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(searched for: doi:10.1001/archneurpsyc.1959.02340170067007)
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Joyce A. Kovelman, Arnold B. Scheibel
Published: 29 January 2009
Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, Volume 73, pp 1-32; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0404.1986.tb03237.x

Abstract:
Schizophrenia is increasingly believed to represent a group of organic disorders which primarily, although not exclusively, affect the central nervous system. Our purpose is to review a representative sample of twentieth-century literature which speaks to the biological substrates of the syndrome. Subjects reviewed include genetic and environmental contributions to the onset of illness, early and recent findings of gross structural anomalies, and apparent histopathological alterations in cerebral cortex, cerebellar vermis, limbic system, and brain stem, as well as problems of cerebral asymmetry. Data from a diverse group of electrophysiological studies reveal several promising correlates of these areas of investigation. Despite the inconsistent nature of the findings to date, several themes have begun to emerge, including patterns of hypofrontal/hyperparietal regional cerebral flow and glucose utilization, left hemispheric dysfunction, and deficits of interhemispheric information processing. The interpretation and significance of these emerging patterns remains unclear and must await more profound insights into the nature of normal and abnormal cerebral function.
Michael B. Knable, Maree J. Webster
Published: 15 July 2001
Brain Research Bulletin, Volume 55, pp 567-568; https://doi.org/10.1016/s0361-9230(01)00531-7

Svetlozar A. Bachneff
Published: 1 November 1991
Biological Psychiatry, Volume 30, pp 857-886; https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223(91)90002-4

Abstract:
A review of brain imaging (PET and MRI) studies on schizophrenia and recent data from neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neuropathology, neurochemistry, neuropsychology, and cortical organization theory is integrated with the concept of local circuit neurons (LCNs) in a new hypothesis--the local circuit neurons hypo(dys)function hypothesis of schizophrenia--that attempts to explain the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of schizophrenia through a hypofunction (or dysfunction) of the local circuit neurons in prefrontal and limbic-temporal areas. This hypofunction (dysfunction) is then related to the neurocircuitry, neuropsychology, and psychopathology of schizophrenia.
Timothy J. Crow, Eve C. Johnstone
Comprehensive Physiology pp 843-869; https://doi.org/10.1002/cphy.cp010521

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Bernhardt Bogerts, Elisabeth Meertz, Regina Schönfeldt-Bausch
Archives of General Psychiatry, Volume 42, pp 784-791; https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1985.01790310046006

Abstract:
• The volume of several parts of the basal ganglia and of the limbic system was measured by planimetry of myelin-stained serial sections in postmortem brains of 13 schizophrenic patients and nine control cases. The medial limbic structures of the temporal lobe (amygdala, hippocampal formation, and parahippocampal gyrus) and the pallidum internum were significantly smaller in the schizophrenic group, whereas the pallidum externum showed only a modest trend toward volume reduction. The volumes of the putamen, nucleus caudatus, nucleus accumbens, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis did not differ between patients and controls. The volume reductions of the limbic temporal structures and of the pallidum internum of schizophrenics are interpreted as degenerative shrinkages of unknown etiology.
Annette Lesch, Bernhard Bogerts
European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, Volume 234, pp 212-219; https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00381351

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Rona Notestine Ariel, Charles J. Golden, Richard A. Berg, Merton A. Quaife, J. William Dirksen, Thomas Forsell, James Wilson, Benjamin Graber
Archives of General Psychiatry, Volume 40, pp 258-263; https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1983.01790030028003

Abstract:
• Measurements of intrahemispheric and bilateral regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) for gray and white matter were compared in 29 schizophrenic patients and 22 normal controls, using the xenon Xe 133 inhalation method. Results showed significantly lower CBF values for all brain regions in the schizophrenic group, and post hoc comparisons showed relatively greater reduced gray-matter CBF values in the anterior areas of the brain. There was also a left-hemisphere frontal loss similar to that reported previously, although it was in the context of a generalized loss in anterior functioning. Interhemispheric comparison within both groups showed no differences between homologous regions for gray matter, and greater white-matter CBF values in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. The findings support a hypothesis of a bilateral anterior deficit in schizophrenia.
Larry Stein, C. David Wise, Barry D. Berger
Published: 1 January 1972
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H. Feer
Published: 1 January 1962
Psychopharmacology, Volume 3, pp 395-412; https://doi.org/10.1007/bf00411157

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