels the surface chemistry of functionalized nanocellulose.
Zahra J. Gallagher, Sara Fleetwood, Terence L. Kirley, Maureen A. Shaw, Eric S. Mullins, ,
Biomacromolecules, Volume 21, pp 1103-1111; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.9b01460

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Vania Bundjaja, Tirta Mutiara Sari, Felycia Edi Soetaredjo, , , , Kuan-Chen Cheng,
Published: 7 January 2020
Journal of Molecular Liquids, Volume 301; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2019.112433

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Hai Van Ho, Preeti Makkar, Andrew R Padalhin, Thao Thi Thanh Le, Sun Young Lee, Gwon Jaegyoung,
Journal of Biomaterials Applications, Volume 34, pp 942-951; https://doi.org/10.1177/0885328219883478

Abstract:
Nanocellulose has recently attracted a great deal of attention for numerous biomedical applications due to its superior mechanical properties, high surface area, tailorable surface chemistry, good biocompatibility, renewable nature, and cost-effectiveness. The objective of this study was to investigate the long-term in vivo biocompatibility of three kinds of nanocellulose, namely, cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), cellulose nanofiber (CNF), and TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofiber (TOCNF). The morphological features of these nanocellulose materials were examined by transmission electron microscopy. In vivo biocompatibility of all nanocellulose materials was investigated using a subcutaneous rat model for 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks of implantation. The average diameters of prepared homogenous CNC, CNF, and TOCNF were ∼6 nm, ∼8 nm, and ∼5 nm respectively, as depicted by micrographs obtained by using transmission electron microscopy. TOCNF showed highest in vitro biocompatibility with respect to CNC and CNF in response to L929 fibroblast cells. In vivo studies revealed that all nanocellulose materials exhibited no foreign body reaction up to two-week post-injection. Subcutaneous implantation at 12 weeks showed lowest inflammation and better tissue repair for TOCNF compared to CNC and CNF. The results suggest that the long-term biocompatibility profile follows the sequence: TOCNF > CNC > CNF.
Harsh Yadav, Chandrabose Karthikeyan
Polysaccharide Carriers for Drug Delivery pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-102553-6.00001-5

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Karen De Souza Do Prado, Danielle Gonzales,
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Volume 136, pp 729-737; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.06.124

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 6 May 2019
by MDPI
Abstract:
Due to the high specific surface area, high mechanical strength and broad possibility of surface modification, nanocellulose has obtained much attention as a new class of bio-based nanomaterials with promising potential in a wide variety of applications. Recently, a considerable amount of research has been aimed to the fabrication of nanocellulose based hybrid membranes for water treatment. However, nanocellulose based hybrid gas separation membrane is still a new research area. Herein, we force on recent advancements in the fabrication methods and separation performances of nanocellulose-based hybrid membranes for CO2 separation, the transport mechanisms involved, along with the challenges in the utilization of nanocellulose in membranes. Finally, some perspectives on future R&D of nanocellulose-based membranes for CO2 separation are proposed.
Lev Lewis, , Wadood Y. Hamad,
ACS Macro Letters, Volume 8, pp 486-491; https://doi.org/10.1021/acsmacrolett.9b00140

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Chiara Piotto,
Published: 3 April 2019
Cellulose, Volume 26, pp 4579-4587; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-019-02407-y

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Published: 4 March 2019
by MDPI
Abstract:
TEMPO oxidation was conducted as a pretreatment to achieve efficient nanofibrillation of long paper mulberry bast fibers (PMBFs). The pH dependency of nanofibrillation efficiency and the characteristics of the resulting cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were investigated. As the pH increased, the negative value of the zeta potential of TEMPO-oxidized fibers increased. The increase in electrostatic repulsion at pH values of greater than 9 prevented the entanglement of long PMBFs, which was a drawback for defibrillation at acidic pH. With increasing pH, the CNF production yield was increased. The crystallinity index of TEMPO-oxidized CNFs from PMBFs was 83.5%, which was higher than that of TEMPO-oxidized CNFs from softwood fibers in the same conditions. The tensile strength of nanopaper from TEMPO-oxidized PMBF CNFs was 110.18 MPa, which was approximately 30% higher than that (84.19 MPa) of the TEMPO-oxidized CNFs from softwood fibers.
Published: 31 January 2019
by MDPI
Materials, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030430

Abstract:
In this article, we introduce for the first time, a method to manufacture cellulose based electrically conductive non-woven three-dimensional (3D) structures using the foam forming technology. The manufacturing is carried out using a minimum amount of processing steps, materials, and hazardous chemicals. The optimized solution applies a single surfactant type and a single predefined portion for the two main processing steps: (1) the dispersing of nanocellulose (NC) and carbon nanotubes (CNT) and (2) the foam forming process. The final material system has a concentration of the used surfactant that is not only sufficient to form a stable and homogeneous nanoparticle dispersion, but it also results in stable foam in foam forming. In this way, the advantages of the foam forming process can be maximized for this application. The cellulose based composite material has a highly even distribution of CNTs over the NC network, resulting a conductivity level of 7.7 S/m, which increased to the value 8.0 S/m after surfactant removal by acetone washing. Also, the applicability and a design product case ‘Salmiakki’ were studied where the advantages of the material system were validated for a heating element application.
, Ibrahim H. Mondal, Sazzad H. Somoal, M. Nahid Pervez
Polymers and Polymeric Composites: A Reference Series pp 909-949; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-77830-3_63

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V. Tan, W. Abdallah,
International Polymer Processing, Volume 33, pp 371-380; https://doi.org/10.3139/217.3559

Abstract:
Highly porous agglomerates of spray freeze dried cellulose nanocrystals (SFD-CNC) were prepared, starting with sonicated aqueous suspensions of spray-dried cellulose nanocrystals powder (SD-CNC). Subsequently, SFD-CNC together with the SD-CNC (used as a reference) were incorporated into LLDPE and HDPE via melt compounding in a batch mixer to produce nanocomposites containing 0.5 wt.° and 2 wt.° CNC. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the thermal properties and the isothermal crystallization kinetics of the polyethylenes and the nanocomposites. Polarized light microscopy (PLM) was used to evaluate the growth kinetics and spherulitic structure of polyethylene in both the filled and unfilled polymers. Avrami crystallization kinetics models were employed to analyze the DSC results. It was observed that CNC acts as a heterogeneous nucleating agent in LLDPE nanocomposites, thus yielding nucleation controlled crystallization. On the other hand, in the HDPE systems (polymer and nanocomposites) heterogeneous nucleation was followed by 3-D growth. It was observed that CNC slightly hindered the formation of chain folding for the HDPE, similar to previous studies on the polypropylene and its nanocomposites. Spray freeze drying produced twice as many nucleation sites compared to spray dried samples and it enhanced the overall crystallization rate and the crystallinity.
, Juliana S. Bernardes, , Amauri J. Paula,
Published: 1 February 2018
Carbohydrate Polymers, Volume 181, pp 514-527; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2017.12.014

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Vinay Kumar, Douglas Bousfield,
Published: 1 February 2018
by TAPPI
September 2021, Volume 17, pp 11-19; https://doi.org/10.32964/tj17.01.11

Abstract:
Constantly growing interest in nanocellulose usage and applications is pushing the scientific community to search for suitable production and processing techniques. One example is use of nanocellulose as a barrier material in packaging applications, which requires processing of nanocellulose into films and coatings. It is challenging to coat nanocellulose suspensions using conventional pigment coating techniques due to their yield stress behavior and very high viscosity, even at low solids concentration. This work demonstrates a novel roll-to-roll coating method of nanocellulose on paperboard using slot die geometry. The rheology of nanocellulose suspensions in pressure-driven flow is found to play a critical role in enabling their coating using the said process. In this work, the slot die is used in an unconventional manner where the shearing and metering elements are combined to aid wet film formation and application of nanocellulose suspension onto the paperboard. Barrier performance of the nanocellulose coated paperboards against air, water, heptane vapor, grease, and oils was found to be reasonable and warrants further research on the subject.
M.A. Usmani, , U. Gazal, M.K. Mohamad Haafiz, A.H. Bhat
Polymer-based Nanocomposites for Energy and Environmental Applications pp 441-463; https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-102262-7.00016-7

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Maria Morits, Ville Hynninen, , Antoine Niederberger, , ,
Published: 24 November 2017
Polymer Chemistry, Volume 9, pp 1650-1657; https://doi.org/10.1039/c7py01814b

Abstract:
Precisely grafted polymer brushes on cellulose nanocrystals guide the formation of silica and yield uniform CNC-based hybrid nanomaterials which are subsequently used in the fabrication of hollow and highly porous silica nanorods.
, Juanjuan Li, Yunyun Wang, ,
Journal of Materials Chemistry B, Volume 5, pp 7876-7884; https://doi.org/10.1039/c7tb01857f

Abstract:
Nanocellulose materials have undergone rapid development in recent years as promising biomedical materials due to their excellent physical and biological properties, in particular their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low cytotoxicity.
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