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(searched for: doi:10.3816/ccc.2011.n.004)
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Mohammad Reza Bayatiani, , Reza Aghabozorgi, Fatemeh Seif
Reports of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Volume 9, pp 408-416; doi:10.52547/rbmb.9.4.408

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Amirsaeed Sabeti Aghabozorgi, Reyhane Ebrahimi, Alireza Bahiraee, Sadra Samavarchi Tehrani, Fatemeh Nabizadeh, Leila Setayesh, Reza Jafarzadeh-Esfehani, Gordon A. Ferns, ,
Published: 1 September 2020
Life Sciences, Volume 256; doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118006

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Shahiq Uz Zaman, Reem Altaf, Humaira Nadeem, Syed Aun Muhammad
Journal of Biological Research-Thessaloniki, Volume 27, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s40709-020-00118-1

Abstract:
Colorectal cancer is known to be the most common type of cancer worldwide with high disease-related mortality. It is the third most common cancer in men and women and is the second major cause of death globally due to cancer. It is a complicated and fatal disease comprising of a group of molecular heterogeneous disorders. This study identifies the potential biomarkers of CRC through differentially expressed analysis, system biology, and proteomic analysis. Ten publicly available microarray datasets were analyzed and seven potential biomarkers were identified from the list of differentially expressed genes having a p value < 0.05. The expression profiling and the functional enrichment analysis revealed the role of these genes in cell communication, signal transduction, and immune response. The protein–protein interaction showed the functional association of the source genes (CTNNB1, NNMT, PTCH1, CALD1, CXCL14, CXCL8, and TNFAIP3) with the target proteins, such as AXIN, MAPK, IL6, STAT, APC, GSK3B, and SHH. The integrated pathway analysis indicated the role of these genes in important physiological responses, such as cell cycle regulation, WNT, hedgehog, MAPK, and calcium signaling pathways during colorectal cancer. These pathways are involved in cell proliferation, chemotaxis, cellular growth, differentiation, tissue patterning, and cytokine production. The study shows the regulatory role of these genes in colorectal cancer and the pathways that can be effected after the dysregulation of these genes.
Shuaishuai Zhang, Weiwei Gao, Juan Tang, Huaifang Zhang, Yuqi Zhou, Jie Liu, Kun Chen, Fangzhou Liu, Wengang Li, Sally K. Y. To, et al.
Published: 1 January 2020
Theranostics, Volume 10, pp 1230-1244; doi:10.7150/thno.38711

Abstract:
Rationale: Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) plays key roles in metabolism and many cellular processes. It was recently demonstrated that overexpression of GSK-3β can confer tumor growth. However, the expression and function of GSK-3β in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain largely unexplored. This study is aimed at investigating the role and therapeutic target value of GSK-3β in HCC. Methods: We firstly clarified the expression of GSK-3β in human HCC samples. Given that deviated retinoid signalling is critical for HCC development, we studied whether GSK-3β could be involved in the regulation. Since sorafenib is currently used to treat HCC, the involvement of GSK-3β in sorafenib treatment response was determined. Co-immunoprecipitation, GST pull down, in vitro kinase assay, luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to explore the molecular mechanism. The biological readouts were examined with MTT, flow cytometry and animal experiments. Results: We demonstrated that GSK-3β is highly expressed in HCC and associated with shorter overall survival (OS). Overexpression of GSK-3β confers HCC cell colony formation and xenograft tumor growth. Tumor-associated GSK-3β is correlated with reduced expression of retinoic acid receptor-β (RARβ), which is caused by GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and heterodimerization abrogation of retinoid X receptor (RXRα) with RARα on RARβ promoter. Overexpression of functional GSK-3β impairs retinoid response and represses sorafenib anti-HCC effect. Inactivation of GSK-3β by tideglusib can potentiate 9-cis-RA enhancement of sorafenib sensitivity (tumor inhibition from 48.3% to 93.4%). Efficient induction of RARβ by tideglusib/9-cis-RA is required for enhanced therapeutic outcome of sorafenib, which effect is greatly inhibited by knocking down RARβ. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that GSK-3β is a disruptor of retinoid signalling and a new resistant factor of sorafenib in HCC. Targeting GSK-3β may be a promising strategy for HCC treatment in clinic.
Chuan-Yuan Wang, , Na Yu, Chun-Hou Zheng
Published: 20 November 2019
Frontiers in Genetics, Volume 10; doi:10.3389/fgene.2019.01054

Abstract:
Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a matrix decomposition method based on the square loss function. To exploit cancer information, cancer gene expression data often uses the NMF method to reduce dimensionality. Gene expression data usually have some noise and outliers, while the original NMF loss function is very sensitive to non-Gaussian noise. To improve the robustness and clustering performance of the algorithm, we propose a sparse graph regularization NMF based on Huber loss model for cancer data analysis (Huber-SGNMF). Huber loss is a function between L1-norm and L2-norm that can effectively handle non-Gaussian noise and outliers. Taking into account the sparsity matrix and data geometry information, sparse penalty and graph regularization terms are introduced into the model to enhance matrix sparsity and capture data manifold structure. Before the experiment, we first analyzed the robustness of Huber-SGNMF and other models. Experiments on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data have shown that Huber-SGNMF performs better than other most advanced methods in sample clustering and differentially expressed gene selection.
Hui Zhi, Jiayu Lian
Published: 6 May 2019
by Wiley
Cell Biochemistry and Function, Volume 37, pp 340-347; doi:10.1002/cbf.3403

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Amirsaeed Sabeti Aghabozorgi, Amirhossein Bahreyni, Atena Soleimani, Afsane Bahrami, Majid Khazaei, Gordon A. Ferns, Amir Avan,
Published: 1 February 2019
Biochimie, Volume 157, pp 64-71; doi:10.1016/j.biochi.2018.11.003

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Yi Wen, Hongxu Yang, Junjie Wu, Axian Wang, Xiaodong Chen, Sijun Hu, Yuxing Zhang, ,
Published: 1 January 2019
Theranostics, Volume 9, pp 4265-4286; doi:10.7150/thno.35914

Abstract:
Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) can repair alveolar bone defects in periodontitis in a microenvironment context-dependent manner. This study aimed to determine whether different extracellular matrices (ECMs) exert diverse effects on osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs and accurately control alveolar bone defect repair. Methods: The characteristics of PDLSCs and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) with respect to surface markers and multi-differentiation ability were determined. Then, we prepared periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs)-derived and bone marrow cells (BMCs)-derived ECMs (P-ECM and B-ECM) and the related decellularized ECMs (dECMs). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and protein mass spectrometry were used to distinguish the ECMs. The expression of Type IV collagen A2 (COL4A2) in the ECMs was inhibited by siRNA or activated by lentiviral transduction of relevant cells. The stemness, proliferation, and differentiation of PDLSCs were determined in vitro in different dECMs. For the in vivo analysis, different dECMs under the regulation of COL4A2 mixed with PDLSCs and Bio-Oss bone powder were subcutaneously implanted into immunocompromised mice or in defects in rat alveolar bone. The repair effects were identified by histological or immunohistochemical staining and micro-CT. Results: B-dECM exhibited more compact fibers than P-dECM, as revealed by TEM, SEM, and AFM. Protein mass spectrometry showed that COL4A2 was significantly increased in B-dECM compared with P-dECM. PDLSCs displayed stronger proliferation, stemness, and osteogenic differentiation ability when cultured on B-dECM than P-dECM. Interestingly, B-dECM enhanced the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs to a greater extent than P-dECM both in vitro and in vivo, whereas downregulation of COL4A2 in B-dECM showed the opposite results. Furthermore, the classical Wnt/β-catenin pathway was found to play an important role in the negative regulation of osteogenesis through COL4A2, confirmed by experiments with the Wnt inhibitor DKK-1 and the Wnt activator Wnt3a. Conclusion: These findings indicate that COL4A2 in the ECM promotes osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs through negative regulation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which can be used as a potential therapeutic strategy to repair bone defects.
Ye-Lim Park, Hwang-Phill Kim, Young-Won Cho, Dong-Wook Min, Seul-Ki Cheon, Yoo Joo Lim, Sang-Hyun Song, Sung Jin Kim, Sae-Won Han, Kyu Joo Park, et al.
Published: 6 July 2018
by Wiley
International Journal of Cancer, Volume 144, pp 389-401; doi:10.1002/ijc.31662

Abstract:
PIK3CA is a frequently mutated gene in cancer, including about ∼15 to 20% of colorectal cancers (CRC). PIK3CA mutations lead to activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, which plays pivotal roles in tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the mechanism of resistance of PIK3CA‐mutant CRC cell lines to gedatolisib, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor. Out of a panel of 29 CRC cell lines, we identified 7 harboring one or more PIK3CA mutations; of these, 5 and 2 were found to be sensitive and resistant to gedatolisib, respectively. Both of the gedatolisib‐resistant cell lines expressed high levels of active glycogen synthase kinase 3‐beta (GSK3β) and harbored the same frameshift mutation (c.465_466insC; H155fs*) in TCF7, which encodes a positive transcriptional regulator of the WNT/β‐catenin signaling pathway. Inhibition of GSK3β activity in gedatolisib‐resistant cells by siRNA‐mediated knockdown or treatment with a GSK3β‐specific inhibitor effectively reduced the activity of molecules downstream of mTOR and also decreased signaling through the WNT/β‐catenin pathway. Notably, GSK3β inhibition rendered the resistant cell lines sensitive to gedatolisib cytotoxicity, both in vitro and in a mouse xenograft model. Taken together, these data demonstrate that aberrant regulation of WNT/β‐catenin signaling and active GSK3β induced by the TCF7 frameshift mutation cause resistance to the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor gedatolisib. Co‐treatment with GSK3β inhibitors may be a strategy to overcome the resistance of PIK3CA‐ and TCF7‐mutant CRC to PI3K/mTOR‐targeted therapies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Wei‐Ying Liu, Zhen Yang, Qi Sun, Xi Yang, Yang Hu, Hong Xie, Hui‐Jie Gao, Li‐Ming Guo, Jian‐Ying Yi, Min Liu, et al.
Published: 31 August 2017
by Wiley
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Volume 119, pp 2124-2134; doi:10.1002/jcb.26374

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Imen Nasri, , , Emmanuel Mas, , , Nicolas Fabre, Raoudha Mezghani-Jarraya,
Published: 22 September 2016
Pharmaceutical Biology, Volume 55, pp 124-131; doi:10.1080/13880209.2016.1230877

Abstract:
Context and objective: Diplotaxis harra (Forssk.) Boiss. (Brassicaceae) is traditionally used as an antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory or anticancer agent. In these pathologies, the glycogen synthase kinase 3 β (GSK3β) is overactivated and represents an interesting therapeutic target. Several flavonoids can inhibit GSK3β and the purpose of this study was to search for the compounds in Diplotaxis harra which are able to modulate GSK3β. Materials and methods: Methanol extracts from D. harra flowers were prepared and the bio-guided fractionation of their active compounds was performed using inflammatory [protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2)-stimulated IEC6 cells] and cancer (human Caco-2 cell line) intestinal cells. 50–100 μg/mL of fractions or compounds purified by HPLC were incubated with cells whose inhibited form of GSK3β (Pser9 GSK3β) and survival were analyzed by Western blot at 1 h and colorimetric assay at 24 h, respectively. LC-UV-MS profiles and MS-MS spectra were used for the characterization of extracts and flavonoids-enriched fractions, and the identification of pure flavonoids was achieved by MS and NMR analysis. Results: The methanol extract from D. harra flowers and its flavonoid-enriched fraction inhibit GSK3β in PAR2-stimulated IEC6 cells. GSK3β inhibition by the flavonoid-enriched D. harra fraction was dependent on PKC activation. The flavonoid-enriched D. harra fraction and its purified compound isorhamnetin-3,7-di-O-glucoside induced a 20% decrease of PAR2-stimulated IEC6 and Caco-2 cell survival. Importantly, normal cells (non-stimulated IEC6 cells) were spared by these treatments. Conclusion: This work indicates that flavonoids from D. harra display cytotoxic activity against inflammatory and cancer intestinal cells which could depend on GSK3β inhibition.
Imen Nasri, Delphine Bonnet, Bailey Zwarycz, Emilie D'Aldebert, Sokchea Khou, Raoudha Mezghani-Jarraya, Muriel Quaranta, Corinne Rolland, Chrystelle Bonnart, Emmanuel Mas, et al.
American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, Volume 311; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00328.2015

Abstract:
Protease-activated receptors PAR1 and PAR2 play an important role in the control of epithelial cell proliferation and migration. However, the survival of normal and tumor intestinal stem/progenitor cells promoted by proinflammatory mediators may be critical in oncogenesis. The glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) pathway is overactivated in colon cancer cells and promotes their survival and drug resistance. We thus aimed to determine PAR1 and PAR2 effects on normal and tumor intestinal stem/progenitor cells and whether they involved GSK3β. First, PAR1 and PAR2 were identified in colon stem/progenitor cells by immunofluorescence. In three-dimensional cultures of murine crypt units or single tumor Caco-2 cells, PAR2 activation decreased numbers and size of normal or cancerous spheroids, and PAR2-deficient spheroids showed increased proliferation, indicating that PAR2 represses proliferation. PAR2-stimulated normal cells were more resistant to stress (serum starvation or spheroid passaging), suggesting prosurvival effects of PAR2 Accordingly, active caspase-3 was strongly increased in PAR2-deficient normal spheroids. PAR2 but not PAR1 triggered GSK3β activation through serine-9 dephosphorylation in normal and tumor cells. The PAR2-triggered GSK3β activation implicates an arrestin/PP2A/GSK3β complex that is dependent on the Rho kinase activity. Loss of PAR2 was associated with high levels of GSK3β nonactive form, strengthening the role of PAR2 in GSK3β activation. GSK3 pharmacological inhibition impaired the survival of PAR2-stimulated spheroids and serum-starved cells. Altogether our data identify PAR2/GSK3β as a novel pathway that plays a critical role in the regulation of stem/progenitor cell survival and proliferation in normal colon crypts and colon cancer.
Guilherme Muniz Bourroul, Hélio José Fragoso, José Walter Feitosa Gomes, Vivian Sati Oba Bourroul, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama Oshima, Thiago Simão Gomes, Gabriela Tognini Saba, Rogério Tadeu Palma,
Published: 1 June 2016
Einstein (São Paulo), Volume 14, pp 135-142; doi:10.1590/s1679-45082016ao3678

Abstract:
Objective To evaluate the destruction complex of beta-catenin by the expression of the proteins beta-catetenin, adenomatous polyposis coli, GSK3β, axin and ubiquitin in colorectal carcinoma and colonic adenoma. Methods Tissue samples from 64 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 53 patients with colonic adenoma were analyzed. Tissue microarray blocks and slides were prepared and subjected to immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies in carcinoma, adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa, and adenoma tissues. The immunoreactivity was evaluated by the percentage of positive stained cells and by the intensity assessed through of the stained grade of proteins in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. In the statistical analysis, the Spearman correlation coefficient, Student’s t, χ2, Mann-Whitney, and McNemar tests, and univariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results In colorectal carcinoma, the expressions of beta-catenin and adenomatous polyposis coli proteins were significantly higher than in colonic adenomas (p
, K. J. Escott, H. Sanganee, K. C. Hickling
Published: 16 October 2014
Toxicologic Pathology, Volume 43, pp 384-399; doi:10.1177/0192623314544468

Abstract:
AZD7969 is a potent inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3β), which is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that negatively regulates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Treatment of rats and dogs with AZD7969 for periods of up to 4 weeks resulted in a number of changes, the most significant of which was a dose-dependent, and treatment-related, increase in proliferation in a number of tissues that was thought to arise from derepression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the stem cell compartment. Phenotypically, this resulted in hyperplasia that either maintained normal tissue architecture in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, kidney, and adrenals or effaced normal tissue architecture within the bones, incisor teeth, and femorotibial joint. In addition to these changes, we noted a treatment-related increase in iron loading in the liver and proximal small intestines. This off-target effect was robust, potent, and occurred in both dogs and rats suggesting that AZD7969 might be a useful tool compound to study iron storage disorders in the laboratory.
Published: 9 March 2013
by Wiley
International Journal of Cancer, Volume 133, pp 807-815; doi:10.1002/ijc.28074

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Young-Hoon Song, Soo-Jin Jeong, Hee-Young Kwon, , , Dong-Youl Yoo
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, Volume 35, pp 1022-1028; doi:10.1248/bpb.b110660

Abstract:
Although ursolic acid isolated from Oldenlandia diffusa (Rubiaceae) was known to have anticancer activities in prostate, breast and liver cancers, the underlying mechanism of ursolic acid in ovarian cancer cells was not investigated so far. In the present study, the apoptotic mechanism of ursolic acid was elucidated in SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells by 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay, cell cycle analysis and Western blotting. Ursolic acid exerted cytotoxicity against SK-OV-3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells with IC50 of ca. 50 and 65 µM, respectively. Apoptotic bodies were observed in ursolic acid treated SK-OV-3 cells. Also, ursolic acid significantly increased ethidium homodimer stained cells and sub-G1 apoptotic portion in SK-OV-3 cells. Consistently, Western blotting revealed that ursolic acid effectively cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), caspase-9 and -3, suppressed the expression of survival genes such as c-Myc, Bcl-xL and astrocyte elevated gene (AEG)-1, and upregulated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in SK-OV-3 cells. Interestingly, ursolic acid suppressed β-catenin degradation as well as enhanced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK 3β). Furthermore, GSK 3β inhibitor SB216763 blocked the cleavages of caspase-3 and PARP induced by ursolic acid and proteosomal inhibitor MG132 disturbed down-regulation of β-catenin, activation of caspase-3 and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) induced by ursolic acid in SK-OV-3 cells. Overall, our findings suggest that ursolic acid induces apoptosis via activation of caspase and phosphorylation of GSK 3β in SK-OV-3 cancer cells as a potent anti-cancer agent for ovarian cancer therapy.
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