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(searched for: doi:10.1029/2012jg002130)
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Lia Ramírez-Fernández, Luis H. Orellana, Eric R. Johnston, Konstantinos T. Konstantinidis,
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 788; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147693

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Irina Yu. Kirtsideli, D. Yu. Vlasov, , V. A. Iliushin, , I. V. Churkina, E. P. Barantsevich
Published: 23 March 2020
Hygiene and sanitation, Volume 99; https://doi.org/10.33029/0016-9900-2020-99-2-145-151

Abstract:
Introduction. The aim of this work was to study the mycobiota of anthropogenic materials, soil and air in the settlement Barentsburg (Spitsbergen archipelago), to assess the spread of invasive species and to identify potentially pathogenic microfungi. Material and methods. The material for the study was collected in the period of research work of the Russian expedition of the AARI (2017-2018) in the area of the settlement Barentsburg (located at 78° N, 14° E). Isolation and identification of microfungi were carried out using standard microbiological methods according to cultural and morphological characteristics and sequencing in the ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Results. As a result of the research, a high level of microbiological colonization of anthropogenic substrates has been established, the places of accumulation of potentially pathogenic microorganisms were found out. 24 species of microfungi were identified from anthropogenic materials, 46 and 43 species from aeromycota and the soils of the observed territory. The genus Penicillium (12 species) prevailed by the number of species, followed by Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Cadophora (3 species each). For disturbed ecosystems the following peculiarities have been established: 1) a change in the structure of microfungi complexes and increase in the CFU number of microfungi at aeromycota and soil, 2) aeromycota formation occurs partly due to introduced species, 3) a clear dominance of dark-colored fungi on anthropogenic materials, 4) among the introduced microfungi a significant proportion were destructors of the materials as well as potentially human pathogens; 5) introduced species are able to adapt to arctic conditions. Conclusion. On the example of the village of Barentsburg (arch. Svalbard) it is shown that anthropogenic impact leads to changes in the main characteristics of microscopic fungi complexes in the Arctic territories.
Xin Chen, Yangyang Wei, Yaguang Nie, Jianjun Wang, Steven D. Emslie,
Published: 5 December 2019
Science of The Total Environment, Volume 709; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135926

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Peiyan Wang, Ludovica D'Imperio, Bei Liu, Qingjiu Tian, Zhongjun Jia, , Morten Rasch,
Published: 6 February 2019
Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 132, pp 174-186; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2019.02.002

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Lía Ramírez-Fernández, Nicole Trefault, Margarita Carú,
Published: 9 January 2019
Abstract:
Seabirds and pinnipeds play an important role in biogeochemical cycling by transferring nutrients from aquatic to terrestrial environments. Indeed, soils rich in animal depositions have generally high organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents. Several studies have assessed bacterial diversity in Antarctic soils influenced by marine animals; however most have been conducted in areas with significant human impact. Thus, we chose Cape Shirreff, Livingston Island, an Antarctic Specially Protected Area designated mainly to protect the diversity of marine vertebrate fauna, and selected sampling sites with different types of animals coexisting in a relatively small space, and where human presence and impact are negligible. Using 16S rRNA gene analyses through massive sequencing, we assessed the influence of animal concentrations, via their modification of edaphic characteristics, on soil bacterial diversity and composition. The nutrient composition of soils impacted by Antarctic fur seals and kelp gulls was more similar to that of control soils (i.e. soils without visible presence of plants or animals), which may be due to the more active behaviour of these marine animals compared to other species. Conversely, the soils from concentrations of southern elephant seals and penguins showed greater differences in soil nutrients compared to the control. In agreement with this, the bacterial communities of the soils associated with these animals were most different from those of the control soils, with the soils of penguin colonies also possessing the lowest bacterial diversity. However, all the soils influenced by the presence of marine animals were dominated by bacteria belonging to Gammaproteobacteria, particularly those of the genus Rhodanobacter. Therefore, we conclude that the modification of soil nutrient composition by marine vertebrates promotes specific groups of bacteria, which could play an important role in the recycling of nutrients in terrestrial Antarctic ecosystems.
Weifeng Gao, Yunlong Yao, , Liquan Song, Houcai Sheng, Tijiu Cai,
Published: 24 October 2018
Atmospheric Environment, Volume 198, pp 34-45; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2018.10.045

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Youmi Oh, Brandon Stackhouse, Maggie C. Y. Lau, Xiangtao Xu, , , , , Ludovica D'Imperio, , et al.
Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 43, pp 5143-5150; https://doi.org/10.1002/2016gl069049

Abstract:
Recent field studies have documented a surprisingly strong and consistent methane sink in arctic mineral soils, thought to be due to high-affinity methanotrophy. However, the distinctive physiology of these methanotrophs is poorly represented in mechanistic methane models. We developed a new model, constrained by microcosm experiments, to simulate the activity of high-affinity methanotrophs. The model was tested against soil core-thawing experiments and field-based measurements of methane fluxes and was compared to conventional mechanistic methane models. Our simulations show that high-affinity methanotrophy can be an important component of the net methane flux from arctic mineral soils. Simulations without this process overestimate methane emissions. Furthermore, simulations of methane flux seasonality are improved by dynamic simulation of active microbial biomass. Because a large fraction of the Arctic is characterized by mineral soils, high-affinity methanotrophy will likely have a strong effect on its net methane flux.
Tao Zhang, Neng-Fei Wang, Hong-Yu Liu, Yu-Qin Zhang,
Published: 26 February 2016
Frontiers in Microbiology, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00227

Abstract:
This study assessed the fungal community composition and its relationships with properties of surface soils in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic). A total of thirteen soil samples were collected and soil fungal community was analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing with fungi-specific primers targeting the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. The following eight soil properties were analyzed: pH, organic carbon (C), organic nitrogen (N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), silicate silicon (SiO42--Si), nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N), phosphate phosphorus (PO43--P) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3--N). A total of 57,952 reads belonging to 541 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found. Of these OTUs, 343 belonged to Ascomycota, 100 to Basidiomycota, 31 to Chytridiomycota, 22 to Glomeromycota, 11 to Zygomycota, 10 to Rozellomycota, whereas 24 belonged to unknown fungi. The dominant orders were Helotiales, Verrucariales, Agaricales, Lecanorales, Chaetothyriales, Lecideales, and Capnodiales. The common genera (>8 soil samples) were Tetracladium, Mortierella, Fusarium, Cortinarius, and Atla. Distance-based redundancy analysis (db-rda) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) revealed that soil pH (p=0.001) was the most significant factor in determining the soil fungal community composition. Members of Verrucariales were found to predominate in soils of pH 8-9, whereas Sordariales predominated in soils of pH 7-8 and Coniochaetales predominated in soil samples of pH 6-7. The results suggest the presence and distribution of diverse soil fungal communities in the High Arctic, which can provide reliable data for studying the ecological responses of soil fungal communities to climate changes in the Arctic.
Qingqing Chen, , Qing Wang, Hua Xu
Journal of Environmental Sciences, Volume 26, pp 1403-1410; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2014.05.005

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RenBin Zhu, Yashu Liu, Hua Xu, Dawei Ma, Shan Jiang
Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, Volume 118, pp 1773-1792; https://doi.org/10.1002/2013jg002398

Abstract:
[1] Most studies on greenhouse gas emissions from animals concentrated on domestic animals, with limited data available from wild animals. The number of marine animals is potentially large in coastal Antarctica. In this paper, N2O and CH4 emissions were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony, a skua colony, the adjacent animal‐lacking tundra, and background tundra sites to test the effects of marine animals on their fluxes in maritime Antarctica. Extremely high N2O emissions occurred in the penguin puddles (mean 392 µg N2O m−2 h−1) and seal wallows (mean 579 µg N2O m−2 h−1). The N2O emissions from animal colony tundra (13–57 µg N2O m−2 h−1) are much higher than those from the animal‐lacking tundra, whereas the background tundra showed negligible N2O fluxes. Penguin puddles and seal wallows were stronger CH4 emitters than animal colony tundra soils, while animal‐lacking tundra soils were strong CH4 sinks. Overall high N2O and CH4 emissions were modulated by soil physical and chemical processes associated with marine animal activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients NH4+–N and NO3–N, total nitrogen, and total organic carbon from marine animal excreta, animal tramp, and high soil water‐filled pore space. Laboratory incubation experiments further confirmed that penguin and seal colony soils produced much higher N2O and CH4 emissions than animal‐lacking tundra soils. Our results indicate that marine animal colonies are the hot spots for N2O and CH4 emissions in maritime Antarctica, and even at the global scale, and current climate warming will further increase their emissions.
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