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(searched for: doi:10.1001/jamaoto.2013.672)
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Asmaa Fady Sharif, Dina El Gameel El Gameel, Sanaa Abd El-Fatah Abdo, Elsayed Ibrahim Elgebally,
Environmental Science and Pollution Research pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15988-8

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Sahar Eftekharzadeh, Aram Akbarzadeh, Nastaran Sabetkish, Minoo Rostami, Amir Hossein Zabolian, Javad Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Tavangar,
Published: 19 August 2021
Cell and Tissue Banking pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10561-021-09944-6

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, , , , Hamidreza Foroutan, Sepehr Shahriarirad, , Seyed Mohsen Dehghani,
Journal of 3D Printing in Medicine, Volume 5, pp 11-21; https://doi.org/10.2217/3dp-2020-0023

Abstract:
Aim: This study aimed to introduce a 3D printed, flexible esophageal stent, which is useful in personalized treatment of patients with esophageal strictures and also reduce the adverse effects of the existing esophageal stent. Materials & methods: Bio-grade polylactic acid (PLA), bio-grade transparent thermoplastic polyurethane and bio-grade polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) granules were purchased. The dichloromethane (DCM) and dimethylformamide (DMF), and the double distilled water were used as the solvent for PLA, thermoplastic polyurethane and PVA, respectively. The stent was designed by Solidworks software and subsequently printed by a 3D bioprinter (Mobio Tech V1.2). The biocompatibility, self-expansion, anti-inflammation and cytotoxicity of the printed stent were assessed in an in vitro and in vivo normal canine esophagus. An individualized 3D-printed flexible polymer stent was also implemented for a 16-year-old boy who presented with esophageal stricture following ingestion of corrosive chemicals. The patient was followed for 2 months with further endoscopic and pathology evaluations. Results: Several tests were performed before and after the stent placement. Mechanical tests showed that the nature and behavior of the polymeric materials used in the esophagus stent did not change significantly along treatment. Pathology results further indicated that the polymer stent did not have major inflammatory effects and cytotoxicity. Conclusion: The results show that the individualized 3D printed Biocompatible polymeric stent has potential applications in treating esophageal strictures.
The American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 39, pp 65-70; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.01.016

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, Michele M. Burns, Sophie Gosselin
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 382, pp 1739-1748; https://doi.org/10.1056/nejmra1810769

Abstract:
Review Article from The New England Journal of Medicine — Ingestion of Caustic Substances
Giovanni Di Nardo, Pietro Betalli, Maria Teresa Illiceto, Giannotti Giulia, Luigi Martemucci, Flora Caruso, Gabriele Lisi, Giusy Romano, Maria Pia Villa, Chiara Ziparo, et al.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Volume 71, pp 19-22; https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0000000000002685

Abstract:
Objectives: Despite the efforts to reduce the exposure to corrosive household products, caustic ingestion in children is currently a significant medical problem. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the clinical consequences of caustic ingestion and to identify prognostic factors that could concur in driving both diagnostic and therapeutic management. Methods: All consecutive children referred for ingestion of a caustic substance from June 2017 to June 2018 were enrolled. Medical records, laboratory and endoscopic findings were reviewed and analyzed. Results: We enrolled 44 children with caustic ingestion. Alkaline agents were ingested by 26 of 44 (59.1%) patients, whereas acid agents were ingested by 18 of 44 patients (40.9%). Alkaline rather than acid agents were associated with a worse endoscopic score (r: 0.45) and a higher probability of early esophageal stricture occurrence (r: 0.38). The specific risk of the presence of severe esophageal lesions rose progressively with increasing number of symptoms whereas no esophageal injury was found in asymptomatic patients. Conclusions: Our data suggest that endoscopic evaluation is mandatory in symptomatic patients to direct therapeutic management, but it could be avoided in asymptomatic patients after accidental ingestion, particularly if the ingestion is only suspected and patients have no oropharyngeal burns.
, Denise Jacquemin, Danièlle Henny, Laurence Mathieu, Patrice Josset, Bernard Meyer
Published: 14 September 2019
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, Volume 49, pp 637-669; https://doi.org/10.1080/10408444.2019.1707773

Abstract:
Corrosive chemical substance ingestions are a major problem, especially in developing countries, but also in developed countries such as the United States, France, and Belgium. Ingestions may be deliberate as suicide attempts (mostly in adolescents and adults) or accidental (mostly in children). The results can be devastating in terms of individual suffering and disability, but also in terms of resource utilization and costs. In developing countries, outcomes may be worse because of limited medical/surgical resources. Common sequelae include gastrointestinal (GI) tract (esophagus, stomach, pylorus, and duodenum) stricture formation, GI tract perforation, and hemorrhage. Systemic effects may also occur, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), multi-organ system failure, and sepsis. Various interventions in the acute phase to reduce the severity of injury have been attempted, but there are no large controlled clinical trials to demonstrate efficacy. Dilation therapy in various forms is commonly used for the treatment of strictures and a variety of surgical procedures including esophagectomy and delayed replacement may be required in severe corrosive injury cases.
, Farrokh Taftachi, Leila Abdolkarimi,
Published: 31 October 2018
Medico-Legal Journal, Volume 87, pp 21-23; https://doi.org/10.1177/0025817218796918

Abstract:
Most injuries from caustics ingestion occur due to parental negligence, but other causes such as psychological tendency or childish jealousy or behaviour may be the major cause for harming. Here, we describe a case of injury in a neonate who ingested a caustic substance, probably induced by his brother, but not as a consequence of the negligence of his parents. The mother said she had fed the child toilet bleach instead of water and was very concerned about the child's condition. However, when the baby's older brother was interviewed he did not show concern and was very confused and provided contradictory responses about his knowledge of the poisoning. Later, it was revealed that the baby's brother had prepared the milk and knew what was in it. In our case, damage by caustics ingestion may have been intentional due to psychological problems in parents causing child abuse or in other children due to childish jealousy.
A. Abbas, T. S. Brar, A. Zori, D. S. Estores
Diseases of the Esophagus, Volume 30, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1093/dote/dox010

Abstract:
Caustic substance ingestion (CSI) is a serious medical problem with potentially devastating short- and long-term consequences. Early upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (EaEn) is recommended to evaluate the extent of injury and guide management but there has been controversy about the timing. There is no nationwide study evaluating adherence to EaEn and outcomes following CSI.Nationwide Inpatient Sample database 2003-2011 was used to identify all-age, nonreferral, urgent/emergent admissions with E-International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes for CSI. We evaluated the association of undergoing late endoscopy (LaEn, >48 hours since admission) with poor clinical (death or systemic complications) and economic (cost for admission and length of stay above the 75th percentile) outcomes after controlling for other demographic and clinical factors using a multivariate analysis.We identified 21,682 patients with a median age of 37 years, 51% males, 43% Caucasians, with suicidal ingestion reported in 40%. Endoscopy was performed in 6011 patients (37%). The majority had EaEn (43% within 24, and 40% within 24-48 hours), whereas 17% had LaEn.Compared to EaEn group, the LaEn group was associated with a three-fold increase (OR = 2.7, P < 0.001) in the risk for poor clinical outcome: a fourfold increase (OR = 4.6, P < 0.001) in high cost admissions, and a fivefold increase (OR = 4.9, P < 0.001) in prolonged hospitalization. There was no significant difference in clinical outcomes based on endoscopy within 24, and 24-48 hours of admission.In this retrospective nationwide database analysis, undergoing LaEn was associated with both negative clinical and economic outcomes. More studies are needed to further examine the reasons for delaying endoscopy and subsequent management pathways based on the endoscopic findings. Early endoscopic evaluation could potentially improve the clinical outcomes and reduce costs of these admissions.
Published: 3 May 2017
Pediatric and Neonatal Surgery; https://doi.org/10.5772/67526

Abstract:
Caustic Ingestion | InTechOpen, Published on: 2017-05-03. Authors: Abdulkerim Temiz
Andon Chibishev, , Liljana Tozija, Milka Zdravkovska, Emilija Shikole
The International Journal of Artificial Organs, Volume 40, pp 219-223; https://doi.org/10.5301/ijao.5000588

Abstract:
Introduction The aim of this study is to show the importance of hemodialysis as an active method in treatment of acute acetic acid poisonings. Its main role is to support the renal function during the state of the intoxication when patients develop acute renal failure. Methods We analyzed data from a 10-year period, a total of 71 patients who ingested acetic acid, either intentionally or accidentally. Patients with a need of hemodialysis (HD) treatment underwent 3- to 4-hour HD sessions every day or every second day, according to clinical assessment, as needed, until recovery of kidney function. Results In the period between 2006 and 2015 at the university clinic for toxicology and urgent internal medicine, we hospitalized 6,106 patients with different kinds of intoxication, of which 1.162% ingested concentrated acetic acid; 47 patients were female and 24 were male. The minimal age of patients was 18 and the maximal 74 years. A total of 28 (39.43%) of the patients developed acute renal failure and in 10 patients (14.08%) we used hemodialysis as a part of the treatment. The maximum number of performed sessions in one patient was five and the minimal number of performed sessions in one patents was only one session. The use of heparin led to fatal bleeding in 4 patients. The mortality rate was 7% and most of the cases resulted in fatalities during the first 96 hours after ingestion. Conclusions Acetic acid poisonings are one of the most dangerous intoxications seen in clinical toxicology. The use of hemodialysis in some of the patients who develop acute renal failure can be of great importance and it should be put into official treatment protocols due to its great number of advantages in renal function support.
Juliane Nehrlich, Hans-Peter Klöcking, Helmut Hentschel, Amelie Lupp
Journal of Burn Care & Research, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.1097/bcr.0000000000000518

Abstract:
Devastating oral burns often followed by lifelong complications can result from ingestion of caustic substances. However, although being one of the most challenging situations in clinical practice, literature data on the epidemiology of oral burns are still scarce. Retrospective analysis of all cases of oral burns after ingestion of corrosive substances reported to the Poisons Information Centre in Erfurt, Germany, from 1997 to 2014 was performed. In total, 482 calls because of oral burns were registered, with no change in the numbers of cases during the years. In the majority of the instances (47%), toddlers were affected, followed by middle-aged adults (33%). In both age groups, the male sex prevailed. Ingestion of corrosive substances with babies, schoolchildren, adolescents, and elderly were much less frequent. In most cases (78%), the injury occurred accidentally and only in 5% of the instances in suicidal intent; 85% of the suicidal attempts were committed by middle-aged adults and 15% by elderly. Main agents involved in oral burns were cleansing agents (37%), remedies (12%), disinfectants (7%), acids or bases (6%), technical fluids (6%), cosmetics (5%), and foods (5%). Mostly, the calls came from emergency department doctors (59%), in 19% laymen were calling from home, and in 18% the calls came from a doctor’s office. Most of the injuries occurred accidentally, in the domestic setting and in toddlers, and would have been preventable. Thus, a more comprehensive education of the population, especially of parents, regarding the dangers arising from household chemicals is still needed.
Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, Volume 20, pp 211-215; https://doi.org/10.5223/pghn.2017.20.4.211

Abstract:
Esophageal strictures are seldom in children. In many countries, accidental ingestion of corrosives is a major cause of risk for stricture formation. Therefore, their management is a challenge. Safety and long-term efficacy of esophageal dilation for benign esophageal strictures has been confirmed in children. Because most children with structures are toddlers or younger, balloon dilatation is often preferred over bouginage. There is increasing evidence that short duration administration of high doses steroids may be of benefit in some specific situation (IIb esophagitis according to Zargar classification). Mytomycin-C application needs to be further evaluated. Stenting was reported to be successful in some refractory cases.
Mike Thomson, Andrea Tringali, , Marta Tavares, Merit M. Tabbers, Raoul Furlano, Manon Spaander, Cesare Hassan, Christos Tzvinikos, Hanneke Ijsselstijn, et al.
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, Volume 64, pp 133-153; https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0000000000001408

Abstract:
UNASSIGNED This guideline refers to infants, children, and adolescents ages 0 to 18 years. The areas covered include indications for diagnostic and therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopy and ileocolonoscopy; endoscopy for foreign body ingestion; corrosive ingestion and stricture/stenosis endoscopic management; upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding; endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; and endoscopic ultrasonography. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and endoscopy specific to inflammatory bowel disease has been dealt with in other guidelines and are therefore not mentioned in this guideline. Training and ongoing skill maintenance are to be dealt with in an imminent sister publication to this.
, , Daniel Von Allmen, Marilyn Stoops, Philip Putnam, LuAnn Stevens, J. Paul Willging
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, Volume 86, pp 4-8; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2016.04.003

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Mariangela Rondanelli, Gabriella Peroni, Alessandra Miccono, , Davide Guido
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, Volume 12, pp 129-133; https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S92870

Abstract:
Nutritional management in an elderly man with esophageal and gastric necrosis after caustic soda ingestion: a case report Mariangela Rondanelli,1 Gabriella Peroni,1 Alessandra Miccono,2 Fabio Guerriero,3 Davide Guido,3,4 Simone Perna1 1Department of Public Health, Neuroscience, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Endocrinology and Nutrition Unit, University of Pavia, Azienda di Servizi alla Persona di Pavia, Pavia, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, 3Azienda di Servizi alla Persona di Pavia, 4Department of Public Health, Neuroscience, Experimental and Forensic Medicine, Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology Unit, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy The ingestion of corrosive industrial chemical agents, such as caustic soda, that are mostly used for household cleaning, usually occurs accidentally or for suicidal purposes. Multiple protocols are based on documented success in preventing impending complications. In this study, we present a case of a 70-year-old man who swallowed caustic soda in a suicide attempt, causing a development of strong esophageal and gastric necrosis with subsequent gastrectomy and digiunostomy. Initially, the recommended nutritional approach was via percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy by a polymer and high-caloric formula, with an elevated content of soluble fiber. After 5 months, the medical team removed the percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy and the patient switched from enteral to oral nutrition. In this step, it was decided to introduce two oral, high-caloric supplements: an energy supplement in powder, based on maltodextrin, immediately soluble in foods or in hot/cold drinks and a high-energy and protein drink, enriched with arginine, vitamin C, zinc, and antioxidants. Oral administration (per os) was well tolerated by consuming homogenized food mixed in water. After 1 month, the patient was discharged from the hospital and was able to eat a regular meal. Keywords: nutritional management, enteral nutrition, gastric necrosis, esophageal necrosis, nutritional supplementation, elderly, caustic soda ingestion
Chuan-Mei Chen, Yueh-Chin Chung, Li-Hung Tsai, Yi-Chen Tung, Horng-Mo Lee, Mei-Ling Lin, Hsin-Li Liu,
Gastroenterology Research and Practice, Volume 2016, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7905425

Abstract:
Corrosive injury results from the intake of corrosive-acid-based chemicals. However, this phenomenon is limited to a small number of cases and cannot be extrapolated to the epidemiology of corrosive injuries in actual situations. This study focuses on the annual incidence of corrosive injury and its connection to gender, risk factors, and in-hospital mortality. All patients with corrosive injury (ICD-9 947.0–947.3) were identified using a nationwide inpatient sample from 1996 until 2010. Chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine risk factors of gender differences and in-hospital mortality of corrosive injury. Young adults comprised the majority of patients (71.2%), and mean age was 44.6 ± 20.9 years. Women showed a higher incidence rate of corrosive injuries, age, suicide, psychiatric disorder, and systemic complications compared with men (p<0.001). The present study demonstrated that age (OR = 10.93; 95% CI 5.37–22.27), systemic complications (OR = 5.43; 95% CI 4.61–6.41), malignant neoplasms (OR = 2.23; 95% CI 1.37–3.62), gastrointestinal complications (OR = 2.02; 95% CI 1.63–2.51), chronic disease (OR = 1.30; 95% CI 1.08–1.56), and suicide (OR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.05–1.44) were strongly associated with in-hospital mortality. Educational programs may be helpful for reducing the incidence of ingestion of corrosive chemicals.
Published: 17 November 2015
BMC Research Notes, Volume 8; https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-015-1629-3

Abstract:
Disastrous effects and lifelong complications, ranging from respiratory and gastrointestinal burns to death can result from caustic soda ingestion. Accidental and non-accidental ingestions occur in different age groups. However, it is very troubling to find ingestion of caustic soda a very common occurrence among children below 5 years since they do not have the developmental level required to independently weigh up risks and are also under parental and societal protections. This study was therefore planned to investigate the ingestions of caustic soda by these children for purposes of proposing measures to curb the problem. Descriptive survey was employed for this study. A 14-item, semi-structure questionnaire was purposively issued to 57 parents/guardians whose wards had ingested caustic soda. Data was analysed with SPSS V.20. Twenty-seven (47.4 %) children got access to the soda at storage, 1 (1.86 %) was administered accidentally by a sibling while 29 (50.9 %) ingested during soap preparation. In respect of the former, the majority got access because it was stored in soft drink and water bottles in their parents/guardians rooms or kitchen. For the later, the children got access to the left-over soda because the soap-makers failed to adhere to good storage and disposal practices. Storage of caustic soda in soft drink and water bottles in accessible places, and training of children to drink directly from bottles influence caustic soda ingestion in children under five. Non-compliance to good practices of storage and disposal of caustic soda during soap preparation increases exposure and access of children to caustic soda ingestion.
J. Orozco-Perez, O. Aguirre-Jauregui, A.M. Salazar-Montes, Ana Alondra Sobrevilla Navarro, M.S. Lucano-Landeros,
Published: 1 April 2015
Journal of Surgical Research, Volume 194, pp 558-564; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2014.11.009

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Michael G. Sherenian, Mark Clee, Amanda C. Schondelmeyer, Alessandro De Alarcón, Jinzhu Li, Amal Assa’Ad,
Published: 12 January 2015
Pediatrics, Volume 135; https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-2394

Abstract:
Anaphylaxis presents in children with rapid involvement of typically 2 or more organ systems including cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and respiratory. Caustic ingestions (CI) may also present with acute involvement of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems. We present 2 cases of “missed diagnosis” that illustrate how CI presenting with respiratory symptoms can be mistaken for anaphylaxis owing to these similarities. Both of these patients had delay in appropriate care for CI as a result. These cases demonstrate the importance of considering CI in children who have gastrointestinal symptoms, respiratory distress, and oropharyngeal edema.
Published: 1 June 2014
Journal of Pediatric Surgery, Volume 49, pp 849-852; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2014.01.011

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ana Lúcia Ferreira, Juliana Montez Ferreira, Paula Marques C. Da Silva, Dilene Francisco Constancio
Published: 1 June 2014
by SciELO
Revista Paulista de Pediatria, Volume 32, pp 286-290; https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-0582201432213713

Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of genital burn which raised the suspicion of maltreatment (sexual abuse and neglect by lack of supervision).CASE DESCRIPTION: An infant was taken to the Emergency Room of a pediatric hospital with an extensive burn in the vulva and perineum. The mother claimed the burn had been caused by a sodium-hydroxide-based product. However, the injury severity led to the suspicion of sexual abuse, which was then ruled out by a multidisciplinary team, based on the consistent report by the mother. Besides, the lesion type matched those caused by the chemical agent involved in the accident and the family context was evaluated and considered adequate. The patient had a favorable outcome and was discharged after four days of hospitalization. Outpatient follow-up during six months after the accident enabled the team to rule out neglect by lack of supervision.COMMENTS: Accidents and violence are frequent causes of physical injuries in children, and the differential diagnosis between them can be a challenge for healthcare workers, especially in rare clinical conditions involving patients who cannot speak for themselves. The involvement of a multidisciplinary trained team helps to have an adequate approach, ensuring child protection and developing a bond with the family; the latter is essential for a continued patient follow-up.
, Ivica Stankovic
European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Volume 26, pp 499-503; https://doi.org/10.1097/meg.0000000000000060

Abstract:
Introduction The aim of this study was to present our patients with corrosive ingestion retrospectively, to analyze the validity of clinical signs as predictors of outcome, and to emphasize the necessity of esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Materials and methods Data were evaluated from the medical records of patients admitted at the Mother and Child Health Care Institute, Serbia over a 10-year period. Results A total of 176 children, mean age 36.2±18.1 months (range 9 months to 18 years), with corrosive ingestion were evaluated. The ingested substances were alkali in 96 cases (54.5%), acid in 41 (23.3%), and others in 39 cases (22.1%). In all, 116 patients (65.9%) were symptom free on admission. Positive clinical findings were observed in 60 (34.1%) patients. Upper endoscopy was performed in all children within the first 48 h. Ninety-five patients (54%) had normal endoscopic evaluation, 54 (30.6%) had mild lesions, and 27 (15.3%) had severe corrosive injuries. The validity of clinical findings in predicting the severity of esophageal and gastric injury was as follows: sensitivity – 74 and 75% and specificity – 73 and 68%, retrospectively. Eighteen patients (10.2%) developed esophageal stricture. Conclusion Endoscopy is a mandatory technique in children with gastroesophageal caustic injuries, and should be performed to prevent unnecessary hospitalization and to plan future treatment. This study emphasizes that clinical signs and symptoms are not predictors of esophageal and gastric injury and that the absence of any clinical findings does not rule out a severe esophageal or gastric injury.
Salwan J. Almashat, Lei Duan,
Published: 1 March 2014
Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology, Volume 31, pp 89-99; https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semdp.2014.02.002

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Taiwo Olugbemiga Adedeji, James Enajero Tobih, Adedayo Olugbenga Olaosun, Olusola Ayodele Sogebi
Pan African Medical Journal, Volume 15; https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2013.15.11.2495

Abstract:
INTRODUCTION: Potentially catastrophic presentations and lifelong complications resulting from corrosive ingestions in humans is one of the most challenging situations encountered in clinical medical practice. This study reviewed pattern, mechanisms and associated socio-medical challenges with ingestion of corrosive agents as seen in a tertiary health institution in South-western Nigeria. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients that were managed for corrosive ingestion at Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria, over a seven year period. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients M:F: 1.6:1. There were 7 children and 21 adults. Majority (78.6%) of the patients ingested alkaline substances. Accidental ingestion occurred in 28.6% while 71.4% resulted from deliberate self harm especially among adults (66.7%). Almost two thirds (64.3%) of the patients presented after 48hrs of ingestion. Patients who presented early were managed conservatively. Most patients (64.3%) who presented late had nutritional and fluid rehabilitation. Two patients died from oesophageal perforation and resulting septicaemia. Psychiatric evaluation revealed that seven adults (25%) had psychotic illness while (42.9%) of the patients developed oesophageal strictures. Short segment strictures were managed with oesophageal dilatation with good outcome while long and multiple segment strictures were referred to cardiothoracic surgeons for management. CONCLUSION: Corrosive oesophageal injuries remain a prevalent and preventable condition in the developing countries. Preventive strategies should include regulation and packaging of corrosive substances, organization of psychiatric services, and education of the population on corrosive ingestion.
Published: 1 December 2012
Springer Healthcare News, Volume 1; https://doi.org/10.1007/s40014-012-1876-3

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