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(searched for: doi:10.1652/1400-0350(2003)009[0171:aoabtt]2.0.co;2)
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, Ashis Kumar Saha, Anirban Roy
Published: 30 September 2021
Environmental Challenges, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envc.2021.100306

Abstract:
Mangrove forests in many parts of the world are declining at an alarming rate, which intensifies vulnerability in coastal ecosystems. An area like coastal West Bengal, including the Sundarban delta, where the world's largest mangrove populations have flourished, has a substantial negative impact of anthropogenic pressure since the early 15th-16th century. Frequent coastal hazards, sea-level rise, and ever-increasing anthropogenic pressure have complicated the growth and regeneration of mangroves. In this study, an attempt has been made to map the patches of mangrove available in the coastal region of West Bengal along with their spatio-temporal, zonal pattern of change and probable reasons for those changes. The study approaches have been achieved by the analysis of Landsat data using several buffer zones from the coastline during 1989-2018 through geospatial techniques. The result indicates that despite a reduction of mangrove populations in the pre-and post-colonial era, overall mangrove areas have a marginally positive growth of about 0.47% (68.06 sq. km) of the total area during the assessment period. Although the mangrove area along the shoreline is decreasing faster, many new mangrove patches have appeared towards the mainland. Simultaneously, mangrove areas are encroached in the northern periphery of Sundarban Biosphere Reserve to convert them into settlements, agriculture, and aquaculture. This study could help to protect mangrove populations and implement appropriate conservation measures.
Aparna Bera, Ajay Kumar Taloor, Gowhar Meraj, , Suraj Kumar Singh, Bojan Đurin, Subhash Anand
Published: 3 July 2021
Quaternary Science Advances, Volume 4; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.qsa.2021.100038

Abstract:
Climate vulnerability is the propensity to be adversely affected by climatic variability and natural hazards. People of low-lying islands face accelerating physical and non-physical stresses due to their greater exposure, higher sensitivity, and lower adaptive capacity towards climate change. Being home to over 0.2 million people, Sagar Island, the largest Island of Sundarban, is highly susceptible to coastal erosion, cyclonic storm surges, flooding, and embankment breaching, causing loss of land, property, and livelihood that eventually lead to displacements and induced migration. Over the past two decades, residents of this fragile sinking island of this world's largest mangrove forest have seen their homes engulfed, farmlands salinized and livelihood depleted by the rising sea. This study investigates the association between socio-economic vulnerabilities through the contextual indicators of land loss, productivity loss, loss of livelihood, and induced migration through regression modeling to find out linkages and scopes of risk reduction. The result reflects a significant positive correlation between land loss and loss of livelihood (p 0.0494*) that negatively correlates with the occurrence of in-migration (z −0.826), while the correlation between productivity loss and loss of livelihood is 0.6318. Mouzas like Dhablat, Shibpur, Beguakhali show outlier characteristics due to severe rates of erosion and embankment failure. The secondary data from the India Meteorological Department, National Centre for Ocean Information Services, have been used to identify considerable changes from cumulative erosion and accretion employing statistical and GIS techniques. This bottom-up assessment can contribute to disaster management and policy implications by identifying the particular intercession at the mouza level that increases the resilience of these vulnerable communities to climate change.
R. Hajra, A. Ghosh, T. Ghosh
Published: 22 May 2021
The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Vikas Kumar Das, Koustuv Debnath, Sunil Hansda
ISH Journal of Hydraulic Engineering pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1080/09715010.2021.1913652

Abstract:
Failure of manmade embankments at the islands of Sundarban estuaries, India recur almost annually and results in the submergence of fertile agricultural land and claim human lives. Field studies were carried out to investigate the primary index properties of the embankment soil collected from three locations at the concave bends of embankment in the Sundarbans area. A correlation is drawn between alteration of natural layout of embankment soil and modification of its index properties following the traditional construction of embankment. Close introspection of embankment soil under scanning electron microscope were carried out to understand the spatial variations of the susceptibility of soil grains towards erosion for different layers of the embankment sediments. The flow velocities at permissible closest vicinity to river facing embankment wall were much higher than estimated threshold velocities for the entrainment of soil grains and resulted in the formation of undercuts at the basal part of the embankments that triggered its breaching. Finally, from the analyses of obtained results, some preventive measures are recommended to retard the rate of embankment breaching processes which may be expected to provide more sustainability to the erected embankments and will reduce the chances of frequent disasters at the Indian Sundarbans.
Published: 18 February 2021
by MDPI
Abstract:
The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and their corresponding targets are significantly interconnected, with many interactions, synergies, and trade-offs between individual goals across multiple temporal and spatial scales. This paper proposes a framework for the Integrated Assessment Modelling (IAM) of a complex deltaic socio-ecological system in order to analyze such SDG interactions. We focused on the Sundarban Biosphere Reserve (SBR), India, within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta. It is densely populated with 4.4 million people (2011), high levels of poverty, and a strong dependence on rural livelihoods. It is adjacent to the growing megacity of Kolkata. The area also includes the Indian portion of the world’s largest mangrove forest––the Sundarbans––hosting the iconic Bengal Tiger. Like all deltaic systems, this area is subject to multiple drivers of environmental change operating across scales. The IAM framework is designed to investigate socio-environmental change under a range of explorative and/or normative scenarios and explore associated policy impacts, considering a broad range of subthematic SDG indicators. The following elements were explicitly considered: (1) agriculture; (2) aquaculture; (3) mangroves; (4) fisheries; and (5) multidimensional poverty. Key questions that can be addressed include the implications of changing monsoon patterns, trade-offs between agriculture and aquaculture, or the future of the Sundarbans’ mangroves under sea-level rise and different management strategies. The novel, high-resolution analysis of SDG interactions allowed by the IAM will provide stakeholders and policy makers the opportunity to prioritize and explore the SDG targets that are most relevant to the SBR and provide a foundation for further integrated analysis.
Arne Harms, Paul G. Harris
Climate Change and Ocean Governance pp 75-89; https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108502238.005

Abstract:
Climate Change and Ocean Governance - edited by Paul G. Harris February 2019
Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.196

Abstract:
Deltas are highly sensitive to erosion, flooding, and salinization with consequential agricultural productivity losses and out-migration, which is a preferred adaptive measure for the inhabitants of deltaic islands. This study investigates the associations between agricultural productivity decrease, household poverty and the probability of out-migration in the Indian Sundarban Delta (ISD). Using newly collected survey data from randomly selected households within the ISD, we analysed these relationships by means of descriptive statistics and regression modeling. Results suggest the significant positive association between a decrease in agricultural productivity and out-migration. The results further show that ceteris paribus, out-migration is negatively associated with household poverty, which is likely to be explained by the effect of remittances. The results yield important policy implications at the local level and can contribute to the progress towards sustainable livelihoods in these deltaic islands.
, , Abhra Chanda, Parimal Mondal, , Sandip Mukherjee, Mashfiqus Salehin
Published: 18 October 2016
Environmental Earth Sciences, Volume 75; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-016-6175-3

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, , Samadrita Mukherjee, Anirban Akhand, Abhra Chanda, Debasish Mitra,
Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, Volume 44, pp 479-484; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12524-015-0524-7

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