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(searched for: doi:10.3816/ccc.2011.n.008)
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Sumayah Al-Mahmood, Justin Sapiezynski, Olga B. Garbuzenko,
Drug Delivery and Translational Research, Volume 8, pp 1483-1507; doi:10.1007/s13346-018-0551-3

Abstract:
The major current conventional types of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) treatments include surgery, radiation, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy. Introducing biological drugs, targeted treatment and gene therapy can potentially reduce the mortality and improve the quality of life in patients with MBC. However, combination of several types of treatment is usually recommended. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 10–20% of all cases of breast carcinoma and is characterized by the low expression of progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor (ER), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Consequently, convenient treatments used for MBC that target these receptors are not effective for TNBC which therefore requires special treatment approaches. This review discusses the occurrence of MBC, the prognosis and predictive biomarkers of MBC, and focuses on the novel advanced tactics for treatment of MBC and TNBC. Nanotechnology-based combinatorial approach for the suppression of EGFR by siRNA and gifitinib is described.
Resistance to Targeted Anti-Cancer Therapeutics pp 89-105; doi:10.1007/978-3-319-46505-0_5

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, Hongkun Wang, Deepa Subramaniam, Aiwu Ruth He, John L. Marshall, Christina E. Urso Np, Yiru Wang, Corinne Ramos, Kenneth Steadman Bs, Michael J. Pishvaian Md, et al.
Published: 29 January 2015
by Wiley
Cancer, Volume 121, pp 1645-1653; doi:10.1002/cncr.29224

Abstract:
BACKGROUND Acquired resistance to antiepidermal growth factor receptor (anti‐EGFR) therapy may be caused by EGFR–v‐erb‐b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (ErbB2) heterodimerization and pathway reactivation. In preclinical studies, inhibiting ErbB2 blocked this resistance mechanism and resensitized cells to anti‐EGFR therapy. Cetuximab targets EGFR, whereas lapatinib inhibits both EGFR and ErbB2. The objective of this phase 1 trial was to assess the safety, dose‐limiting toxicities (DLTs), and maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) of cetuximab and lapatinib in patients with solid tumors. METHODS Patients received standard weekly cetuximab with escalating lapatinib doses of 750 mg, 1000 mg, or 1250 mg daily in 3‐week cycles. DLTs were monitored through the end of cycle 2. Pretreatment and post‐treatment tumor biopsies and germline DNA samples were obtained for correlative studies. RESULTS Twenty‐two patients were enrolled, and 18 patients each were evaluable for toxicity and response. Fifty‐nine percent of patients had received prior anti‐EGFR therapy. Common toxicities included rash and diarrhea. No patient experienced a DLT at the highest dose level, and no grade 4 toxicity was observed. Response included no complete responses, 3 partial responses, 9 patients with stable disease, and 6 patients with disease progression, for an overall response rate of 17% and a clinical benefit rate of 67%. The clinical benefit rate in patients who had previously received anti‐EGFR therapy was 70%. The mean treatment duration was 4.7 cycles (range, 1‐14 cycles). Decreased expression of EGFR/ErbB2 pathway components after treatment was correlated with response, whereas increased expression in the PI3K, Jak/Stat, and MAPK pathways occurred in nonresponders. CONCLUSIONS The combination of cetuximab and lapatinib was well tolerated, had the expected toxicities, and exhibited notable clinical activity, including in patients who had received previous anti‐EGFR therapy. Further clinical study of this combination is warranted. Cancer 2015;121:1645–1653. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Amartej Merla,
Chemotherapy Research and Practice, Volume 2012, pp 1-11; doi:10.1155/2012/387172

Abstract:
Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy among men and women in the United States, and the 5-year survival rate remains poor despite recent advances in chemotherapy and targeted agents. The mainstay of therapy for advanced disease remains the cytotoxic chemotherapy including 5-FU, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin. The USFDA approval and introduction of targeted therapies, including cetuximab and panitumumab (monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)) and bevacizumab (monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF)), has improved the median survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer to around 24 months. Clearly, better and more efficacious drugs are needed, and target-specific agents remain the future of cancer treatment. On this front, rapid advances are being made, which are likely to change the future of the management of metastatic colorectal cancer. However, absence of specific biomarkers for the use of targeted agents, in the subset of population who will benefit from the treatment, remains a major drawback. In this paper, we review agents that are in phases 1 and 2 clinical development, specifically targeting the EGFR and its subsequent downstream pathways.
Yuji Wang, Guifeng Kang, Jiawang Liu, Ming Zhao, Jianhui Wu, Xiaoyi Zhang, Ye Li, Xiaobo Zhong, Yifan Yang,
Published: 1 January 2012
Metallomics, Volume 4, pp 441-447; doi:10.1039/c2mt00005a

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