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(searched for: doi:10.1029/2012jc008264)
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Camila Artana, Ramiro Ferrari, Clément Bricaud, Jean-Michel Lellouche, Gilles Garric, Nathalie Sennéchael, Jae-Hak Lee, Young-Hyang Park, Christine Provost
Published: 1 July 2021
Advances in Space Research, Volume 68, pp 447-466; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asr.2019.11.033

, Marie-Hélène Rio, Hélène Etienne, Camilia Artana, Mathilde Cancet, Gérald Dibarboure, , Romain Husson, Nicolas Picot, Christine Provost, et al.
Published: 17 June 2021
Ocean Science, Volume 17, pp 789-808; https://doi.org/10.5194/os-17-789-2021

Abstract:
The mean dynamic topography (MDT) is a key reference surface for altimetry. It is needed for the calculation of the ocean absolute dynamic topography, and under the geostrophic approximation, the estimation of surface currents. CNES-CLS mean dynamic topography (MDT) solutions are calculated by merging information from altimeter data, GRACE, and GOCE gravity field and oceanographic in situ measurements (drifting buoy velocities, hydrological profiles). The objective of this paper is to present the newly updated CNES-CLS18 MDT. The main improvement compared to the previous CNES-CLS13 solution is the use of updated input datasets: the GOCO05S geoid model is used based on the complete GOCE mission (November 2009–October 2013) and 10.5 years of GRACE data, together with all drifting buoy velocities (SVP-type and Argo floats) and hydrological profiles (CORA database) available from 1993 to 2017 (instead of 1993–2012). The new solution also benefits from improved data processing (in particular a new wind-driven current model has been developed to extract the geostrophic component from the buoy velocities) and methodology (in particular the computation of the medium-scale GOCE-based MDT first guess has been revised). An evaluation of the new solution compared to the previous version and to other existing MDT solutions show significant improvements in both strong currents and coastal areas.
D. I. Frey, , V. A. Krechik, D. V. Fofanov, , , , S. V. Gladyshev
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Volume 126; https://doi.org/10.1029/2020jc016727

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, , G. L. Bia, L. E. Simonella, R. Coppo, G. Torre, , V. M. Tur,
Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Volume 125; https://doi.org/10.1029/2020jg006073

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Journal of Physical Oceanography, Volume 49, pp 867-884; https://doi.org/10.1175/jpo-d-18-0150.1

Abstract:
The dynamics of an oceanic storm track—where energy and enstrophy transfer between the mean flow and eddies—are investigated using observations from an eddy-rich region of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current downstream of the Shackleton Fracture Zone (SFZ) in Drake Passage. Four years of measurements by an array of current- and pressure-recording inverted echo sounders deployed between November 2007 and November 2011 are used to diagnose eddy–mean flow interactions and provide insight into physical mechanisms for these transfers. Averaged within the upper to mid-water column (400–1000-m depth) and over the 4-yr-record mean field, eddy potential energy is highest in the western part of the storm track and maximum eddy kinetic energy occurs farther away from the SFZ, shifting the proportion of eddy energies from to about 1 along the storm track. There are enhanced mean 3D wave activity fluxes immediately downstream of SFZ with strong horizontal flux vectors emanating northeast from this region. Similar patterns across composites of Polar Front and Subantarctic Front meander intrusions suggest the dynamics are set more so by the presence of the SFZ than by the eddy’s sign. A case study showing the evolution of a single eddy event, from 15 to 23 July 2010, highlights the storm-track dynamics in a series of snapshots. Consistently, explaining the eddy energetics pattern requires both horizontal and vertical components of W, implying the importance of barotropic and baroclinic processes and instabilities in controlling storm-track dynamics in Drake Passage.
Journal of Physical Oceanography, Volume 47, pp 101-122; https://doi.org/10.1175/jpo-d-16-0124.1

Abstract:
Long time series of bottom temperatures in the Southern Ocean are rare. The cDrake array with over 40 current- and pressure-recording inverted echo sounders, moored across Drake Passage to monitor the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) variability and transport, measured temperature at 1 and 50 m above the seafloor at depths ≥ 3500 m and at the southern continental margin. The 4-yr dataset provided an opportunity to examine the temporal and spatial scales of bottom temperature variability. High variability was observed; ranges were 0.5°–0.9°C in the northern passage and 0.3°–0.6°C in the southern passage. Standard deviations in the two regions were 0.1°–0.15°C and
Dhruv Balwada, , , W. Brechner Owens, John C Marshall,
Journal of Physical Oceanography, Volume 46, pp 2005-2027; https://doi.org/10.1175/jpo-d-15-0207.1

Abstract:
The large-scale middepth circulation and eddy diffusivities in the southeast Pacific Ocean and Scotia Sea sectors between 110° and 45°W of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) are described based on a subsurface quasi-isobaric RAFOS-float-based Lagrangian dataset. These RAFOS float data were collected during the Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean (DIMES). The mean flow, adjusted to a common 1400-m depth, shows the presence of jets in the time-averaged sense with speeds of 6 cm s−1 in the southeast Pacific Ocean and upward of 13 cm s−1 in the Scotia Sea. These jets appear to be locked to topography in the Scotia Sea but, aside from negotiating a seamount chain, are mostly free of local topographic constraints in the southeast Pacific Ocean. The eddy kinetic energy (EKE) is higher than the mean kinetic energy everywhere in the sampled domain by about 50%. The magnitude of the EKE increases drastically (by a factor of 2 or more) as the current crosses over the Hero and Shackleton fracture zones into the Scotia Sea. The meridional isopycnal stirring shows lateral and vertical variations with local eddy diffusivities as high as 2800 ± 600 m2 s−1 at 700 m decreasing to 990 ± 200 m2 s−1 at 1800 m in the southeast Pacific Ocean. However, the cross-ACC diffusivity in the southeast Pacific Ocean is significantly lower, with values of 690 ± 150 and 1000 ± 200 m2 s−1 at shallow and deep levels, respectively, due to the action of jets. The cross-ACC diffusivity in the Scotia Sea is about 1200 ± 500 m2 s−1.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Volume 121, pp 4282-4302; https://doi.org/10.1002/2016jc011682

Abstract:
The vorticity balance of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current in Drake Passage is examined using 4 years of observations from current- and pressure-recording inverted echo sounders. The time-varying vorticity, planetary and relative vorticity advection, and bottom pressure torque are calculated in a two-dimensional array in the eddy-rich Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ). Bottom pressure torque is also estimated at sites across Drake Passage. Mean and eddy nonlinear relative vorticity advection terms dominate over linear advection in the local (50-km scale) vorticity budget in the PFZ, and are balanced to first order by the divergence of horizontal velocity. Most of this divergence comes from the ageostrophic gradient flow, which also provides a second-order adjustment to the geostrophic relative vorticity advection. Bottom pressure torque is approximately one-third the size of the local depth-integrated divergence. Although the cDrake velocity fields exhibit significant turning with depth throughout Drake Passage even in the mean, surface vorticity advection provides a reasonable representation of the depth-integrated vorticity balance. Observed near-bottom currents are strongly topographically steered, and bottom pressure torques grow large where strong near-bottom flows cross steep topography at small angles. Upslope flow over the northern continental slope dominates the bottom pressure torque in cDrake, and the mean across this Drake Passage transect, 3 to 410?9 m s−2, exceeds the mean wind stress curl by a factor of 15–20.
, Christine Provost, Young‐Hyang Park, Ramiro Ferrari, Nathalie Sennéchael
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Volume 121, pp 2572-2595; https://doi.org/10.1002/2015jc011436

Abstract:
The 20 year (October 1992 to August 2013) observation-based volume transport time series of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) through Drake Passage (DP) across the Jason altimeter track #104 is analyzed to better understand the ACC transport variability and its potential causes. The time series of three transport components (total (TT), barotropic (BT), and baroclinic (BC)) referenced to 3000 m present energetic intraseasonal fluctuations, with a salient spectral peak at 50 and 36 days, with the largest (least) variance being associated with the BT (BC) component. Low-frequency variations are much less energetic with a significant variance limited to the annual and biannual timescales and show a nonstationary intermittent link with the Southern Annular Mode and the Nino 3.4 index for interannual timescales. The region around 57°S in the Yaghan Basin appears to be a strategic point for a practical monitoring of the ACC transport, as the whole-track TT is significantly correlated with the local TT (r = 0.53) and BT (r = 0.69) around 57°S. These local BT (and TT) variations are associated with a well-defined tripole pattern in altimetric sea level anomaly (SLA). There is evidence that the tripole pattern associated with BT is locally generated when the BC-associated mesoscale SLAs, which have propagated eastward from an upstream area of DP, cross the Shackleton Fracture Zone to penetrate into the Yaghan Basin. Barotropic basin modes excited within the Yaghan Basin are discussed as a plausible mechanism for the observed energy-containing intraseasonal spectral peaks found in the transport variability.
, , M. R. Mazloff
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Volume 119, pp 8011-8028; https://doi.org/10.1002/2014jc010020

Abstract:
The Southern Ocean's ability to store and transport heat and tracers as well as to dissipate momentum and energy are intimately related to the vertical structure of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Here the partition between barotropic and baroclinic flow in the time‐mean ACC is investigated in a Southern Ocean state estimate. The zonal geostrophic transport is predominantly baroclinic, with at most 25% of the transport at any longitude carried by the barotropic component. Following surface streamlines, changes in vertical shear and near‐bottom velocity are large, and result in changes in the local partition of barotropic/baroclinic vertically integrated transport from 10/90% in the center of the basins, to 50/50% near complex topography. The velocity at depth is not aligned with the surface velocity. This nonequivalent barotropic flow supports significant cross‐stream transports. Barotropic and baroclinic mass transport across the ACC is, on average, in opposite directions, with the net barotropic cross‐stream transport being poleward and the net baroclinic equatorward. The sum partially cancels out, leaving a net geostrophic poleward transport across the different fronts between −5 and −20 Sv. Temperature is also transported across the fronts by the nonequivalent barotropic part of the ACC, with maximum values across the northern ACC fronts equivalent to −0.2 PW. The sign and magnitude of these transports are not sensitive to the choice of stream‐coordinate. These cross‐stream volume and temperature transports are variable in space, and dependent on the interactions between deep flow and bathymetry, thus difficult to infer from surface and hydrographic observations alone.
, Christine Provost, Young-Hyang Park, Nathalie Sennéchael, , Hela Sekma, Gilles Garric, Romain Bourdallé-Badie
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Volume 119, pp 6381-6402; https://doi.org/10.1002/2014jc010201

Abstract:
In contrast to a long-standing belief, observations in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) show that mean velocity vectors rotate with depth, thus suggesting a possible importance of the time-mean flow for the local poleward heat transport. The respective contributions of the eddy and mean flows to the heat flux across the ACC in Drake Passage (DP) are investigated using recently acquired and historical time series of velocity and temperature from a total of 24 current meter moorings and outputs of a high-resolution (1/12°) model with realistic topography. Only 11 out of the 24 depth-integrated eddy heat flux estimates are found to be significant, and they are poleward. Model depth-integrated eddy heat fluxes have similar signs and amplitudes as the in situ estimates at the mooring sites. They are mostly poleward or nonsignificant, with amplitude decreasing to the south. The cross-stream temperature fluxes caused by the mean flow at the moorings have a sign that varies with location and corresponds to the opposite of the vertical velocity estimates. The depth-integrated temperature fluxes due to the mean flow in the model exhibit small spatial scales and are of opposite sign to the bottom vertical velocities. This suggests that the rotation of the mean velocity vectors with depth is mainly due to bottom topography. The rough hilly topography in DP likely promotes the small-scale vertical velocities and temperature fluxes. Eddy heat fluxes and cross-stream temperature fluxes are integrated over mass-balanced regions defined by the model transport streamlines. The contribution of the mean flow to the ocean heat fluxes across the Southern ACC Front in DP (covering about 4% of the circumpolar longitudes) is about four times as large as the eddy heat flux contribution and the sum of the two represent on the order of 10% of the heat loss to the atmosphere south of 60°S.
, Christine Provost, Ramiro Ferrari, Nathalie Sennéchael, Marie-Hélène Rio
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Volume 119, pp 5407-5433; https://doi.org/10.1002/2014jc009966

Abstract:
A 20 year long volume transport time series of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current across the Drake Passage is estimated from the combination of information from in situ current meter data (2006–2009) and satellite altimetry data (1992–2012). A new method for transport estimates had to be designed. It accounts for the dependence of the vertical velocity structure on surface velocity and latitude. Yet unpublished velocity profile time series from Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers are used to provide accurate vertical structure estimates in the upper 350 m. The mean cross-track surface geostrophic velocities are estimated using an iterative error/correction scheme to the mean velocities deduced from two recent mean dynamic topographies. The internal consistency and the robustness of the method are carefully assessed. Comparisons with independent data demonstrate the accuracy of the method. The full-depth volume transport has a mean of 141 Sv (standard error of the mean 2.7 Sv), a standard deviation (std) of 13 Sv, and a range of 110 Sv. Yearly means vary from 133.6 Sv in 2011 to 150 Sv in 1993 and standard deviations from 8.8 Sv in 2009 to 17.9 Sv in 1995. The canonical ISOS values (mean 133.8 Sv, std 11.2 Sv) obtained from a year-long record in 1979 are very similar to those found here for year 2011 (133.6 Sv and 12 Sv). Full-depth transports and transports over 3000 m barely differ as in that particular region of Drake Passage the deep recirculations in two semiclosed basins have a close to zero net transport.
María Paz Chidichimo, , D. Randolph Watts, Karen L. Tracey
Journal of Physical Oceanography, Volume 44, pp 1829-1853; https://doi.org/10.1175/jpo-d-13-071.1

Abstract:
The first multiyear continuous time series of Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) baroclinic transport through Drake Passage measured by moored observations is presented. From 2007 to 2011, 19 current- and pressure-recording inverted echo sounders and 3 current-meter moorings were deployed in Drake Passage to monitor the transport during the cDrake experiment. Full-depth ACC baroclinic transport relative to the bottom has a mean strength of 127.7 ± 1.0 Sverdrups (Sv; 1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) with a standard deviation of 8.1 Sv. Mean annual baroclinic transport is remarkably steady. About 65% of the baroclinic transport variance is associated with time periods shorter than 60 days with peaks at 20 and 55 days. Nearly 28% of apparent energy in the spectrum computed from transport subsampled at the 10-day repeat cycle of the Jason altimeter results from aliasing of high-frequency signals. Approximately 80% of the total baroclinic transport is carried by the Subantarctic Front and the Polar Front. Partitioning the baroclinic transport among neutral density γn layers gives 39.2 Sv for Subantarctic Surface Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water (γn < 27.5 kg m−3), 57.5 Sv for Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (27.5 < γn < 28.0 kg m−3), 27.7 Sv for Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (28.0 < γn < 28.2 kg m−3), and 3.3 Sv for Antarctic Bottom Water (γn > 28.2 kg m−3). The transport standard deviation in these layers decreases with depth (4.0, 3.1, 2.1, and 1.1 Sv, respectively). The transport associated with each of these water masses is statistically steady. The ACC baroclinic transport exhibits considerable variability and is a major contributor to total ACC transport variability.
, T. K. Chereskin, D. R. Watts, , C. Provost
Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Volume 31, pp 656-680; https://doi.org/10.1175/jtech-d-13-00142.1

Abstract:
Current and pressure-recording inverted echo sounders (CPIES) were deployed in an eddy-resolving local dynamics array (LDA) in the eddy-rich polar frontal zone (PFZ) in Drake Passage as part of the cDrake experiment. Methods are described for calculating barotropic and baroclinic geostrophic streamfunction and its first, second, and third derivatives by objective mapping of current, pressure, or geopotential height anomaly data from a two-dimensional array of CPIES like the cDrake LDA. Modifications to previous methods result in improved dimensional error estimates on velocity and higher streamfunction derivatives. Simulations are used to test the reproduction of higher derivatives of streamfunction and to verify mapping error estimates. Three-day low-pass-filtered velocity in and around the cDrake LDA can be mapped with errors of 0.04 m s−1 at 4000 dbar, increasing to 0.13 m s−1 at the sea surface; these errors are small compared to typical speeds observed at these levels, 0.2 and 0.65 m s−1, respectively. Errors on vorticity are 9 × 10−6 s−1 near the surface, decreasing with depth to 3 × 10−6 s−1 at 4000 dbar, whereas vorticities in the PFZ eddy field are 4 × 10−5 s−1 (surface) to 1.3 × 10−5 s−1 (4000 dbar). Vorticity gradient errors range from 4 × 10−10 to 2 × 10−10 m −1 s−1, just under half the size of typical PFZ vorticity gradients. Comparisons between cDrake mapped temperature and velocity fields and independent observations (moored current and temperature, lowered acoustic Doppler current profiler velocity, and satellite-derived surface currents) help validate the cDrake method and results.
, Adèle Révelard
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Volume 119, pp 1161-1175; https://doi.org/10.1002/2013jc009533

Abstract:
The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) is the only open pathway for interocean exchange between the Pacific and Indian Ocean basins at tropical latitudes. A proxy time series of ITF transport variability is developed using remotely sensed altimeter data. The focus is on the three outflow passages of Lombok, Ombai, and Timor that collectively transport the entire ITF into the Indian Ocean, and where direct velocity measurements are available to help ground-truth the transport algorithm. The resulting 18 year proxy time series shows strong interannual ITF variability. Significant trends of increased transport are found in the upper layer of Lombok Strait, and over the full depth in Timor Passage that are likely related to enhanced Pacific trade winds since the early 1990s. The partitioning of the total ITF transport through each of the major outflow passage varies according to the phase of the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) or El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). In general, Pacific ENSO variability is strongest in Timor Passage, most likely through the influence of planetary waves transmitted from the Pacific along the Northwest Australian shelf pathway. Somewhat surprisingly, concurrent El Niño and positive IOD episodes consistently show contradictory results from those composites constructed for purely El Niño episodes. This is particularly evident in Lombok and Ombai Straits, but also at depth in Timor Passage. This suggests that Indian Ocean dynamics likely win out over Pacific Ocean dynamics in gating the transport through the outflow passages during concurrent ENSO and IOD events.
, Katy L. Sheen, , , Kevin G. Speer, , Michael P. Meredith, Stephanie Waterman
Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 41, pp 121-127; https://doi.org/10.1002/2013gl058617

Abstract:
The fate of a deep boundary current that originates in the Southeast Pacific and flows southward along the continental slope of South America is elucidated. The current transports poorly ventilated water of low salinity (a type of Pacific Deep Water, PDW), into Drake Passage. East of Drake Passage, the boundary current breaks into fresh anticyclonic eddies, nine examples of which were observed in mooring data from December 2009 to March 2012. The observed eddies appear to originate mainly from a topographic separation point close to 60°W, have typical diameters of 20–60 km and accompanying Rossby numbers of 0.1–0.3. These features are likely to be responsible for transporting PDW meridionally across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, explaining the near homogenization of Circumpolar Deep Water properties downstream of Drake Passage. This mechanism of boundary current breakdown may constitute an important process in the Southern Ocean overturning circulation.
Ramiro Ferrari, Christine Provost, Nathalie Sennéchael, Jae-Hak Lee
Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans, Volume 118, pp 147-165; https://doi.org/10.1029/2012jc008193

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