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(searched for: doi:10.3354/sedao00003)
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, Adriana Rodríguez-Forero, Bernd Werding, Andreas Kunzmann
Published: 22 February 2021
Abstract:
Isostichopus badionotus and Isostichopus sp. are two holothuroids exploited in the Caribbean region of Colombia. Until recently, they were considered a single species. During one year, 222 individuals of Isostichopus sp. and 114 of I. badionotus were collected in two bays of the Santa Marta region to study their reproductive biology and collect information on their size, weight and habitat. Both sea cucumber morphotypes showed an annual reproductive cycle, with a reproductive season from September to November, closely related to the increase in water temperature and rainfall. In both sea cucumbers the population structure exhibited a unimodal distribution composed of mature individuals and a sex ratio of 1:1. Isostichopus sp. had an average size and weight (193 ± 52 mm and 178 ± 69 g) and size and weight at first maturity (175 mm and 155 g) that was much lower than I. badionotus (respectively, 324 ± 70 mm and 628 ± 179 g; 220 mm and 348 g). While 98% of Isostichopus sp. individuals were collected in the upper 2.5 m, on rocky bottoms between cracks, 73% of I. badionotus individuals were found between 3 and 7.8 m depth, exposed on sandy bottoms. These differences imply that management measures (e.g. minimum catch size) should not be the same for both sea cucumbers morphotypes.
, Pedro M. Félix, Ana C. Brito, João Sousa, Francisco Azevedo e Silva, Tomás Simões, Luís Narciso, Ana Amorim, Luísa Dâmaso, Ana Pombo
Published: 23 January 2021
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, Pedro M. Félix, Ana C. Brito, Eliana Venâncio, Francisco Azevedo e Silva, Tomás Simões, Andreia Raposo, Marta Neves, Luís Narciso, , et al.
Published: 24 November 2020
Aquaculture Research, Volume 52, pp 1548-1560; https://doi.org/10.1111/are.15007

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Invertebrate Reproduction & Development, Volume 62, pp 268-289; https://doi.org/10.1080/07924259.2018.1514670

Abstract:
Reproductive studies of an intertidal free-spawning population of Chiton articulatus (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) from Puerto Angel, Oaxaca, Mexico were undertaken during 2011. We used gonad histology and gonadal indices to assess the relative gonad expenditure of the sexes (RGES) and other reproductive traits, accounting for individual and seasonal variation within this population. At this location, C. articulatus is gonochoric, without sexual dimorphism, except internally by gonad colour (testis is ‘salmon’ coloured and ovary olive green). Annual and monthly sex ratios (m/f) do not differ significantly from 1:1. Highest population-level gonadosomatic index (GSI) corresponded to maximum (peak) ripe stage (i.e. maximum gonad investment), with a first peak in May with a high value (8.4 ± 0.5) and a second peak during August-September with a lower value (4.7 ± 0.3). GSI fluctuated throughout year implying that gonad expenditure may be seasonally constrained, but with overall synchrony between sexes of ripe and spawning stages. July to December was the main reproductive season with some facultative spawning occurring off-season. Ripe and spawning RGES did not differ between sexes, suggesting that either sperm competition is intense and/or that sperm limitation is high. Early spawning individuals may quickly replenish their gametes for a second phase of gamete release later. Abbreviations: RGES: relative gonad expenditure of the sexes; GSI: gonadosomatic index; GDS: gonad developmental stages; MiMI: microscopic maturity index; SST: sea-surface temperature.
Widianingsih Widianingsih, Muhammad Zaenuri, Sutrisno Anggoro, Hermin Pancasakti Kusumaningrum, Retno Hartati
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 116; https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/116/1/012035

Abstract:
The holothurian Paracaudina australis is belong to family Caudinidae, ordo Molpadida and class Holothuroidea. This species is among the most common holothurian widely distributed in the tropical water. The purpose of this reseach is to do preliminary study on maturity stages of sea cucumber Paracaudina australis from Kenjeran Water, Surabaya, Indonesia. This research was conducted on April 2016. Samples were collected randomly on the Kenjeran Water, Surabaya. The result showed that there are five stages of gonad maturity. At the stage of maturity 1, the gonad was not clearly distinguished, there were unbranched small tubule. At the stage of maturity 2, there were small branched of tubules. At this stage, gonad can be differentiated between male and female. At the stage of maturity 3, tubule can been branched not only for male but also female. At the stage of maturity 4, the gonad was good mature, there were clearly branched tubule. At the stage of matury 5, there were generally had empty tubule except for a few relict unreleased spermatozoa. At female gonad, there were shrunken tubule and relict oocytes were presented in the lumen of the tubule.
Retno Hartati, Agus Trianto, Widianingsih
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 55; https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/55/1/012041

Abstract:
Sea cucumbers face heavily overfished because of their high prices and very strong market demand. One effort suggested to overcome this problem is sea ranching. The objectives of present works were to determine biological, physical, and chemical characteristics of prospective location for sea ranching of sea cucumber Holothuria atra. Two location at Jepara Waters (Teluk Awur and Bandengan WateRs of Jepara Regency) were selected. The determination of chemical (salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen of water, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite and ammonium of water and sediment, organic matters of sediment), physical (transparancy, sedimen grains size, water current direction and its velocity), biologycal characteristic (coverage of seagrass and its macroalgae associated, phytoplankton as well as chlorophyl-a and phaeopytin of water and sediment) ware determined. The result of present work showed that some characteristic were matched with requirement as sea ranching location of sea cucumber because the density of sea cucumber in the sea is a function of habitat features. For sediment feeding holothurians of the family Aspidochirotida, the biologycal characteristic act as very important considerations by providing sea cucumber food. High cholophyl-a and phaeopytin in sediment also represent a prosperous habitat for sea cucumber ranching.
, Noussithé Koueta, , Josefina Santos-Valencia,
Published: 6 April 2016
Molluscan Research, Volume 36, pp 29-44; https://doi.org/10.1080/13235818.2015.1072912

Abstract:
Octopus maya is the main species caught in Mexico. From September 2007 to June 2008, its sex ratio, reproductive season, frequency of non-vitellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes, reproductive indices, and size and weight at maturity, were evaluated. The monthly sex ratio was significantly different from 1:1. The major reproductive season occurs during February to June (dry season) in Yucatan. May−June is the common reproductive season to both Yucatán and Campeche populations. Higher frequencies of vitellogenic oocytes (> 50%) were found from January-March and in May. From five reproductive indices, only the macroscopic and microscopic maturity indices were the best descriptors of the reproductive season in females, whilst only the reproductive complex index was the best descriptor in males. The weight at sexual maturity (BW50%) was 335 g for females and 242 g for males. The size at sexual maturity (DML50%) was 12.58 cm for females and 7.42 cm for males. It is recommend revising the minimum catch size by following these results. The reproductive traits here evaluated could contribute to the recently created Plan for Management of Octopus Fisheries, in particular action line no. 1.4, which refers to protection of females during breeding, and to their protection throughout the entire reproductive season.
, , Julia Patricia Díaz-Martínez, Adriana Ruiz Bravo-Ruiz
Invertebrate Reproduction & Development, Volume 59, pp 237-249; https://doi.org/10.1080/07924259.2015.1108935

Abstract:
Diadema mexicanum is a common inhabitant of the Mexican Pacific coast and a key species for coral reefs dynamics. Several reproductive traits of D. mexicanum throughout one year at La Entrega Bay, Oaxaca (15°44′N), in the Mexican tropical Pacific, were analyzed. Maturity index or microscopic maturity index “MI” was calculated. Annual ratio of males to females (1:1) was not significantly different. Five gonad development stages “GDS” (i.e. development, mature, spawning, post-spawning, nutritive) were recognized. The nutritive stage was noticeably later to post-spawning. High values of gonadosomatic index “GSI” in December 2008 and February/March 2009 did not correspond to maturity but to the nutritive stage. MI values ratified the periodicity of each GDS and spawning preparedness. MI was a better descriptor than GSI for reproductive season of D. mexicanum, and probably for all sea urchins exhibiting the nutritive stage. D. mexicanum has a single annual reproductive season (maturity/spawning) from April to October, similar to the population of Panama (9°00′N), without a second season, as proposed previously for the population of Colima, Mexico (19°10′N). Previous disparities in its reproductive season reflect differences of the environments it inhabits, rather than an effect of the latitudinal gradient in the tropical region.
, , , C.M. Pearce, R.A. Corner, J. Johansen
Published: 22 November 2015
Aquaculture, Volume 453, pp 54-66; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2015.11.031

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